Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  Java Servlet Technology

5.  JavaServer Pages Technology

6.  JavaServer Pages Documents

7.  JavaServer Pages Standard Tag Library

The Example JSP Pages

Using JSTL

Tag Collaboration

Core Tag Library

Variable Support Tags

Flow Control Tags in the Core Tag Library

Conditional Tags

Iterator Tags

URL Tags

Miscellaneous Tags

XML Tag Library

Core Tags

XML Flow Control Tags

Transformation Tags

SQL Tag Library

query Tag Result Interface

JSTL Functions

Further Information about JSTL

8.  Custom Tags in JSP Pages

9.  Scripting in JSP Pages

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology

11.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in JSP Pages

12.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

13.  Creating Custom UI Components

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

16.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

17.  Binding between XML Schema and Java Classes

18.  Streaming API for XML

19.  SOAP with Attachments API for Java

Part IV Enterprise Beans

20.  Enterprise Beans

21.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

22.  Session Bean Examples

23.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

Part V Persistence

24.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

25.  Persistence in the Web Tier

26.  Persistence in the EJB Tier

27.  The Java Persistence Query Language

Part VI Services

28.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

29.  Securing Java EE Applications

30.  Securing Web Applications

31.  The Java Message Service API

32.  Java EE Examples Using the JMS API

33.  Transactions

34.  Resource Connections

35.  Connector Architecture

Part VII Case Studies

36.  The Coffee Break Application

37.  The Duke's Bank Application

Part VIII Appendixes

A.  Java Encoding Schemes

B.  About the Authors



Internationalization Tag Library

Chapter 15, Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications covers how to design web applications so that they conform to the language and formatting conventions of client locales. This section describes tags that support the internationalization of JSP pages.

JSTL defines tags for setting the locale for a page, creating locale-sensitive messages, and formatting and parsing data elements such as numbers, currencies, dates, and times in a locale-sensitive or customized manner. Table 7-6 lists the tags.

Table 7-6 Internationalization Tags






Setting Locale





Number and Date Formatting


JSTL I18N tags use a localization context to localize their data. A localization context contains a locale and a resource bundle instance. To specify the localization context at deployment time, you define the context parameter javax.servlet.jsp.jstl.fmt.localizationContext, whose value can be a javax.servlet.jsp.jstl.fmt.LocalizationContext or a String. A String context parameter is interpreted as a resource bundle base name. For the Duke’s Bookstore application, the context parameter is the String messages.BookstoreMessages. When a request is received, JSTL automatically sets the locale based on the value retrieved from the request header and chooses the correct resource bundle using the base name specified in the context parameter.

Setting the Locale

The setLocale tag is used to override the client-specified locale for a page. The requestEncoding tag is used to set the request’s character encoding, in order to be able to correctly decode request parameter values whose encoding is different from ISO-8859-1.

Messaging Tags

By default, the capability to sense the browser locale setting is enabled in JSTL. This means that the client determines (through its browser setting) which locale to use, and allows page authors to cater to the language preferences of their clients.

The setBundle and bundle Tags

You can set the resource bundle at runtime with the JSTL fmt:setBundle and fmt:bundle tags. fmt:setBundle is used to set the localization context in a variable or configuration variable for a specified scope. fmt:bundle is used to set the resource bundle for a given tag body.

The message Tag

The message tag is used to output localized strings. The following tag from tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore4/web/books/bookcatalog.jsp is used to output a string inviting customers to choose a book from the catalog.

<h3><fmt:message key="Choose"/></h3>

The param subtag provides a single argument (for parametric replacement) to the compound message or pattern in its parent message tag. One param tag must be specified for each variable in the compound message or pattern. Parametric replacement takes place in the order of the param tags.

Formatting Tags

JSTL provides a set of tags for parsing and formatting locale-sensitive numbers and dates.

The formatNumber tag is used to output localized numbers. The following tag from tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore4/web/books/bookshowcart.jsp is used to display a localized price for a book.

<fmt:formatNumber value="${book.price}" type="currency"/>

Note that because the price is maintained in the database in dollars, the localization is somewhat simplistic, because the formatNumber tag is unaware of exchange rates. The tag formats currencies but does not convert them.

Analogous tags for formatting dates (formatDate) and for parsing numbers and dates (parseNumber, parseDate) are also available. The timeZone tag establishes the time zone (specified with the value attribute) to be used by any nested formatDate tags.

In tut-install/javaeetutorial5/examples/web/bookstore4/web/books/bookreceipt.jsp, a “pretend” ship date is created and then formatted with the formatDate tag:

<jsp:useBean id="now" class="java.util.Date" />
<jsp:setProperty name="now" property="time"
     value="${now.time + 432000000}" />
<fmt:message key="ShipDate"/>
 <fmt:formatDate value="${now}" type="date"