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Developing Applications with Oracle Coherence
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8 Starting and Stopping Cluster Members

This chapter provides basic instructions for starting and stopping cache servers and cache clients. If you are having difficulties establishing a cluster when using multicast, see Administering Oracle Coherence for instructions on performing a multicast connectivity test.

This chapter includes the following sections:

8.1 Starting Cache Servers

Cache servers are cluster members that are responsible for storing cached data. A cluster may be comprised of many cache servers. Each cache server runs in its own JVM.

This section includes the following topics:

8.1.1 Overview of the DefaultCacheServer Class

The com.tangosol.net.DefaultCacheServer class is used to start a cache server. A cache server can be started from the command line or can be started programmatically. The following arguments are used when starting a cache server:

  • the name of a cache configuration file that is found on the classpath or the path to a Grid ARchive (GAR). If both are provided, the GAR takes precedence. A GAR includes the artifacts that comprise a Coherence application and adheres to a specific directory structure. A GAR can be left as a directory or can be archived with a .gar extension. For details about creating a GAR, see Administering Oracle Coherence.

  • An optional application name for the GAR. If no name is provided, the archive name is used (the directory name or the file name without the .gar extension). The name provides an application scope that is used to separate applications on a cluster.

  • the number of seconds between checks for stopped services. Stopped services are only automatically started if they are set to be automatically started (as configured by an <autostart> element in the cache configuration file). The default value if no argument is provided is 5 seconds.

8.1.2 Starting Cache Servers From the Command Line

Cache servers are typically started from the command line. Use the Java -cp option to indicate the location of the coherence.jar file and the location where the tangosol-coherence-override.xml and coherence-cache-config.xml files are located. The location of the configuration files must precede the coherence.jar file on the classpath; otherwise, the default configuration files that are located in the coherence.jar file are used to start the cache server instance. See Chapter 3, "Understanding Configuration," for detailed information on configuration files.

The following example starts a cache server member, uses any configuration files that are placed in the COHERENCE_HOME\config directory, and checks for service restarts every 2 seconds.

java -server -Xms512m -Xmx512m -cp COHERENCE_HOME\config;COHERENCE_HOME\lib\coherence.jar com.tangosol.net.DefaultCacheServer 2

The following example starts a cache server member and uses the Coherence application artifacts that are packaged in the MyGar.gar file. The default name (MyGAR) is used as the application name.

java -server -Xms512m -Xmx512m -cp COHERENCE_HOME\config;COHERENCE_HOME\lib\coherence.jar com.tangosol.net.DefaultCacheServer D:\example\MyGAR.gar

Note:

The cache configuration file that is packaged in a GAR file takes precedence over a cache configuration file that is located on the classpath.

The COHERENCE_HOME\bin\cache-server script is provided as a convenience and can start a cache server instance. The script sets up a basic environment and then runs the DefaultCacheServer class. There is a script for both the Windows and UNIX-based platforms. The scripts are typically modified as required for a particular cluster.

Tip:

During testing, it is sometimes useful to create multiple scripts with different names that uniquely identify each cache server. For example: cahe-server-a, cache-server-b, and so on.

8.1.3 Starting Cache Servers Programmatically

An application can use or extend the DefaultCacheServer class as required when starting a cache server. For example, an application may want to do some application-specific setup or processing before starting a cache server and its services.

The following example starts a cache server using the main method:

String[] args = new String[]{"my-cache-config.xml", "5"};
DefaultCacheServer.main(args);

The DefaultCacheServer(ConfigurableCacheFactory) constructor uses a factory class to create a cache server instance that uses a specified cache configuration file. The following example uses the ExtensibleConfigurableCacheFactory implementation and creates a DefaultCacheServer instance and also uses the startAndMonitor(long) method to start a cache server as in the previous example:

ExtensibleConfigurableCacheFactory factory;
factory = new ExtensibleConfigurableCacheFactory("my-cache-config.xml");

DefaultCacheServer dcs = new DefaultCacheServer(factory);
dcs.startAndMonitor(5000);

The static method startDaemon() method starts a cache server on a dedicated daemon thread and is intended for use within managed containers.

Two additional static start methods (start() and start(ConfigurableCacheFactory)) are also available to start a cache server and return control. However, the cache factory class is typically used instead of these methods, which remain for backward compatibility.

Applications that require even more fine-grained control can subclass the DefaultCacheServer class and override its methods to perform any custom processing as required. See Java API Reference for Oracle Coherence for detailed information on the DefaultCacheServer class.

8.2 Starting Cache Clients

Cache clients are cluster members that join the cluster to interact with the cluster's services. Cache clients can be as simple as an application that gets and puts data in a cache or can be as complex as a data grid compute application that processes data that is in a cache. The main difference between a cache client and a cache server is that cache clients are generally not responsible for cluster storage.

This section includes the following topics:

8.2.1 Disabling Local Storage

Cache clients that use the partition cache service (distributed caches) should not maintain any partitioned data. Cache clients that have storage disabled perform better and use less resources. Partitioned data should only be distributed among cache server instances.

Local storage is disabled on a per-process basis using the tangosol.coherence.distributed.localstorage system property. This allows cache clients and servers to use the same configuration descriptors. For example:

java -cp COHERENCE_HOME\config;COHERENCE_HOME\lib\coherence.jar -Dtangosol.coherence.distributed.localstorage=false com.MyApp

8.2.2 Using the CacheFactory Class to Start a Cache Client

Applications that use the com.tangosol.net.CacheFactory class to get an instance of a cache become cluster members and are considered cache clients. The following example demonstrates the most common way of starting a cache client:

CacheFactory.ensureCluster();
NamedCache cache = CacheFactory.getCache("cache_name");

When starting an application that is a cache client, use the Java -cp option to indicate the location of the coherence.jar file and the location where the tangosol-coherence-override.xml and coherence-cache-config.xml files are located. The location of the configuration files must precede the coherence.jar file on the classpath; otherwise, the default configuration files that are located in the coherence.jar file are used to start the cache server instance. See Chapter 3, "Understanding Configuration," for detailed information on configuration files.

The following example starts an application that is a cache client, uses any configuration files that are placed in the COHERENCE_HOME\config directory, and disables storage on the member.

java -cp COHERENCE_HOME\config;COHERENCE_HOME\lib\coherence.jar -Dtangosol.coherence.distributed.localstorage=false com.MyApp

The COHERENCE_HOME\bin\coherence script is provided for testing purposes and can start a cache client instance. The script sets up a basic environment, sets storage to be disabled, and then runs the CacheFactory class, which returns a prompt. The prompt is used to enter commands for interacting with a cache and a cluster. There is a script for both the Windows and UNIX-based platforms. The scripts are typically modified as required for a particular cluster. The class can also be started directly from the command line instead of using the script. For example:

java -cp COHERENCE_HOME\config;COHERENCE_HOME\lib\coherence.jar -Dtangosol.coherence.distributed.localstorage=false com.tangosol.net.CacheFactory

If a Coherence application is packaged as a GAR, the GAR can be loaded by the CacheFactory instance using the server command at the prompt after the client member starts.

server [<path-to-gar>] [<app-name>]

The following example loads the Coherence application artifacts that are packaged in the MyGar.gar file. The default name (MyGAR) is used as the application name.

Map (?) server D:\example\MyGAR.gar

8.3 Stopping Cluster Members

This section includes the following topics:

8.3.1 Stopping Cluster Members From the Command Line

Cluster members are most often shutdown using the kill command when on the UNIX platform and Ctrl+c when on the Windows platform. These commands initiate the standard JVM shutdown hook which is invoked upon normal JVM termination.

Note:

Issuing the kill -9 command triggers an abnormal JVM termination and the shutdown hook does not run. However, a graceful shutdown is generally not required if a service is known to be node-safe (as seen using JMX management) before termination.

The action a cluster member takes when receiving a shutdown command is configured in the operational override file within the <shutdown-listener> element. The following options are available:

  • none — perform no explicit shutdown actions. This is the suggested value for production unless testing has verified that the behavior on external shutdown is exactly what is desired.

  • force — (default) perform a hard-stop on the node by calling Cluster.stop(). This is the default out-of-box action.

  • graceful — perform a normal shutdown by calling Cluster.shutdown()

  • true — same as force

  • false — same as none

The following example sets the shutdown hook to none.

<?xml version='1.0'?>

<coherence xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
   xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-operational-config"
   xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/
   coherence-operational-config coherence-operational-config.xsd">
   <cluster-config>
      <shutdown-listener>
         <enabled system-property="tangosol.coherence.shutdownhook">none</enabled>
      </shutdown-listener>
   </cluster-config>
</coherence>

The tangosol.coherence.shutdownhook system property is used to specify the shutdown hook behavior instead of using the operational override file. For example:

-Dtangosol.coherence.shutdownhook=none

8.3.2 Stopping Cache Servers Programmatically

The DefaultCacheServer class provides two methods that are used to shutdown a cache server:

Note:

Shutdown is supposed to be called in a standalone application where it shuts down the instance which the DefaultCacheServer class itself maintains as a static member.

  • shutdown() – This is a static method that is used to shut down a cache server that was started on a different thread using the DefaultCacheServer.main() or DefaultCacheServer.start() methods.

  • shutdownServer() – This method is called on a DefaultCacheServer instance which an application keeps hold of.

8.4 Performing a Rolling Restart

A rolling restart is a technique for restarting cache servers in a cluster that ensures no data is lost during the restart. A rolling restart allows the data on a cache server to be redistributed to other cache servers on the cluster while the cache server is restarted. Each cache server in the cluster can be restarted in turn to effectively restart the whole cluster.

Rolling restarts are commonly performed when a cache server or its host computer must be updated or when upgrading a cache server to a new point release. However, the technique can be used whenever you want to restart a cache server that is currently managing a portion of cached data.

Note:

When upgrading a cluster, a rolling restart can only be used to upgrade between point releases and not major releases.

8.4.1 Prerequisites to Performing a Rolling Restart

A rolling restart requires initial consideration and setup prior to starting a cluster. A rolling restart cannot be performed on a cluster that does not meet the following prerequisites:

  • The cache servers in a cluster must provide enough capacity to handle the shutdown of a single cache server (n minus 1 where n is the number of cache servers in the cluster). An out-of-memory exception can occur during a redistribution of data if cache servers are running at capacity. For details on capacity planning see, Administering Oracle Coherence.

  • Remote JMX management must be enabled on all cache servers and at least two cache servers must contain an operational MBean server. Ensure that you can connect to the MBean servers using an MBean browser such as JConsole. For details on configuring JMX management and connecting to an MBean server instance, see Managing Oracle Coherence.

8.4.2 Restarting Cache Servers for a Rolling Restart

Use these instructions to restart a cache server. If you are restarting the host computer, then make sure all cache server processes are shutdown before shutting down the computer.

To restart a cache server:

  1. Connect to a Coherence MBean server using an MBean browser. Ensure that the MBean server is not hosted on the cache server that is being restarted.

  2. From the Coherence Service MBean, select a cluster service that corresponds to a cache that is configured in the cache configuration file.

  3. Check the StatusHA attribute for any cluster member to ensure that the attribute's value is MACHINE-SAFE. The MACHINE-SAFE state indicates that all the cache servers running on any given computer could be stopped without data loss. If the attribute is not MACHINE-SAFE, then additional cache servers, possibly on different computers, must be started before performing a restart. For details on the StatusHA attribute, see Managing Oracle Coherence.

  4. Shutdown the cache server.

  5. From the MBean browser, recheck the StatusHA attribute and wait for the state to return to MACHINE-SAFE.

  6. Restart the cache server.

  7. From the MBean browser, recheck the StatusHA attribute and wait for the state to return to MACHINE-SAFE.

  8. Repeat steps 4 to 7 for additional cache servers that are to be restarted.