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Oracle® Java ME Embedded Getting Started Guide for the Reference Platform (Qualcomm IoE)
Release 8
E48513-02
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Glossary

access point

A network-connectivity configuration that is predefined on a device. An access point can represent different network profiles for the same bearer type, or for different bearer types that may be available on a device, such as WiFi or Bluetooth.

ADC

Analog-to-digital converter. A hardware device that converts analog signals (time and amplitude) into a stream of binary numbers that can be processed by a digital device.

AMS

Application Management System. The system functionality that completes tasks such as installing applications, updating applications, and managing applications between foreground and background.

APDU

Application Protocol Data Unit. A communication mechanism used by SIM cards and smart cards to communicate with card reader software or a card reader device.

API

Application programming interface. A set of classes used by programmers to write applications that provide standard methods and interfaces and eliminate the need for programmers to reinvent commonly used code.

ARM

Advanced RISC Machine. A family of computer processors using reduced instruction set computing (RISC) CPU technology, developed by ARM Holdings. ARM is a licensable instruction set architecture (ISA) used in the majority of embedded platforms.

AT commands

A set of commands developed to facilitate modem communications, such as dialing, hanging up, and changing the parameters of a connection. Also known as the Hayes command set. AT means attention.

AXF

ARM Executable Format. An ARM executable image generated by ARM tools.

BIP

Bearer Independent Protocol. Allows an application on a SIM card to establish a data channel with a terminal, and through the terminal, to a remote server on the network.

CDMA

Code Division Multiple Access. A mobile telephone network standard used primarily in the United States and Canada as an alternative to GSM.

CLDC

Connected Limited Device Configuration. A Java ME platform configuration for devices with limited memory and network connectivity. It uses a low-footprint Java Virtual Machine such as the CLDC HotSpot Implementation, and several minimalist Java platform APIs for application services.

configuration

Defines the minimum Java runtime environment (for example, the combination of a Java Virtual Machine and a core set of Java platform APIs) for a family of Java ME platform devices.

DAC

Digital-to-analog converter. A hardware device that converts a stream of binary numbers into an analog signal (time and amplitude), such as audio playback.

ETSI

European Telecommunications Standards Institute. An independent, nonprofit group responsible for the standardization of information and communication technologies within Europe. Although based in Europe, ETSI carries worldwide influence in the telecommunications industry.

GCF

Generic Connection Framework. A Java ME API consisting of a hierarchy of interfaces and classes to create connections (such as HTTP, datagram, or streams) and perform I/O.

GPIO

general purpose I/O. Unassigned pins on an embedded platform that can be assigned or configured as needed by a developer.

GPIO port

A group of GPIO pins (typically 8 pins) arranged in a group and treated as a single port.

GSM

Global System for Mobile Communications. A 3G mobile telephone network standard used widely in Europe, Asia, and other parts of the world.

HTTP

HyperText Transfer Protocol. The most commonly used Internet protocol, based on TCP/IP that is used to fetch documents and other hypertext objects from remote hosts.

HTTPS

Secure HyperText Transfer Protocol. A protocol for transferring encrypted hypertext data using Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technology.

I2C

Inter-Integrated Circuit. A multimaster, serial computer bus used to attach low-speed peripherals to an embedded platform

ICCID

Integrated Circuit Card Identification. The unique serial number assigned to an individual SIM card.

IMEI

International Mobile Equipment Identifier. A number unique to every mobile phone. It is used by a GSM or UMTS network to identify valid devices and can be used to stop a stolen or blocked phone from accessing the network. It is usually printed inside the battery compartment of the phone.

IMlet

An application written for IMP-NG. An IMlet does not differ from MIDP 2.0 MIDlet, except by the fact that an IMlet cannot refer to MIDP classes that are not part of IMP-NG. An IMlet can use only the APIs defined by the IMP-NG and CLDC specifications.

IMlet suite

A way of packaging one or more IMlets for easy distribution and use. Similar to a MIDlet suite, but for smaller applications running in an embedded environment.

IMP-NG

Information Module Profile Next Generation. A profile for embedded headless devices, the IMP-NG specification (JSR 228) is a subset of MIDP 2.0 that leverages many of the APIs of MIDP 2.0, including the latest security and networking, but does not include graphics and user interface APIs.

IMSI

International Mobile Subscriber Identity. A unique number associated with all GSM and UMTS network mobile phone users. It is stored on the SIM Card inside a phone and is used to identify itself to the network.

ISA

Instruction Set Architecture. The part of a computer's architecture related to programming, including data type, addressing modes, interrupt and exception handling, I/O, and memory architecture, and native commands. Reduced instruction set computing (RISC) is one kind of instruction set architecture.

JAD file

Java Application Descriptor file. A file provided in a MIDlet or IMlet suite that contains attributes used by the application management system (AMS) to manage the MIDlet or IMlet life cycle, and other application-specific attributes used by the MIDlet or IMlet suite itself.

JAR file

Java ARchive file. A platform-independent file format that aggregates many files into one. Multiple applications written in the Java programming language and their required components (class files, images, sounds, and other resource files) can be bundled in a JAR file and provided as part of a MIDlet or IMlet suite.

Java ME platform

Java Platform, Micro Edition. A group of specifications and technologies that pertain to running the Java platform on small devices, such as cell phones, pagers, set-top boxes, and embedded devices. More specifically, the Oracle Java ME platform consists of a configuration (such as CLDC) and a profile (such as MIDP or IMP-NG) tailored to a specific class of device.

JCP

Java Community Process. The global standards body guiding the development of the Java programming language.

JDTS

Java Device Test Suite. A set of Java programming language tests developed specifically for the wireless marketplace, providing targeted, standardized testing for CLDC and MIDP on small and handheld devices.

JSR

Java Specification Request. A proposal for developing new Java platform technology, which is reviewed, developed, and finalized into a formal specification by the JCP program.

JVM

Java Virtual Machine. A software execution engine that safely and compatibly runs the byte codes in Java class files on a microprocessor.

KVM

A Java Virtual Machine designed to run in a small, limited-memory device. The CLDC configuration was initially designed to run in a KVM.

LCDUI

Liquid Crystal Display User Interface. A user interface toolkit for interacting with liquid crystal display (LCD) screens in small devices. More generally, a shorthand way of referring to the MIDP user APIs.

MIDlet

An application written for MIDP.

MIDlet suite

A way of packaging one or more MIDlets for easy distribution and use. Each MIDlet suite contains a Java Application Aescriptor file (.jad), which lists the class names and files names for each MIDlet, and a Java ARchive file (.jar), which contains the class files and resource files for each MIDlet.

MIDP

Mobile Information Device Profile. A specification for a Java ME platform profile, running on top of a CLDC configuration that provides APIs for application life cycle, user interface, networking, and persistent storage in small devices.

MSISDN

Mobile Station Integrated Services Digital Network. A number uniquely identifying a subscription in a GSM or UMTS mobile network. It is the telephone number to the SIM card in a cell phone and used for voice, FAX, SMS, and data services.

MVM

Multiple Virtual Machines. A software mode that can run more than one MIDlet or IMlet at a time.

obfuscation

A technique used to complicate code by making it harder to understand when it is decompiled. Obfuscation makes it harder to reverse-engineer applications and therefore, steal them.

optional package

A set of Java ME platform APIs that provides additional functionality by extending the runtime capabilities of an existing configuration and profile.

preverification

A process of verifying Java technology classes. Due to limited memory and processing power on small devices, the process of verifying Java technology classes is split into two parts. The first part is preverification which is done off-device using the preverify tool. The second part, which is verification, occurs on the device at runtime.

profile

A set of APIs added to a configuration to support specific uses of an embedded or mobile device. Along with its underlying configuration, a profile defines a complete and self-contained application environment.

provisioning

A mechanism for providing services, data, or both to an embedded or mobile device over a network.

pulse counter

A hardware or software component that counts electronic pulses, or events, on a digital input line, for example, a GPIO pin.

push registry

The list of inbound connections, across which entities can push data. Each item in the list contains the URL (protocol, host, and port) for the connection, the entity permitted to push data through the connection, and the application that receives the connection.

RISC

Reduced instruction set computing. A CPU design based on simplified instruction sets that provide higher performance and faster accomplishment of individual instructions. The ARM architecture is based on RISC design principles.

RL-ARM

Real-Time Library ARM. A group of tightly coupled libraries designed to solve the real-time and communication challenges of embedded systems based on ARM processor-based microcontroller devices.

RMI

Remote Method Invocation. A feature of Java SE technology that enables Java technology objects running in one virtual machine to seamlessly invoke objects running in another virtual machine.

RMS

Record Management System. A simple record-oriented database that enables an IMlet or MIDlet to persistently store information and retrieve it later. MIDlets can also use the RMS to share data.

RTOS

Real-Time Operating System. An operating system designed to serve real-time application requests. It uses multitasking, an advanced scheduling algorithm, and minimal latency to prioritize and process data.

RTSP

Real-Time Streaming Protocol. A network control protocol designed to control streaming media servers and media sessions.

SCWS

Smart Card Web Server. A web server embedded in a smart card (such as a SIM card) that allows HTTP transactions with the card.

SD card

Secure Digital card. A nonvolatile memory card format for use in portable devices, such as cell phones and digital cameras, and embedded systems. SD cards come in three different sizes, with several storage capacities and speeds.

SIM

Subscriber Identity Module. An integrated circuit embedded into a removable SIM card that securely stores the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) and the related key used to identify and authenticate subscribers on mobile and embedded devices.

Slave Mode

Describes the relationship between a master and one or more devices in a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) bus arrangement. Data transmission in an SPI bus is initiated by the master device and received by one or more slave devices, which cannot initiate data transmissions on their own.

smart card

A card that stores and processes information through the electronic circuits embedded in silicon in the substrate of its body. Smart cards carry both processing power and information. A SIM card is a special kind of smart card for use in a mobile device.

SMS

Short Message Service. A protocol allowing transmission of short text-based messages over a wireless network. SMS messaging is the most widely used data application in the world.

SMSC

Short Message Service Center. Routes messages and regulates SMS traffic. When an SMS message is sent, it goes to an SMS center first, and then gets forwarded to the destination. If the destination is unavailable (for example, the recipient embedded board is powered down), then the message is stored in the SMSC until the recipient becomes available.

SOAP

Simple Object Access Protocol. An XML-based protocol that enables objects of any type to communicate in a distributed environment. It is most commonly used to develop web services.

SPI

Serial Peripheral Interface. A synchronous bus commonly used in embedded systems that allows full-duplex communication between a master device and one or more slave devices.

SSL

Secure Sockets Layer. A protocol for transmitting data over the Internet using encryption and authentication, including the use of digital certificates and both public and private keys.

SVM

Single Virtual Machine. A software mode that can run only one MIDlet or IMlet at a time.

task

At the platform level, each separate application that runs within a single Java Virtual Machine. The API used to instantiate each task is a stripped-down version of the Isolate API defined in JSR 121.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A fundamental Internet protocol that provides for reliable delivery of streams of data from one host to another.

terminal profile

Device characteristics of a terminal (mobile or embedded device) passed to the SIM card along with the IMEI at SIM card initialization. The terminal profile tells the SIM card what values are supported by the device.

UART

Universal Asynchronous Receiver/Transmitter. A piece of computer hardware that translates data between serial and parallel formats. It is used to facilitate communication between different kinds of peripheral devices, input/output streams, and embedded systems, to ensure universal communication between devices.

UICC

Universal Integrated Circuit Card. The smart card used in mobile terminals in GSM and UMTS networks. The UICC ensures the integrity and security of personal data on the card.

UMTS

Universal Mobile Telecommunications System. A third-generation (3G) mobile communications technology. It utilizes the radio spectrum in a fundamentally different way than GSM.

URI

Uniform Resource Identifier. A compact string of characters used to identify or name an abstract or physical resource. A URI can be further classified as a uniform resource locator (URL), a uniform resource name (URN), or both.

USAT

Universal SIM Application Toolkit. A software development kit intended for 3G networks. It enables USIM to initiate actions that can be used for various value-added services, such as those required for banking and other privacy-related applications.

USB

Universal Serial Bus. An industry standard that defines the cables, connectors, and protocols used in a bus for connection, communication, and power supply between computers and electronic devices, such as embedded platforms and mobile phones.

USIM

Universal Subscriber Identity Module. An updated version of a SIM designed for use over 3G networks. USIM is able to process small applications securely using better cryptographic authentication and stronger keys. Larger memory on USIM enables the addition of thousands of details including subscriber information, contact details, and other custom settings.

WAE

Wireless Application Environment. An application framework for small devices, which leverages other technologies, such as Wireless Application Protocol (WAP).

WAP

Wireless Application Protocol. A protocol for transmitting data between a server and a client (such as a cell phone or embedded device) over a wireless network. WAP in the wireless world is analogous to HTTP in the World Wide Web.

watchdog timer

A dedicated piece of hardware or software that watches an embedded system for a fault condition by continually polling for a response. If the system goes offline and no response is received, then the watchdog timer initiates a reboot procedure or takes other steps to return the system to a running state.

WCDMA

Wideband Code Division Multiple Access. A detailed protocol that defines how a cell phone communicates with the tower, how its signals are modulated, how datagrams are structured, and how system interfaces are specified.

WMA

Wireless Messaging API. A set of classes for sending and receiving Short Message Service (SMS) messages.

XML Schema

A set of rules to which an XML document must conform to be considered valid.