New Java 2DTM Features
New Pipeline Architecture Hardware Acceleration for Offscreen Images Pluggable Image I/O Framework New Java Print Service API Support for additional Image Types Public Bidi Algorithm Font Rasterizer support for TrueType hinting Hinted Lucida Fonts OpenType Font Table Support Support for Numeric Shaping Improved Complex Text Layout Support Complete Porter-Duff Support Support for Checking if Font has a Transform New Equality Methods for FontRenderContext
In the Java 2 SDK, version 1.2 and 1.3, common operations on a Graphics object often invalidated the rendering data cached for this Graphics object. This invalidation interrupted the rendering process by causing continuous re-creation of rendering information for the Graphics object, even for such simple and benign operations as create(), setColor(), and translate(). Because the rendering of Swing hierarchies relies heavily on these common operations, the invalidation and re-creation of rendering data caused poor repaint performance for many Swing applications.
The new pipeline architecture reduces this performance overhead with several implementation changes that:
These changes are especially noticeable when the following calls are used frequently, as they are in Swing applications:
- Improve the way that data is shared by the various rendering pipelines.
- Reduce the amount of code executed and garbage created when responding to changes in the rendering attributes.
- Improve the way that various graphics routines are chosen such as the routines that copy pixels from one format and location to another.
The runtime footprint should also be improved through better code sharing.
- getGraphics, Graphics.create() and Graphics.dispose()
- Graphics.setColor(), Graphics.translate
- Graphics.copyArea, especially when the source and destination regions overlap.
Other changes in the pipeline architecture have greatly improved the performance of:
For more information on this feature, see the whitepaper, High Performance Graphics.
- draw(Shape) and fill(Shape), especially when the Shape is a GeneralPath
- scaled drawImage.
- Blitting from an offscreen image created with createImage() multiple times without any intervening rendering or modifications to that image
- Remote X11 display over the network of applications that use createImage() to create an image buffer for double buffering.
- Rendering non-opaque text.
- Systems, such as the SGI Visual 320 workstation, which have display cards that use an RGBx format for pixel storage.
- Rendering coordinates outside of the range -32768 to 32767 with antialiasing turned off.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4330166
The SDK 1.4 provides access to hardware acceleration for offscreen images, resulting in better performance of rendering to and copying from these images. One problem with hardware-accelerated images is that, on some platforms such as Microsoft Windows, their contents can be lost at any time due to circumstances beyond the application's control. The new VolatileImage class allows you to create a hardware-accelerated offscreen image and manage the contents of that image.
This new API includes:
This class represents an image whose content can be lost at any time, but provides performance benefits. For example, on Microsoft Windows this image can be stored in VRAM and can benefit from hardware acceleration. The class includes methods that you can call to find out if the contents of the image need to be restored.
- createVolatileImage(w,h) in Component.
This method creates a VolatileImage that is compatible with the Component.
- createCompatibleVolatileImage(int width, int height)
This method creates a VolatileImage that is compatible with the GraphicsConfiguration.
This method returns the number of bytes of available accelerated memory.
For more information on using the
VolatileImageclass, see The VolatileImage API User Guide
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4101949
The JavaTM Image I/O API is an pluggable, extensible framework that supports reading and writing images of various formats and protocols. The API provides this support through plug-ins, most of which will be written by third parties. A conforming implementation will only be required to provide a minimal set of plug-ins, principally for compatibility with previous versions of the Java SDK. An application using this API should be able to read and write images without knowing the image's storage format or the plug-in used to support the format.
Fundamentally, all image I/O operations consist of reading or writing streams that contain one or more images, one or more preview (thumbnail) images associated with each image, and metadata, which is everything other than pixel data.
The Java Image I/O API allows applications to:
- Auto-detect installed plug-ins
- Choose plug-ins based on format name, file suffix, file contents, or MIME type
- Access individual images in multi-image files
- Monitor reading and writing progress
- Provide progressive updates of images being loaded
- Read or write only a region of interest of an image
- Read only selected bands of an image
- Choose the output size of resolution-independent imagery
- Retrieve detailed image and stream metadata
- Work with unknown formats using generic interfaces
- Work efficiently with both random-access and streaming data sources
- Transcode between different formats
See Java Image I/O for more information on the Java Image I/O API.
This API is the product of JSR006, Unified Printing API, and will allow client applications to provide rich access to the capablities of print services available including:
Since all capabilities will be exposed through the API, server applications become first class citizens of this API.
- Printer browsing and selection
- Discovery of the capablities of printers
- Selection of printers for a printer job
- Specification of a printer job.
Server applications can be beneficiaries of the capabilities for spooling documents to print services, whereas previously only graphics calls could be used to generate printer jobs from Java applications.
See Java Print Service for more information.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4364491
Prior to the SDK 1.4, the Java 2D API did not have DataBuffer subclasses for float or double sample types. The Java Image I/O API needs these classes to read and write float and double image types.
The SDK 1.4 contains two new classes to provide float and double image type support: DataBufferFloat and DataBufferDouble. The DataBufferFloat class wraps float arrays of pixels. The DataBufferDouble class wraps double arrays of pixels.
The existing ComponentColorModel and ComponentSampleModel class implementations have also been updated to support signed short,float, and double data. These classes include definitions of the normalized ranges of component values for the newly-supported data types:
The ComponentColorModel class will not clamp the pixel data. Applications are expected to scale to the appropriate range. Methods are added to the ColorSpace class to determine per component minimum and maximum normalized values. Alpha component values must still range from 0.0 to 1.0 normalized.
- For the existing data types, the range remains 0.0 to 1.0.
- For short data, the values are scaled to between -1.0 and 1.0.
- For float data, the range is the full range of the float primitive type.
- For double data, the range is also the range of the float primitive type, since values must be cast to float to interact with the ColorSpace class.
The complete additional API is listed below.
java.awt.image.ColorModel includes three new methods to parallel existing methods:
java.awt.image.ComponentColorModel includes a new constructor based on the new datatypes and new methods to override the existing ColorModel methods:
- getDataElement(float normComponents, int normOffset)
- getDataElements(float normComponents, int normOffset, Object obj)
- getNormalizedComponents(Object pixel, float normComponents, int normOffset)
java.awt.image.SampleModel includes two new methods to accept the new datatypes:
- ComponentColorModel(ColorSpace colorSpace, boolean hasAlpha, boolean isAlphaPremultiplied, int transparency, int transferType)
- getRed(Object inData)
- getGreen(Object inData)
- getBlue(Object inData)
- getAlpha(Object inData)
- getDataElements(int rgb, Object pixel)
- coerceData(WritableRaster raster, boolean isAlphaPremultiplied)
- createCompatibleWritableRaster(int w, int h)
- createCompatibleSampleModel(int w, int h)
java.awt.image.ComponentSampleModel includes two methods to accept the new datatypes:
- getDataElements(int x, int y, int w, int h, Object obj, DataBuffer data)
- setDataElements(int x, int y, int w, int h, Object obj, DataBuffer data)
java.awt.image.BandedSampleModel has three methods that were edited to accept the new datatypes:
- getDataElements(int x, int y, Object obj, DataBuffer data)
java.awt.color.ColorSpace includes two new methods determine per component minimum and maximum normalized values:
- getDataElements(int x, int y, Object obj, DataBuffer data)
- setDataElements(int x, int y, Object obj, DataBuffer data)
java.awt.color.ICC_ColorSpace includes new methods override the two new ColorSpace methods.
- getMinValue(int component)
- getMaxValue(int component)
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4285083
The Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm analyzes text using the Unicode character properties and determines the direction of runs of the text. The algorithm is necessary to properly display bidirectional text, such as Hebrew and Arabic text, in the correct order.
The current implementation is all written in the Java programming language, but the SDK 1.4 will include efficient access from native font code so that Hebrew and Arabic text can be more efficiently rendered. The SDK 1.4 will provide access to the native code through the Java Native Interface.
The new public Bidi class implements the Unicode 3.0 Bidi Algorithm and allows access to information on the bidirectional reordering of text so that the mixed, bidirectional text is properly displayed.
The example BidiSample demonstrates some of the Bidi routines.
Before this release, the T2K font rasterizer used by Java 2D did not support font-hinting for TrueType fonts. As a result, when TrueType fonts did not always display with a consistent, attractive appearance. For this release, the T2K rasterizer has been modified to use the hints stored in the TrueType fonts.
By adding this functionality to the T2K rasterizer, dependency on native rasterizers has been greatly reduced. Reducing this dependency results in:
- Greater portability because hinting of TrueType fonts is performed by the cross-platform T2K rasterizer, not the native rasterizer.
- More consistent metrics display of TrueType fonts because the same rasterizer is being used for on-screen and off-screen drawing.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4285089
For the SDK 1.4, the Lucida fonts that are in the Java 2 SDK will be upgraded to contain hints. This will give the Java 2 SDK higher quality fonts that could be used in place of existing fonts or if no other fonts are available. Adding hints to the Lucida fonts also allows the new cross-platform rasterizer to hint the Lucida fonts contained in the SDK, which causes the Lucida fonts to be displayed in a more consistent and attractive manner.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4285161
The SDK 1.4 includes a new architecture for providing general OpenType font support. This new architecture provides international character support for contextual scripts like Thai, Indic, Arabic, and Hebrew. It also provides enhanced typographical support for Roman languages.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4210199
Currently, when Java 2D renders numerals surrounded by Arabic text, the numerals have Arabic (roman) shapes, which are the commonly expected numeral shapes in most western countries. However, people in a Hindi locale expect to see Hindi shapes.
For example, to cause a TextLayout instance to convert digits from European to Arabic:
- Create a NumericShaper that shapes ARABIC digits:Numeric Shaper nS = NumericShaper.getContextualShaper(NumericShaper.ARABIC)
- Add the NumericShaper to an attribute Map along with the key value of TextAttribute.NUMERIC_SHAPING:Map map = new HashMap(); map.put(TextAttribute.NUMERIC_SHAPING, nS);
- Create a TextLayout with the attribute Map:FontRenderContext frc = ...; TextLayout layout = new TextLayout(text, map, frc);
- Render the text:layout.draw(g2d, x, y);
The NumericShaper class includes 19 constants representing different Unicode decimal ranges, allowing you to convert to 19 different digit shapes, including Devanagari and Thai.
Prior to this release, clients could not access glyph-to-character mapping information from GlyphVector. Clients can use this information to find out which glyphs in the GlyphVector correspond to which characters. This release also defines new methods to get the precise bounds of the GlyphVector and of individual glyphs within a GlyphVector.
Note: Although clients can use GlyphVector and the glyph-to-character mapping information to implement selection and hit testing, most clients will find TextLayout and the Swing JTextArea and JTextField classes to be more useful and convenient.
These GlyphVector methods are new in the SDK 1.4:
These new GlyphMetrics methods deal with transformed fonts:
- getGlyphCharIndex(int glyphIndex)
Returns the character index of the specified glyph. The character index is the index of the first logical character represented by the glyph.
- getGlyphCharIndices(int beginGlyphIndex, int numEntries, int codeReturn)
Returns the character indices of the specified glyphs.
- getGlyphOutline(int glyphIndex, float x, float y)
Shapewhose interior corresponds to the visual representation of the specified glyph within this
GlyphVector, offset to x, y.
- getPixelBounds(FontRenderContext renderFRC, float x, float y)
Returns the pixel bounds of this
GlyphVectorwhen rendered in a graphics with the given
FontRenderContextat the given location.
- getGlyphPixelBounds(int index, FontRenderContext renderFRC, float x, float y)
Returns the pixel bounds of the glyph at index when this
GlyphVectoris rendered in a
Graphicswith the given
FontRenderContextat the given location.
Complete Porter-Duff Support
Returns the x-component of the advance of the glyph.
Returns the y-component of the advance of the glyph.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4380232
The AlphaComposite class provides alpha blending capabilities according to modes or rules established by Porter and Duff. Out of the 12 rules that Porter and Duff identified, the AlphaComposite API for the SDK, version 1.3 defines and implements only 8 of them:
- A (Src)
- A over B (SrcOver)
- B over A (DstOver)
- A in B (SrcIn)
- B in A (DstIn)
- A held out by B (SrcOut)
- B held out by A (DstOut)
For the SDK 1.4, AlphaComposite implements the remaining 4 Porter-Duff rules:
- B (Dst)
- A atop B (SrcAtop)
- B atop A (DstAtop)
- A xor B (Xor)
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4314043
As of the SDK 1.2 the Font object has a transform attribute that can be accessed with the Font.getTransform method. You can perform geometric transformations, such as rotating and shearing, on the Font by setting the transform attribute. However, most applications use the Size attribute rather than the transform to control the size and shape of characters. In this case, the transform is a simple identity transform.
Currently, the only way to determine if the transform is an identity transform is to call getTransform and inspect the returned AffineTransform. Unfortunately, calling getTransform requires the Font object to clone the AffineTransform because the transform is mutable.
Two new methods in the SDK 1.4 allow you to check if a Font object's transform is an identity tranform without creating a new AffineTransform:
New Equality Methods for FontRenderContext
Returns true if this Font object has a non-identity AffineTransform attribute.
trueif the wrapped transform is an identity transform.
The bugtraq report that corresponds to this change is: 4328579
A FontRenderContext object encapsulates state about the graphics context and is used by GlyphVector and TextLayout. Three new methods in FontRenderContext allow you to compare the FontRenderContext in the GlyphVector against the one in the graphics context into which the GlyphVector draws:
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