Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

What Is an Enterprise Bean?

Benefits of Enterprise Beans

When to Use Enterprise Beans

Types of Enterprise Beans

What Is a Session Bean?

Types of Session Beans

Stateful Session Beans

Stateless Session Beans

Singleton Session Beans

When to Use Session Beans

Accessing Enterprise Beans

Using Enterprise Beans in Clients

Portable JNDI Syntax

Deciding on Remote or Local Access

Local Clients

Accessing Local Enterprise Beans Using the No-Interface View

Accessing Local Enterprise Beans That Implement Business Interfaces

Remote Clients

Web Service Clients

Method Parameters and Access


Granularity of Accessed Data

The Contents of an Enterprise Bean

Packaging Enterprise Beans in EJB JAR Modules

Packaging Enterprise Beans in WAR Modules

Naming Conventions for Enterprise Beans

The Lifecycles of Enterprise Beans

The Lifecycle of a Stateful Session Bean

The Lifecycle of a Stateless Session Bean

The Lifecycle of a Singleton Session Bean

The Lifecycle of a Message-Driven Bean

Further Information about Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



What Is a Message-Driven Bean?

A message-driven bean is an enterprise bean that allows Java EE applications to process messages asynchronously. This type of bean normally acts as a JMS message listener, which is similar to an event listener but receives JMS messages instead of events. The messages can be sent by any Java EE component (an application client, another enterprise bean, or a web component) or by a JMS application or system that does not use Java EE technology. Message-driven beans can process JMS messages or other kinds of messages.

What Makes Message-Driven Beans Different from Session Beans?

The most visible difference between message-driven beans and session beans is that clients do not access message-driven beans through interfaces. Interfaces are described in the section Accessing Enterprise Beans. Unlike a session bean, a message-driven bean has only a bean class.

In several respects, a message-driven bean resembles a stateless session bean.

  • A message-driven bean’s instances retain no data or conversational state for a specific client.

  • All instances of a message-driven bean are equivalent, allowing the EJB container to assign a message to any message-driven bean instance. The container can pool these instances to allow streams of messages to be processed concurrently.

  • A single message-driven bean can process messages from multiple clients.

The instance variables of the message-driven bean instance can contain some state across the handling of client messages, such as a JMS API connection, an open database connection, or an object reference to an enterprise bean object.

Client components do not locate message-driven beans and invoke methods directly on them. Instead, a client accesses a message-driven bean through, for example, JMS by sending messages to the message destination for which the message-driven bean class is the MessageListener. You assign a message-driven bean’s destination during deployment by using GlassFish Server resources.

Message-driven beans have the following characteristics.

  • They execute upon receipt of a single client message.

  • They are invoked asynchronously.

  • They are relatively short-lived.

  • They do not represent directly shared data in the database, but they can access and update this data.

  • They can be transaction-aware.

  • They are stateless.

When a message arrives, the container calls the message-driven bean’s onMessage method to process the message. The onMessage method normally casts the message to one of the five JMS message types and handles it in accordance with the application’s business logic. The onMessage method can call helper methods or can invoke a session bean to process the information in the message or to store it in a database.

A message can be delivered to a message-driven bean within a transaction context, so all operations within the onMessage method are part of a single transaction. If message processing is rolled back, the message will be redelivered. For more information, see Chapter 25, A Message-Driven Bean Example and Chapter 44, Transactions.

When to Use Message-Driven Beans

Session beans allow you to send JMS messages and to receive them synchronously but not asynchronously. To avoid tying up server resources, do not to use blocking synchronous receives in a server-side component; in general, JMS messages should not be sent or received synchronously. To receive messages asynchronously, use a message-driven bean.