Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

Web Application Lifecycle

Web Modules: The hello1 Example

Examining the hello1 Web Module

To View the hello1 Web Module Using NetBeans IDE

Introduction to Scopes

Packaging a Web Module

To Set the Context Root

To Build and Package the hello1 Web Module Using NetBeans IDE

To Build and Package the hello1 Web Module Using Ant

Deploying a Web Module

To Deploy the hello1 Web Module Using NetBeans IDE

To Deploy the hello1 Web Module Using Ant

Running a Deployed Web Module

To Run a Deployed Web Module

Listing Deployed Web Modules

To List Deployed Web Modules Using the Administration Console

To List Deployed Web Modules Using the asadmin Command

Updating a Web Module

To Update a Deployed Web Module

Dynamic Reloading

To Disable or Modify Dynamic Reloading

Undeploying Web Modules

To Undeploy the hello1 Web Module Using NetBeans IDE

To Undeploy the hello1 Web Module Using Ant

Configuring Web Applications: The hello2 Example

Mapping URLs to Web Components

Examining the hello2 Web Module

To View the hello2 Web Module Using NetBeans IDE

Running the hello2 Example

To Run the hello2 Example Using NetBeans IDE

To Run the hello2 Example Using Ant

Declaring Welcome Files

Setting Context Parameters

To Add a Context Parameter Using NetBeans IDE

To Create a web.xml File Using NetBeans IDE

Mapping Errors to Error Screens

To Set Up Error Mapping Using NetBeans IDE

Declaring Resource References

Declaring a Reference to a Resource

Declaring a Reference to a Web Service

Further Information about Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Web Applications

In the Java EE platform, web components provide the dynamic extension capabilities for a web server. Web components can be Java servlets, web pages implemented with JavaServer Faces technology, web service endpoints, or JSP pages. Figure 3-1 illustrates the interaction between a web client and a web application that uses a servlet. The client sends an HTTP request to the web server. A web server that implements Java Servlet and JavaServer Pages technology converts the request into an HTTPServletRequest object. This object is delivered to a web component, which can interact with JavaBeans components or a database to generate dynamic content. The web component can then generate an HTTPServletResponse or can pass the request to another web component. A web component eventually generates a HTTPServletResponse object. The web server converts this object to an HTTP response and returns it to the client.

Figure 3-1 Java Web Application Request Handling

Diagram of web application request handling. Clients and servlets communicate using HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse.

Servlets are Java programming language classes that dynamically process requests and construct responses. Java technologies, such as JavaServer Faces and Facelets, are used for building interactive web applications. (Frameworks can also be used for this purpose.) Although servlets and Java Server Faces and Facelets pages can be used to accomplish similar things, each has its own strengths. Servlets are best suited for service-oriented applications (web service endpoints can be implemented as servlets) and the control functions of a presentation-oriented application, such as dispatching requests and handling nontextual data. Java Server Faces and Facelets pages are more appropriate for generating text-based markup, such as XHTML, and are generally used for presentation–oriented applications.

Web components are supported by the services of a runtime platform called a web container. A web container provides such services as request dispatching, security, concurrency, and lifecycle management. A web container also gives web components access to such APIs as naming, transactions, and email.

Certain aspects of web application behavior can be configured when the application is installed, or deployed, to the web container. The configuration information can be specified using Java EE annotations or can be maintained in a text file in XML format called a web application deployment descriptor (DD). A web application DD must conform to the schema described in the Java Servlet specification.

This chapter gives a brief overview of the activities involved in developing web applications. First, it summarizes the web application lifecycle and explains how to package and deploy very simple web applications on the GlassFish Server. The chapter moves on to configuring web applications and discusses how to specify the most commonly used configuration parameters.