Document Information


Part I Introduction

1.  Overview

2.  Using the Tutorial Examples

Part II The Web Tier

3.  Getting Started with Web Applications

4.  JavaServer Faces Technology

5.  Introduction to Facelets

6.  Expression Language

7.  Using JavaServer Faces Technology in Web Pages

8.  Using Converters, Listeners, and Validators

9.  Developing with JavaServer Faces Technology

10.  JavaServer Faces Technology: Advanced Concepts

11.  Using Ajax with JavaServer Faces Technology

12.  Composite Components: Advanced Topics and Example

13.  Creating Custom UI Components and Other Custom Objects

14.  Configuring JavaServer Faces Applications

15.  Java Servlet Technology

16.  Uploading Files with Java Servlet Technology

17.  Internationalizing and Localizing Web Applications

Part III Web Services

18.  Introduction to Web Services

19.  Building Web Services with JAX-WS

20.  Building RESTful Web Services with JAX-RS

21.  JAX-RS: Advanced Topics and Example

Annotations for Field and Bean Properties of Resource Classes

Extracting Path Parameters

Extracting Query Parameters

Extracting Form Data

Extracting the Java Type of a Request or Response

Subresources and Runtime Resource Resolution

Subresource Methods

Subresource Locators

Integrating JAX-RS with EJB Technology and CDI

Conditional HTTP Requests

Using JAX-RS With JAXB

Using Java Objects to Model Your Data

Starting from an Existing XML Schema Definition

Using JSON with JAX-RS and JAXB

The customer Example Application

Overview of the customer Example Application

The Customer and Address Entity Classes

The CustomerService Class

The CustomerClientXML and CustomerClientJSON Classes

Modifying the Example to Generate Entity Classes from an Existing Schema

To Modify the customer Example to Generate Java Entity Classes from an Existing XML Schema Definition

Running the customer Example

To Build, Package, and Deploy the customer Example Using NetBeans IDE

To Build, Package, and Deploy the customer Example Using Ant

To Run the customer Example Using the Jersey Client

To Run the customer Example Using the Web Services Tester

Using Curl to Run the customer Example Application

Part IV Enterprise Beans

22.  Enterprise Beans

23.  Getting Started with Enterprise Beans

24.  Running the Enterprise Bean Examples

25.  A Message-Driven Bean Example

26.  Using the Embedded Enterprise Bean Container

27.  Using Asynchronous Method Invocation in Session Beans

Part V Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

28.  Introduction to Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform

29.  Running the Basic Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

30.  Contexts and Dependency Injection for the Java EE Platform: Advanced Topics

31.  Running the Advanced Contexts and Dependency Injection Examples

Part VI Persistence

32.  Introduction to the Java Persistence API

33.  Running the Persistence Examples

34.  The Java Persistence Query Language

35.  Using the Criteria API to Create Queries

36.  Creating and Using String-Based Criteria Queries

37.  Controlling Concurrent Access to Entity Data with Locking

38.  Using a Second-Level Cache with Java Persistence API Applications

Part VII Security

39.  Introduction to Security in the Java EE Platform

40.  Getting Started Securing Web Applications

41.  Getting Started Securing Enterprise Applications

42.  Java EE Security: Advanced Topics

Part VIII Java EE Supporting Technologies

43.  Introduction to Java EE Supporting Technologies

44.  Transactions

45.  Resources and Resource Adapters

46.  The Resource Adapter Example

47.  Java Message Service Concepts

48.  Java Message Service Examples

49.  Bean Validation: Advanced Topics

50.  Using Java EE Interceptors

Part IX Case Studies

51.  Duke's Bookstore Case Study Example

52.  Duke's Tutoring Case Study Example

53.  Duke's Forest Case Study Example



Runtime Content Negotiation

The @Produces and @Consumes annotations handle static content negotiation in JAX-RS. These annotations specify the content preferences of the server. HTTP headers such as Accept, Content-Type, and Accept-Language define the content negotiation preferences of the client.

For more details on the HTTP headers for content negotiation, see HTTP /1.1 - Content Negotiation.

The following code snippet shows the server content preferences:

public class Employee {

    public String getEmployeeAddressText(String address) { ... }

    public String getEmployeeAddressXml(Address address) { ... }

The getEmployeeAddressText method is called for an HTTP request that looks as follows:

GET /employee
Accept: text/plain

This will produce the following response:

500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA

The getEmployeeAddressXml method is called for an HTTP request that looks as follows:

GET /employee
Accept: text/xml

This will produce the following response:

<address street="500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood Shores, CA" country="USA"/>

With static content negotiation, you can also define multiple content and media types for the client and server.

@Produces("text/plain", "text/xml")

In addition to supporting static content negotiation, JAX-RS also supports runtime content negotiation using the class and Request objects. The Variant class specifies the resource representation of content negotiation. Each instance of the Variant class may contain a media type, a language, and an encoding. The Variant object defines the resource representation that is supported by the server. The Variant.VariantListBuilder class is used to build a list of representation variants.

The following code snippet shows how to create a list of resource representation variants:

List<Variant> vs = 
    Variant.mediatypes("application/xml", "application/json")
           .languages("en", "fr").build();

This code snippet calls the build method of the VariantListBuilder class. The VariantListBuilder class is invoked when you call the mediatypes, languages, or encodings methods. The build method builds a series of resource representations. The Variant list created by the build method has all possible combinations of items specified in the mediatypes, languages, and encodings methods.

In this example, the size of the vs object as defined in this code snippet is 4, and the contents are as follows:

[["application/xml","en"], ["application/json","en"],

The method accepts a list of Variant objects and chooses the Variant object that matches the HTTP request. This method compares its list of Variant objects with the Accept, Accept-Encoding, Accept-Language, and Accept-Charset headers of the HTTP request.

The following code snippet shows how to use the selectVariant method to select the most acceptable Variant from the values in the client request.

public Response get(@Context Request r) { 
    List<Variant> vs = ...;
    Variant v = r.selectVariant(vs);
    if (v == null) {
        return Response.notAcceptable(vs).build();
    } else {
        Object rep = selectRepresentation(v);
        return Response.ok(rep, v);

The selectVariant method returns the Variant object that matches the request, or null if no matches are found. In this code snippet, if the method returns null, a Response object for a non-acceptable response is built. Otherwise, a Response object with an OK status and containing a representation in the form of an Object entity and a Variant is returned.