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1 Integrating TopLink Grid with Oracle Coherence

This chapter describes how Oracle TopLink Grid enables you to scale out Java Persistence API (JPA) applications using Oracle Coherence. TopLink Grid provides applications with a number of options on how they can scale, ranging from using Coherence as a distributed shared (L2) cache up to directing JP QL queries to Coherence for parallel execution across the grid to reduce database load. With TopLink Grid, you do not have to rewrite your applications to scale out. You can use your investment in JPA, and still take advantage of the scalability of Coherence.

This chapter contains the following sections:

1.1 What is TopLink Grid?

Oracle TopLink Grid is a feature of Oracle TopLink that provides integration between the EclipseLink JPA and Coherence. Standard JPA applications interact directly with their primary data store, typically a relational database. However, with TopLink Grid you can store some or all of your domain model in the Coherence data grid. This configuration is also known as JPA on the Grid.

You can easily configure TopLink Grid to use Coherence as the primary data store, execute queries against the grid, and allow Coherence to manage the persistence of new and modified data. Coherence provides the layer between JPA and the data store, where direct database calls can be offloaded from every application instance. This makes it possible for clustered application deployments to scale beyond the bounds of standard database operations.

The Oracle TopLink Grid page on the Oracle Technology Network provides additional information and code examples for Coherence for TopLink Grid.

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/ias/tl-grid-097210.html

1.1.1 What are the JPA on the Grid Configurations?

These are the typical JPA on the Grid configurations that applications can use:

  • Grid Cache configuration, which uses Coherence as the TopLink L2 (shared) cache. This configuration applies the Coherence data grid to JPA applications that rely on database-hosted data that cannot be entirely preloaded into a Coherence cache. Some reasons why it might not be able to be preloaded include extremely complex queries that exceed the feature set of Coherence Filters, third-party database updates that create stale caches, reliance on native SQL queries, stored procedures or triggers, and so on.

    In this configuration, you can scale TopLink up into large clusters while avoiding the requirement to coordinate local L2 caches. Updates made to entities are available in all Coherence cluster members immediately, upon committing a transaction. For more information, see "Grid Cache Configuration".

  • Grid Read configuration, which is optimal for entities that require fast access to large amounts of (fairly stable) data and must write changes synchronously to the database. In these entities, cache warming could be used to populate the Coherence cache, but individual queries could also be directed to the database if necessary. For more information, see "Grid Read Configuration".

  • Grid Entity configuration, which is optimal for applications that require fast access to large amounts of (fairly stable) data and perform relatively few updates. This configuration can be combined with a Coherence cache store using write-behind to improve application response time by performing database updates asynchronously. For more information, see "Grid Entity Configuration".

1.1.2 What are the Benefits of Using TopLink Grid with Oracle Coherence?

TopLink Grid provides the following benefits:

  • Simple application configuration using annotations or XML configurations that align with standard JPA.

  • The ability to store complex object graphs with relationships in Coherence.

  • The ability to selectively choose which entities are stored in the grid and which are stored directly in the backing database.

  • Allows you to execute JP QL queries in the Grid or directly against the database.

  • Allows you to store entities with both eager and lazy relationships into Coherence.

TopLink Grid integrates the EclipseLink JPA implementation with Oracle Coherence and provides these development approaches:

  • You can build applications using JPA and transparently use the power of the data grid for improved scalability and performance. In this JPA on the Grid approach, TopLink Grid provides a set of cache and query configuration options that allow you to control how EclipseLink JPA uses Coherence. These implementations reside in the oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated package. See "JPA on the Grid Configurations" for more information.

  • If you have existing Native ORM applications, then you can use the EclipseLink Native Object Relational Mapping (ORM) framework with them. The Native ORM approach is very similar to JPA on the Grid, however, it does not use annotations to configure how the cache is used. Instead, this approach employs an amendment method that defines the appropriate cache behavior. See "EclipseLink Native ORM Configurations" for more information.

  • You can use the Coherence API with caches backed by TopLink Grid to access relational data with special cache loader and cache store interfaces which have been implemented for JPA.

    In this traditional Coherence approach, TopLink Grid provides the CacheLoader and CacheStore implementations in the oracle.eclipselink.coherence.standalone package that are optimized for EclipseLink JPA. This technique is described in "Using TopLink Grid with Coherence Client Applications".

When integrating JPA applications with the Coherence data grid, note the potential benefits and restrictions. You must understand how the grid works and how it relates to your JPA configurations to realize the full potential.

1.2 Required Files

The required files for working with TopLink Grid are the javax.persistence_2.0.0.0_2-0.jar, the eclipselink.jar, and the toplink-grid.jar. Assuming that you performed a standard installation of Coherence, these files can be found in the following locations:

  • .../Oracle_Home/oracle_common/modules/javax.persistence_2.0.0.0_2-0.jar

  • .../Oracle_Home/oracle_common/modules/oracle.toplink12.1.2/eclipselink.jar

  • .../Oracle_Home/oracle_common/modules/oracle.toplink12.1.2/toplink-grid.jar

1.3 JPA on the Grid Configurations

This section describes JPA on the Grid and how to read and write objects in the Grid Cache, Grid Read, and Grid Entity configurations. It also describes how to work with queries against the Coherence cache under these configurations.

This section contains the following:

1.3.1 Understanding JPA on the Grid

The expression JPA on the Grid refers to using JPA and the power of the data grid to build applications with improved scalability and performance. In the JPA on the Grid approach, TopLink Grid provides a set of cache and query configuration options that allow you to control how EclipseLink JPA uses Coherence.

You can configure Coherence as a distributed shared (L2) cache or use Coherence as the primary data store. You can also configure entities to execute queries in the Coherence data grid instead of the database. This allows clustered application deployments to scale beyond database-bound operations.

Figure 1-1 illustrates the relationship between an application, TopLink, Coherence, and the database.

Figure 1-1 JPA on the Grid Approach

JPA on the Grid approach.
Description of "Figure 1-1 JPA on the Grid Approach"

1.3.2 JPA on the Grid API

The API used by JPA on the Grid configurations are shipped in the toplink-grid.jar file. Table 1-1 lists some of the key classes in the oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated package that are used in JPA on the Grid configurations.

Table 1-1 TopLink Grid Classes to Build JPA on the Grid Applications

Class Name Description

oracle.eclipseLink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheLoader

Provides JPA-aware versions of the Coherence CacheLoader interface.

oracle.eclipseLink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore

Provides JPA-aware versions of the Coherence CacheStore interface.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadCustomizer

Enables a Coherence read configuration.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer

Enables a Coherence read/write configuration.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.GridCacheCustomizer

Enables cache instances to be cached in Coherence instead of in the internal EclipseLink shared cache. All calls to the internal TopLink L2 cache are redirected to Coherence.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.querying.IgnoreDefaultRedirector

Allows queries to bypass the Coherence cache and be sent directly to the database.


The configuration also uses the standard JPA run-time configuration file persistence.xml and the JPA mapping file orm.xml. You must also use the Coherence cache configuration file coherence-cache-config.xml to override the default Coherence settings and define the cache store caching scheme.

1.3.3 Grid Cache Configuration

The Grid Cache configuration can be considered as the base configuration for TopLink Grid. In this configuration, Coherence acts as the TopLink shared (L2) cache. This brings the power of the Coherence data grid to JPA applications that rely on database-hosted data that cannot be entirely preloaded into a Coherence cache. Some reasons why the data might not be able to be preloaded include extremely complex queries that exceed the abilities of Coherence Filters, third-party database updates that create stale caches, and reliance on native SQL queries, stored procedures, or triggers.

By using Coherence as the TopLink Grid cache, you can scale TopLink up into large clusters while avoiding the need to coordinate local shared caches. Updates made to entities are available in all Coherence cluster members immediately, upon committing a transaction.

In general, read and write operations in a Grid Cache configuration have the following characteristics:

  • A primary key query will attempt to get entities first from the Coherence cache. If the attempt is unsuccessful, the database will be queried and the Coherence cache will be updated with the query results. See the following section, "Reading Objects in Grid Cache Configuration".

  • A nonprimary key query will be executed against the database and the results will be checked against the Coherence cache. This is to avoid the negative performance impact of constructing entities that are already cached. Newly queried entities are put into the Coherence cache.

  • A write operation will update the database and, if successfully committed, will put updated entities into the Coherence cache. See "Writing Objects in Grid Cache Configuration".

See "Grid Cache Configuration Examples" for detailed examples.

To use Coherence as a distributed cache for an entity, you must enable shared caching in EclipseLink. Shared caching is enabled by default for all entities, but the default can be explicitly set to true or false by setting the eclipselink.cache.shared.default property in the persistence.xml file. Specific entities can override the default using the @Cache annotation or by specifying the corresponding XML <cache> element in the eclipselink-orm.xml file. For more information, see:

http://wiki.eclipse.org/Using_EclipseLink_JPA_Extensions_(ELUG)#How_to_Use_the_.40Cache_Annotation

1.3.3.1 Reading Objects in Grid Cache Configuration

In the Grid Cache configuration, all read queries are directed to the database except primary key queries, which are directed to the Coherence cache first. Any cache misses will result in a database query.

All entities queried from the database are placed in the Coherence cache. This makes the entities immediately available to all members of the cluster. This is valuable because, by default, TopLink uses the cache to avoid constructing new entities from database results.

For each row resulting from a query, TopLink uses the primary key of the result row to query the corresponding entity from the cache. If the cache contains the entity then the entity is used and a new entity is not built. This approach can greatly improve application performance, especially with a warmed cache, because it reduces the cost of a query by eliminating the cost associated with object building.

Figure 1-2 illustrates the path of a read query in the Grid Cache configuration:

  1. The application issues a find query.

  2. For primary key queries, TopLink queries the Coherence cache first.

  3. If the object does not exist in the Coherence cache, TopLink queries the database.

    For all read queries except primary key queries, TopLink queries the database first.

  4. Read objects are put into the Coherence cache.

Figure 1-2 Reading Objects in Grid Cache Configuration

Reading objects.
Description of "Figure 1-2 Reading Objects in Grid Cache Configuration"

1.3.3.2 Writing Objects in Grid Cache Configuration

In the Grid Cache configuration, TopLink performs all database write operations (insert, update, delete). The Coherence cache is then updated to reflect the changes made to the database. TopLink offers a number of performance features when writing large amounts of data including batch writing, parameter binding, stored procedure support, and statement ordering to ensure that database constraints are satisfied.

Figure 1-3 illustrates the path for writing and persisting objects in the Grid Cache configuration:

  1. The application issues a commit query.

  2. TopLink updates the database.

  3. After a successful transaction, TopLink updates the Coherence cache.

Figure 1-3 Writing and Persisting Objects in grid Cache Configuration

Writing and Persisting Objects
Description of "Figure 1-3 Writing and Persisting Objects in grid Cache Configuration"

1.3.3.3 Grid Cache Configuration Examples

You can obtain the code in these examples at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/toplink/examples-325517-en-ca.html

1.3.3.3.1 Configuring the Cache for the Grid Cache Configuration

The cache configuration file (coherence-cache-config.xml) in Example 1-1 defines the cache and configures a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships.

Example 1-1 Configuring the Cache in Grid Cache Configuration

<cache-config>
  <caching-scheme-mapping>
    <cache-mapping>
      <cache-name>*</cache-name>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
  </caching-scheme-mapping>
  <caching-schemes>
    <distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkJPA</service-name>
      <!--
        Configure a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships.
      -->
      <serializer>
        <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.WrapperSerializer</class-name>
      </serializer>
      <backing-map-scheme>
      <!-- 
        Backing map scheme with no eviction policy. 
      -->
        <local-scheme>
          <scheme-name>unlimited-backing-map</scheme-name>
        </local-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
  </caching-schemes></cache-config>
1.3.3.3.2 Configuring an Entity for the Grid Cache Configuration

To configure an entity to use Grid Cache, use the @Customizer annotation and the GridCacheCustomizer class as shown in Example 1-2. This class intercepts all TopLink calls to the internal TopLink Grid cache and redirects them to the Coherence cache.

Example 1-2 Configuring the Entity in Grid Cache Configuration

import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.GridCacheCustomizer;
import org.eclipse.persistence.annotations.Customizer;

@Entity
@Customizer(GridCacheCustomizer.class)
public class Employee {
...
1.3.3.3.3 Inserting Objects for the Grid Cache Configuration

In Example 1-3, TopLink performs the insert to create a new employee. Entities are persisted through the EntityManager and placed in the database. After a successful transaction, the Coherence cache is updated.

Example 1-3 Inserting Objects in Grid Cache Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");

// Create an employee with an address and telephone number.
EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
em.getTransaction().begin();
Employee employee = createEmployee();
em.persist(employee);
em.getTransaction().commit();           
em.close();
1.3.3.3.4 Querying Objects for the Grid Cache Configuration

In Example 1-4, the named JPQL query is directed to the database. Query results are resolved against the Coherence cache to avoid the cost of building objects that have previously been cached.

Example 1-4 Querying Objects in Grid Cache Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");

EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
List<Employee> employees = em.createQuery("select e from Employee e where e.lastName = :lastName").setParameter("lastName", "Smith").getResultList();

for (Employee employee : employees) {
   System.err.println(employee);
   for (PhoneNumber phone : employee.getPhoneNumbers()) {
      System.err.println("\t" + phone);
   }
}

emf.close();

1.3.4 Grid Read Configuration

Use the Grid Read configuration for entities that require fast access to large amounts of (fairly stable) data and write changes synchronously to the database. For these entities, cache warming would typically be used to populate the Coherence cache, but individual queries could be directed to the database if necessary.

In general, read and write operations in a Grid Read configuration have the following characteristics:

See "Grid Read Configuration Examples" for detailed examples.

1.3.4.1 Reading Objects in Grid Read Configuration

In the Grid Read configuration, all primary key and non-primary key queries are directed to the Coherence cache. To reduce query processing time, TopLink Grid supports parallel processing of queries across the data grid. Coherence contains data already in object form, avoiding the performance impact of database communication and object construction.

With the Grid Read configuration, if Coherence does not contain the entity requested by the find(...) method, then null is returned. However, if a cache loader is configured for the entity's cache, Coherence will attempt to load the object from the database. This is true only for primary key queries.

Configuring a cache loader has no impact on JPQL queries translated to Coherence filters. When searching with a filter, Coherence will operate only on the set of entities in the caches; the database will not be queried. However, it is possible to direct a query, on a query-by-query basis, to the database instead of to Coherence by using the oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.querying.IgnoreDefaultRedirector class, as shown in following example:

query.setHint(QueryHints.QUERY_REDIRECTOR, new IgnoreDefaultRedirector());

Any objects retrieved by a database query will be added to the Coherence cache so that they are available for subsequent queries. Because this configuration resolves all queries for an entity through Coherence by default, the Coherence cache should be warmed with all of the data that is to be queried.

In the Grid Read configuration, projection queries (reports) that extract data from a single entity type will also be directed to Coherence. For example, the following JPQL query will return the first and last names of all employees contained in the Coherence cache.

select e.firstName, e.lastName from Employee e

This type of query is useful when the entire entity is not required, for example when populating a drop-down list in a user interface.

A cache store is not compatible with the Grid Read configuration because the EclipseLink JPA will perform all database updates and then propagate the updated objects into Coherence. If you use a cache store, Coherence will attempt to write the objects again.

For complete information on using EclipseLink JPA query hints, see "JPA Query Customization Extensions" in Java Persistence API (JPA) Extensions Reference for Oracle TopLink and "About JPA Query Hints" in Oracle Fusion Middleware Understanding Oracle TopLink.

Figure 1-4 illustrates the path for a query in the Grid Read configuration:

  1. The application issues a JPQL query.

  2. TopLink executes a Filter on the Coherence cache.

  3. TopLink returns results from the Coherence cache only; the database is not queried.

Figure 1-4 Reading Objects with a Query

Reading Objects
Description of "Figure 1-4 Reading Objects with a Query"

1.3.4.2 Writing Objects in Grid Read Configuration

In the Grid Read configuration, TopLink performs all database write operations (insert, update, delete) directly. The Coherence caches are then updated to reflect the changes made to the database. TopLink offers a number of performance features when writing large amounts of data. These include batch writing, parameter binding, stored procedure support, and statement ordering to ensure that database constraints are satisfied.

This approach offers the best possibilities: database updates are performed efficiently and queries continue to be executed in parallel across the Coherence data grid, with the option of directing individual queries to the database.

Figure 1-5 illustrates the path for writing and persisting objects in the Grid Read configuration:

  1. The application issues a commit query.

  2. TopLink updates the database.

  3. After a successful transaction, TopLink updates the Coherence cache.

Figure 1-5 Writing and Persisting Objects in Grid Read Configuration

Writing and Persisting Objects
Description of "Figure 1-5 Writing and Persisting Objects in Grid Read Configuration"

1.3.4.3 Grid Read Configuration Examples

You can obtain the code in these examples at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/toplink/examples-325517-en-ca.html

1.3.4.3.1 Configuring the Cache in Grid Read Configuration

The cache configuration file (coherence-cache-config.xml) in Example 1-5 defines the cache and configures a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships. The oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheLoader class defines the cache store scheme.

Example 1-5 Configuring the Cache in Grid Read Configuration

<cache-config>
  <caching-scheme-mapping>
    <cache-mapping>
      <cache-name>*</cache-name>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed-readonly</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
  </caching-scheme-mapping>
  <caching-schemes>
    <distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed-readonly</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkJPAReadOnly</service-name>
      <!--
        Configure a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships.
      -->
      <serializer>
        <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.WrapperSerializer</class-name>
      </serializer>
      <backing-map-scheme>
        <read-write-backing-map-scheme>
          <internal-cache-scheme>
            <local-scheme />
          </internal-cache-scheme>
          <!-- 
            Define the cache scheme. 
          -->
          <cachestore-scheme>
            <class-scheme>
              <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheLoader</class-name>
              <init-params>
                <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                <param-value>{cache-name}</param-value>
              </init-param>
                <init-param>
                  <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                  <param-value>employee-pu</param-value>
                </init-param>
              </init-params>
            </class-scheme>
          </cachestore-scheme>
          <read-only>true</readonly>
        </read-write-backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
  </caching-schemes></cache-config>
1.3.4.3.2 Reading Objects for the Grid Read Configuration

To configure an entity to read through a Coherence cache, use the @Customizer annotation and the CoherenceReadCustomizer class as shown in Example 1-6:

Example 1-6 Configuring the Entity in Grid Read Configuration

import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadCustomizer;
import org.eclipse.persistence.annotations.Customizer;

@Entity
@Customizer(CoherenceReadCustomizer.class)
public class Employee {
...
}
1.3.4.3.3 Inserting Objects for the Grid Read Configuration

In Example 1-7, TopLink performs an insert to create a new employee. If the transaction is successful, the new object is placed into the Coherence cache under its primary key.

Example 1-7 Inserting Objects in Grid Read Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");
// Create an employee with an address and telephone number
EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
em.getTransaction().begin();
Employee employee = createEmployee();
em.persist(employee);
em.getTransaction().commit();
em.close();

emf.close();
1.3.4.3.4 Querying Objects for the Grid Read Configuration

When finding an employee, the read query is directed to the Coherence cache. The JPQL query is translated to Coherence filters, as shown in Example 1-8.

Example 1-8 Querying Objects in Grid Read Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");
EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
List<Employee> employees = em.createQuery("select e from Employee e where e.lastName = :lastName").setParameter("lastName", "Smith").getResultList();
  for (Employee employee : employees) {
    System.err.println(employee);
      for (PhoneNumber phone : employee.getPhoneNumbers()) {
        System.err.println("\t" + phone);
      }
  }emf.close();

To retrieve an object from the Coherence cache with a specific ID (key), use the em.find(Entity.class, ID) method. You can also configure a Coherence cache loader to query the database to find the object, if the cache does not contain the object with the specified ID.

1.3.5 Grid Entity Configuration

The Grid Entity configuration should be used by applications that require fast access to large amounts of (fairly stable) data, but perform relatively few updates. This configuration can be combined with a Coherence cache store using write-behind to improve application response time by performing database updates asynchronously.

In general, read and write operations in a Grid Entity configuration have the following characteristics:

See "Grid Entity Configuration Examples" for detailed examples.

1.3.5.1 Reading Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

In the Grid Entity configuration, querying objects is identical to the Grid Read configuration. See "Reading Objects in Grid Cache Configuration" for more information.

1.3.5.2 Writing Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

In the Grid Entity configuration, all objects that are persisted, updated, or merged through an EntityManager instance will be put in the appropriate Coherence cache. To persist objects in a Coherence cache to the database, an EclipseLink JPA cache store (oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore) must be configured for each cache.

You can also configure the cache store to use write-behind to asynchronously batch-write updated objects. See Oracle Fusion Middleware Developing Applications with Oracle Coherence for more information.

Figure 1-6 illustrates the path for writing and persisting objects in the Grid Entity configuration.

  1. The application issues a commit call.

  2. TopLink directs all queries to update the Coherence cache.

  3. By configuring a Coherence cache store (optional), TopLink will also update the database.

Figure 1-6 Writing and Persisting Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

Writing and persisting objects.
Description of "Figure 1-6 Writing and Persisting Objects in Grid Entity Configuration"

1.3.5.3 Limitations on Writing Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

When using a cache store, Coherence assumes that all write operations succeed and will not inform TopLink of a failure. This could result in the Coherence cache differing from the database. You cannot use optimistic locking to protect against data corruption that may occur if the database is concurrently modified by Coherence and a third-party application.

Because the order in which Coherence cache members write updates to the database is unpredictable, referential integrity cannot be guaranteed. Referential integrity constraints must be removed from the database. If they are not, write operations could fail with the following error:

org.eclipse.persistence.exceptions.DatabaseException
Internal Exception: java.sql.BatchUpdateException: ORA-02292: integrity constraint violated - child record found
Error Code: 2292

1.3.5.4 Grid Entity Configuration Examples

You can obtain the code in these examples at the following URL:

http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/middleware/toplink/examples-325517-en-ca.html

1.3.5.4.1 Configuring the Cache for the Grid Entity Configuration

The cache configuration file (coherence-cache-config.xml) in Example 1-9 configures a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships. The oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore class defines the cache store scheme.

Example 1-9 Configuring the Cache in Grid Entity Configuration

<cache-config>
  <caching-scheme-mapping>
    <cache-mapping>
      <cache-name>*</cache-name>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed-readwrite</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
  </caching-scheme-mapping>
  <caching-schemes>
    <distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed-readwrite</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkJPAReadWrite</service-name>
      <!--
        Configure a wrapper serializer to support serialization of relationships.
      -->
      <serializer>
        <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.WrapperSerializer</class-name>
      </serializer>
      <backing-map-scheme>
       <read-write-backing-map-scheme>
        <internal-cache-scheme>
          <local-scheme />
          </internal-cache-scheme>
           <!-- 
             Define the cache scheme 
           -->
            <cachestore-scheme>
              <class-scheme>
                <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore</class-name>
                <init-params>
                  <init-param>
                    <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                    <param-value>{cache-name}</param-value>
                  </init-param>
                  <init-param>
                    <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                    <param-value>employee-pu</param-value>
                  </init-param>
                </init-params>
              </class-scheme>
            </cachestore-scheme>
        </read-write-backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
  </caching-schemes>
</cache-config>
1.3.5.4.2 Configuring an Entity for the Grid Entity Configuration

To configure an entity to read through Coherence, use the @Customizer annotation and the CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer class as shown Example 1-10:

Example 1-10 Configuring an Entity in Grid Entity Configuration

import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer;
import org.eclipse.persistence.annotations.Customizer;

@Entity
@Customizer(CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer.class)
public class Employee {
...
}
1.3.5.4.3 Persisting Objects for the Grid Entity Configuration

In Example 1-11, TopLink performs the insert to create a new employee. Entities persist through the EntityManager instance and are placed in the appropriate Coherence cache.

Example 1-11 Persisting Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");

// Create an employee with an address and telephone number.
EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
em.getTransaction().begin();
Employee employee = createEmployee();
em.persist(employee);
em.getTransaction().commit();           
em.close();
1.3.5.4.4 Querying Objects for the Grid Entity Configuration

When finding an employee, the read query is directed to the Coherence cache, as shown in Example 1-12.

Example 1-12 Querying Objects in Grid Entity Configuration

EntityManagerFactory emf = Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory("employee-pu");

EntityManager em = emf.createEntityManager();
List<Employee> employees = em.createQuery("select e from Employee e where e.lastName = :lastName").setParameter("lastName", "Smith").getResultList();

for (Employee employee : employees) {
   System.err.println(employee);
   for (PhoneNumber phone : employee.getPhoneNumbers()) {
      System.err.println("\t" + phone);
   }
}

emf.close();

To get an object from the Coherence cache with a specific ID (key), use the em.find(Entity.class, ID) method. You can also configure a Coherence cache store to query the database to find the object, if the cache does not contain the object with the specified ID.

1.3.6 Handling Grid Read and Grid Entity Failovers

In the Grid Read and Grid Entity configurations, TopLink Grid will attempt to translate JPQL queries into Coherence Filters and execute the query in the grid. However some queries cannot be translated into filters. When TopLink Grid encounters such a query, it automatically fails over to the database to execute the query. In TopLink, you can specify a user-defined translation failure delegate object that will be called if the JPQL-to-filter translation fails. You configure the translation failure delegate by declaring the eclipselink.coherence.query.translation-failure-delegate persistence unit property. For example:

<property name="eclipselink.coherence.query.translation-failure-delegate" value="org.example.ExceptionFailoverPolicy"/>

A translation failure delegate must implement oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.querying.TranslationFailureDelegate class which defines the single method translationFailed(DatabaseQuery query, Record arguments, Session session).

1.3.7 Wrapping and Unwrapping Entity Relationships

When storing entities with relationships in the Coherence cache, TopLink Grid generates a wrapper class that maintains the relationship information. In this way, when the object is read from the Coherence cache (eager or lazy), the relationships can be resolved.

If you read entities directly from the Coherence cache using the Coherence API, the wrappers are not automatically removed. You can configure automatic unwrapping programatically by calling the setNotEclipseLink(true) method on the serializer, as shown in Example 1-13. You can also set the system property as eclipselink.coherence.not-eclipselink to automatically unwrap an entity.

When configured properly, a cache get operation will return the unwrapped entity.

Example 1-13 Unwrapping an Entity

WrapperSerializer wrapperSerializer = (WrapperSerializer)myCache.getCacheService().getSerializer();
wrapperSerializer.setNotEclipseLink(true); // So the Serializer will unwrap an Entity when clients use a get() call from the cache.

1.3.8 Working with Queries

This section includes information on the following topics:

1.3.8.1 Querying Objects by ID

To get an entity from the Coherence cache with a specific ID (key), use the em.find(Entity.class, ID) method. For example, the following code will get the entity with key 8, from the Coherence Employee cache.

em.find(Employee.class, 8) 

If the entity is not found in the Coherence cache, TopLink executes a SELECT statement against the database. If a result is found, then the entity is constructed and placed into the Coherence cache. The query's specific behavior will depend on your Coherence cache configuration:

  • calling the find method with a Grid Cache Configuration performs a SELECT statement against the database on a cache miss and then updates the cache.

  • calling the find method with a Grid Read Configuration or a Grid Entity Configuration performs a get operation on the Coherence cache. A cache miss results in a SELECT statement against the database by using a CacheLoader instance, if it is configured.

1.3.8.2 Querying Objects with Criteria

To retrieve an entity that matches a specific selection criterion, use the em.createQuery("...") method. The query's specific behavior will depend on your Coherence cache configuration:

  • For the Grid Cache Configuration, the query will always execute a SELECT statement against the database. For example, the following code will execute a SELECT statement to find employees named John.

    em.createQuery("select e from Employee e where e.name='John'")
    
  • For the Grid Read Configuration and Grid Entity Configuration, the query will be executed against the Coherence cache. If the cache does not contain any entities that match the selection criteria, then nothing will be returned. This is an example of why the cache should be warmed before performing the query.

  • For the cache store and cache loader, queries are performed only on primary keys

1.3.8.3 Using Indexes in Queries

Indexes allow values (or attributes of those values) and corresponding keys to be correlated within a cache to improve query performance. TopLink Grid allows you to declare indexes with the @Property annotation. The IntegrationProperties class provides the INDEXED property.

In Example 1-14, the @Property annotation declares that the name attribute is to be indexed. TopLink Grid will define an index for that attribute in the Publisher cache.

Example 1-14 Exposing a Coherence Query Index to TopLink Grid

import static oracle.eclipselink.coherence.IntegrationProperties.INDEXED;
import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadCustomizer;
 
@Customizer(CoherenceReadCustomizer.class)
public class Publisher implements Serializable {
...
    @Property(name=INDEXED, value="true")
    private String name;
 ...

With an index in place, you can issue a JPQL query, such as the following, to return all the Publishers in the cache with a name beginning with S.

SELECT Publisher p WHERE p.name like 'S%' 

Internally, Coherence will process the query by consulting the name index to find matches rather than by deserializing and examining every Publisher object stored in the grid. By avoiding deserialization, you achieve a significant positive improvement on query execution time, eliminate garbage collection of the temporarily deserialized objects, and reduce CPU usage.

1.3.8.4 Limitations on Queries

The following are limitations on querying Coherence caches:

  • Because the Coherence Filter framework is limited to a single cache, JPQL join queries cannot be translated to Filters. All join queries will execute on the database.

  • This release of TopLink Grid does not provide support for JPQL bulk updates and deletions.

1.4 EclipseLink Native ORM Configurations

This section describes the EclipseLink Native Object Relational Mapping (ORM), an extensible object-relational mapping framework. It also describes how to configure amendment methods with Oracle JDeveloper and how to configure EclipseLink Native ORM cache stores and cache loaders.

This section contains the following:

1.4.1 Understanding EclipseLink Native ORM

EclipseLink Native ORM provides an extensible object-relational mapping framework. It provides high-performance object persistence with extended capabilities configured declaratively through XML. These extended capabilities include caching (including support for clustered caching), advanced database-specific capabilities, and performance tuning and management options.

Like JPA on the Grid configurations, applications that employ EclipseLink ORM can access Coherence caches. However, unlike JPA on the Grid configurations, EclipseLink ORM applications do not use the @Customizer annotation to configure how the cache is used. Instead, they typically call an amendment method that defines the appropriate cache behavior.

1.4.2 API for EclipseLink Native ORM

The cache store and cache loader API used in EclipseLink Native ORM configurations are shipped in the toplink-grid.jar file. Table 1-2 describes the API for EclipseLink Native ORM. These classes can be found in the oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated package.

Table 1-2 EclipseLink Classes for Native ORM Configurations

Class Name Description

EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore(String cacheName, String sessionName)

Coherence cache store that should be used with native EclipseLink configuration (sessions.xml).

EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader(String cacheName, String sessionName)

Coherence cache loader that should be used with native EclipseLink configuration (sessions.xml).

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadCustomizer

Enables a Coherence read configuration.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer

Enables a Coherence read/write configuration.

oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.config.GridCacheCustomizer

Enables entity instances to be cached in Coherence instead of in the internal EclipseLink shared cache


Note that the second initialization parameter in the signatures, sessionName, represents the name of the mapping project that must be listed in the native EclipseLink configuration file, META-INF/sessions.xml.

The EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore and EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader classes allow applications that use EclipseLink Native ORM to access Coherence caches. Use these classes when Coherence cache behavior has been configured through an amendment method. These classes can be used to configure a cache store or cache loader for each persistent class in the same way as described in "JPA on the Grid Configurations".

Use the Coherence cache configuration file coherence-cache-config.xml to define the cache store caching scheme and to override any default Coherence settings.

The configuration uses the native EclipseLink sessions.xml file and the project.xml file. The sessions.xml file, and all of the deployment XML files (which have user-defined names) listed in it, must be available on the classpath or packaged within a JAR file within the META-INF directory.

You must also configure an amendment method to define the appropriate cache behavior. See "Configuring an Amendment Method" for more information.

1.4.3 Configuring an Amendment Method

An amendment method is a method that uses the EclipseLink descriptor API to customize the ORM mapping metadata for a class. The method is called when the descriptor is loaded at runtime. The purpose of the amendment methods provided by TopLink Grid is to define how the Coherence cache is going to be used. Amendment methods are the TopLink native ORM alternative to the @Customizer annotation; they produce the same configuration.

The TopLink Grid customizer classes in the toplink-grid.jar file (CoherenceReadCustomizer, CoherenceReadWriteCustomizer, and GridCacheCustomizer) provide an afterLoad amendment method that can be selected to enable the appropriate Coherence cache behavior.

You can select the amendment method using either JDeveloper or EclipseLink Workbench. The following section describes how to configure the amendment method with JDeveloper. A description of EclipseLink Workbench is beyond the scope of this document.

1.4.3.1 Configuring the Amendment Method in JDeveloper

To configure an amendment method:

  1. In the JDeveloper Structure pane, expand the desired tlMap descriptor name.

    Figure 1-7 tlMap Descriptors in the JDeveloper Structure Pane

    tlMap Descriptors in the JDeveloper Structure Pane
    Description of "Figure 1-7 tlMap Descriptors in the JDeveloper Structure Pane"

  2. Right-click the desired TopLink descriptor element. Select Advanced Properties to open the Advanced Properties dialog box. Select the After Loading check box and click OK.

    Figure 1-8 Advanced Properties Dialog Box

    Selecting After Load in the Advanced Properties Dialog Box
    Description of "Figure 1-8 Advanced Properties Dialog Box"

  3. In the After Load tab of the tlMap configuration window, enter the name of the class containing the afterLoad amendment method you want to use for the selected TopLink descriptor. You can also use the class browser to search for the class. Figure 1-9 illustrates the After Load tab of the tlMap configuration window.

    Figure 1-9 After Load Tab for a TopLink Descriptor

    After Load Tab for a TopLink Descriptor
    Description of "Figure 1-9 After Load Tab for a TopLink Descriptor "

    Figure 1-10 illustrates the class browser with the with the CoherenceReadCustomizer class selected.

    Figure 1-10 Searching for the Class containing the Amendment Method

    Searching for the Class containing the Amendment Method
    Description of "Figure 1-10 Searching for the Class containing the Amendment Method"

  4. In the After Load tab of the tlMap configuration window, select the amendment method from the Static Method dropdown list. For the Coherence Customizer classes, this will be the afterLoad method.

    Figure 1-11 Selecting the Amendment Method

    Selecting the Amendment Method
    Description of "Figure 1-11 Selecting the Amendment Method"

1.4.4 Configuring the EclipseLink Native ORM Cache Store and Cache Loader

The coherence-cache-config.xml file must specify the cache loader or cache store class and provide parameters for the cache name and session name (that is, project name). The following examples illustrate that aside from changing the class name (EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore or EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader), you do not have to make any changes to the Coherence cache configuration depending on whether you are using the cache loader or cache store.

Example 1-15 illustrates a configuration in the coherence-cache-config.xml file for a cache that can communicate with EclipseLink Native ORM applications. The class-name element identifies the EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore class as the cache store scheme. The param-value elements specify the cache name and the session (project) name that are passed to the class.

Example 1-15 Configuration for an Integrated EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore

...
<distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-native-distributed-store</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkNative</service-name>
  <serializer> 
     <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.WrapperSerializer</class-name> 
  </serializer>
      <backing-map-scheme>
        <read-write-backing-map-scheme>
          <internal-cache-scheme>
            <local-scheme/>
          </internal-cache-scheme>
          <!-- Define the cache scheme -->
          <cachestore-scheme>
            <class-scheme>
              <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkNativeCacheStore</class-name>
              <init-params>
                <init-param>
                  <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                  <param-value>{cache-name}</param-value>
                </init-param>
                <init-param>
                  <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                  <param-value>coherence-native-project</param-value>
                </init-param>
              </init-params>
            </class-scheme>
          </cachestore-scheme>
        </read-write-backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
...

Example 1-16 illustrates an integrated EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader instance configuration in the coherence-cache-config.xml file. The cache name ({cache-name}) and session name (coherence-native-project) parameter values are passed to the class.

Example 1-16 Configuration for an Integrated EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader

...
<cachestore-scheme>
   <class-scheme>
      <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkNativeCacheLoader</class-name> 
      <init-params> 
         <init-param>
            <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
            <param-value>{cache-name}</param-value> 
         </init-param>
         <init-param>
            <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
            <param-value>coherence-native-project</param-value> 
         </init-param> 
      </init-params>
   </class-scheme>
</cachestore-scheme>
...

1.5 Using POF Serialization with TopLink Grid and Coherence

This section describes how to use Portable Object Format (POF) serialization to optimize the performance of applications that use TopLink Grid and Coherence caches.

Serialization is the process of encoding an object into a binary format. It is a critical component when working with Coherence as data must be moved around the network. The Portable Object Format (also referred to as POF) is a language agnostic binary format. POF was designed to be incredibly efficient in both space and time and has become a cornerstone element in working with Coherence. Using POF has many advantages ranging from performance benefits to language independence. It's recommended that you look closely at POF as your serialization solution when working with Coherence.

This section focuses only on the changes and additions that you need to make to your TopLink application files to make them eligible to participate in POF serialization. For more detailed information on using and configuring POF, see "Using Portable Object Format" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developing Applications with Oracle Coherence.

This section contains the following:

1.5.1 Implement a Serialization Routine

You must implement serialization routines that know how to serialize and deserialize your Entities. You can do this by implementing the PortableObject interface or by creating a serializer using the com.tangosol.io.pof.PofSerializer interface.

  • Implement the PortableObject interface in your Entity class files

    The com.tangosol.io.pof.PortableObject interface provides classes with the ability to self-serialize and deserialize their state to and from a POF data stream. To use this interface, you must also provide implementations of the required methods readExternal and writeExternal.

    Example 1-17 illustrates a sample Entity class file that implements the PortableObject interface. Note the implementations of the required readExternal and writeExternal methods.

    Also note that the class includes an @OneToOne annotation to define the relationship mapping between the Trade object and a Security object. TopLink supports all of the relationship mappings defined by the JPA specification: one-to-one, one-to-many, many-to-many, and many-to-many. These relationships can be expressed as annotations.

    Example 1-17 Sample Entity Class that Implements PortableObject

    package oracle.toplinkgrid.codesample.pof.models.trader;
     
    import java.io.IOException;
    import java.io.Serializable;
     
    import javax.persistence.Entity;
    import javax.persistence.FetchType;
    import javax.persistence.GeneratedValue;
    import javax.persistence.Id;
    import javax.persistence.OneToOne;
     
    import com.tangosol.io.pof.PofReader;
    import com.tangosol.io.pof.PofWriter;
    import com.tangosol.io.pof.PortableObject;
     
    /**
     * This class will not be stored within Coherence as Trades are not high 
     * throughput objects in this model.
     *
     */
    @Entity
    public class Trade implements Serializable, PortableObject{
        /**
         * 
         */
        private static final long serialVersionUID = -244532585419336780L;
        @Id
        @GeneratedValue
        protected long id;
        @OneToOne(fetch=FetchType.EAGER)
        protected Security security;
        protected int quantity;
        protected double amount;
        public long getId() {
            return id;
        }
        public void setId(long id) {
            this.id = id;
        }
        public Security getSecurity() {
            return security;
        }
        public void setSecurity(Security security) {
            this.security = security;
        }
        public int getQuantity() {
            return quantity;
        }
        public void setQuantity(int quantity) {
            this.quantity = quantity;
        }
        public double getAmount() {
            return amount;
        }
        public void setAmount(double amount) {
            this.amount = amount;
        }
        public void readExternal(PofReader pofreader) throws IOException {
            id = pofreader.readLong(0);
            quantity = pofreader.readInt(2);
            amount = pofreader.readDouble(3); 
            
        }
        public void writeExternal(PofWriter pofwriter) throws IOException {
            pofwriter.writeLong(0, id);
            pofwriter.writeInt(2, quantity);
            pofwriter.writeDouble(3, amount);
            
        }
    }
    
  • Create a POFSerializer for the Entities

    An alternative to implementing the PortableObject interface is to implement the com.tangosol.io.pof.PofSerializer interface to create your own serializer and deserializer. This interface provides you with a way to externalize your serialization logic from the Entities you want to serialize. This is particularly useful when you do not want to change the structure of your classes to work with POF and Coherence. The POFSerializer interface provides these methods:

    • public Object deserialize(PofReader in)

    • public void serialize(PofWriter out, Object o)

1.5.2 Define a Cache Configuration File

In the cache configuration file, create cache mappings corresponding to the Entities you will be working with. Identify the serializer (such as com.tangosol.io.pof.ConfigurablePofContext) and the POF configuration file pof-config.xml. Identify the EclipseLink cache store (such as oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore) in the <cachestore-scheme> attribute.

Example 1-18 Sample Cache Configuration File

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<cache-config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
              xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-cache-config"
              xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-cache-config http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-cache-config/1.0/coherence-cache-config.xsd">
  <caching-scheme-mapping>
    <cache-mapping>
        <cache-name>ATTORNEY_JPA_CACHE</cache-name>
        <scheme-name>eclipselink-jpa-distributed</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
    <cache-mapping>
        <cache-name>CONTACT_JPA_CACHE</cache-name>
        <scheme-name>eclipselink-jpa-distributed-load</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
...
additional cache mappings 
...
<caching-schemes>
    <distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-jpa-distributed-load</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkJPA</service-name>
 
    <serializer>
      <instance>
      <class-name>com.tangosol.io.pof.ConfigurablePofContext</class-name>
      <init-params>
        <init-param>
          <param-type>String</param-type>                 
          <param-value>trader-pof-config.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
      </init-params>
      </instance>
    </serializer>
      <backing-map-scheme>
        <read-write-backing-map-scheme>
          <internal-cache-scheme>
            <local-scheme/>
          </internal-cache-scheme>
        </read-write-backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
    <distributed-scheme>
      <scheme-name>eclipselink-jpa-distributed</scheme-name>
      <service-name>EclipseLinkJPA</service-name>
    <serializer>
      <instance>
      <class-name>com.tangosol.io.pof.ConfigurablePofContext</class-name>
      <init-params>
        <init-param>
          <param-type>String</param-type>
          <param-value>trader-pof-config.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
      </init-params>
      </instance>
    </serializer>
 
      <backing-map-scheme>
        <read-write-backing-map-scheme>
          <internal-cache-scheme>
            <local-scheme/>
          </internal-cache-scheme>
          <!-- Define the cache scheme -->
          <cachestore-scheme>
            <class-scheme>
              <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.EclipseLinkJPACacheStore</class-name>
              <init-params>
                <init-param>
                  <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                  <param-value>{cache-name}</param-value>
                </init-param>
                <init-param>
                  <param-type>java.lang.String</param-type>
                  <param-value>coherence-pu</param-value>
                </init-param>
              </init-params>
            </class-scheme>
          </cachestore-scheme>
        </read-write-backing-map-scheme>
      </backing-map-scheme>
      <autostart>true</autostart>
    </distributed-scheme>
  </caching-schemes>
</cache-config>

1.5.3 Define a POF Configuration File

Provide a file that identifies the Entity classes that will participate in POF serialization. Coherence provides a POF configuration file which is named pof-config.xml by default. Use the file to assign type-ids of TopLink classes to the Entity classes.

TopLink Grid simplifies the assignment of type-ids to TopLink-Grid required classes. If the allow-interfaces element is set to true in the POF configuration file, then only one type-id entry is needed for TopLink-Grid classes.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.TopLinkGridPortableObject— the TopLink Grid analog of the PortableObject interface. TopLink Grid classes that implement the TopLinkGridPortableObject interface can be POF serialized by the TopLinkGridSerializer class. This allows you to register a single class for all implementors of this interface when the allow-interfaces POF configuration element is set to true.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.TopLinkGridSerializer—the associated serializer for all implementors of the TopLinkGridPortableObject interface. This allows you to register a single class for all implementors of this interface in your POF configuration XML file when the allow-interfaces POF configuration element is set to true.

Example 1-19 illustrates the assignment of the TopLinkGridPortableObject and TopLinkGridSerializer serializer class to the Attorney Entity.

Example 1-19 Simplified POF Configuration File

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<pof-config xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-pof-config"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-pof-config http://xmlns.oracle.com/coherence/coherence-pof-config/1.0/coherence-pof-config.xsd">
  <user-type-list>
    <!-- include all "standard" Coherence POF user types -->
    <include>coherence-pof-config.xml</include>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1163</type-id>
      <class-name>oracle.toplinkgrid.codesample.pof.models.trader.Attorney</class-name>
     </user-type>
   ...
   additional type IDs for Entity classes 
   ...
    <user-type> 
       <type-id>1130</type-id> 
       
<class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.TopLinkGridPortableO bject</class-name> 
       <serializer> 
         
<class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.TopLinkGridSerialize r</class-name> 
       </serializer> 
     </user-type> 
...

   <allow-interfaces>true</allow-interfaces>
 </pof-config>

Note:

the allow-subclasses element is not required for a TopLink Grid POF configuration.

If you cannot set allow-interfaces to true, then you must define individual type-id entries for the following classes:

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.ElementCollectionUpdateProcessor—Entry processor used by TopLink Grid to update an ElementCollection object within the cache.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.RelationshipUpdateProcessor—An internal file, used to update lazy-loaded relationship data into the grid.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.VersionPutProcessor—An internal file, used for optimistic lock-aware updates to the grid.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.VersionRemoveProcessor—An internal file, used for optimistic lock-aware removals from the grid.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.SerializableWrapper —A generic wrapper class for non POF serialization. It provides for serialization to a node which may not have the correct dynamic wrapper defined which would otherwise result in an exception.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.LockVersionExtractor—Used during conditional puts of Optimistically Locked objects. This class is used to extract the version value from the object.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.FilterExtractor—used by the filters to extract values from the objects stored in the caches. It supports both attribute access and method access.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$SubClassOf—An inner class. This is a Filter extension that filters on the type of Entity, eliminating superclasses from polymorphic queries. A type-id is needed for this class needed only if you are using this operation.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$$IsNull—An inner class. IsNull is equivalent to the Coherence IsNullFilter except that it provides support for a ValueExtractor instead of an explicit method name. A type-id is needed for this class needed only if you are using this operation.

  • oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$$IsNotNull—An inner class. IsNotNull is equivalent to the Coherence IsNotNullFilter except that it provides support for a ValueExtractor instead of an explicit method name. A type-id is needed for this class needed only if you are using this operation.

Example 1-20 illustrates a sample POF configuration file that includes definitions for the TopLink Grid support files.

Example 1-20 Sample POF Configuration File with Definitions for TopLink Classes

...
   additional type IDs for Entity classes 
   ...
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1144</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.ElementCollectionUpdateProcessor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1143</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.FilterExtractor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1142</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.LockVersionExtractor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1141</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.VersionPutProcessor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1140</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.VersionRemoveProcessor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1139</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.RelationshipUpdateProcessor</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1138</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.SerializableWrapper</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1137</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$SubClassOf</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1136</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$$IsNull</class-name>
     </user-type>
     <user-type>
       <type-id>1135</type-id>
       <class-name>oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.querying.EclipseLinkFilterFactory$$IsNotNull</class-name>
     </user-type>
   </user-type-list>
 
   <allow-interfaces>false</allow-interfaces>
 </pof-config>

1.6 Best Practices

This section contains best practice recommendations on how to use TopLink Grid with byte code weaving, lazy loading, near caches, and cache configurations.

This section contains the following:

1.6.1 Changing Compiled Java Classes with Byte Code Weaving

Byte code weaving is a technique for changing the byte code of compiled Java classes. You can configure byte code weaving to enable a number of EclipseLink JPA performance optimizations, including support for the lazy loading of one-to-one and many-to-one relationships, attribute-level change tracking, and fetch groups.

Weaving can be performed either dynamically when entity classes are loaded, or statically as part of the build process. Static byte code weaving can be incorporated into an Ant build using the weaver task provided by EclipseLink.

Dynamic byte code weaving is automatically enabled in Java EE 5-compliant application servers such as Oracle WebLogic. However, in Java SE it must be explicitly enabled by using the JRE 1.5 javaagent JVM command line argument. See "Using Weaving" in Solutions Guide for Oracle TopLink

To enable byte code weaving in a Coherence cache server, the Java VM should be invoked with -javaagent:<PATH>\eclipselink.jar. Java SE client applications should be run with the -javaagent argument.

See "Using Weaving" in Solutions Guide for Oracle TopLink for more information on configuring and disabling static and dynamic byte code weaving.

1.6.2 Deferring Database Queries with Lazy Loading

Lazy loading is a technique used to defer the querying of objects from the database until they are required. This can reduce the amount of data loaded by an application and improve throughput. A TopLink Grid JPA or native ORM application should lazily load all relationships. Lazy loading is the default for one-to-many and many-to-many relationships in JPA, but is eager for one-to-one and many-to-one relationships. You must explicitly select lazy loading on these relationship types. For example, you can specify lazy loading as an attribute for many of the relationship annotations:

...
@ManyToOne(fetch=FetchType.LAZY)
private Publisher parent
 ...

For maximum efficiency, lazy loading should be specified for all one-to-one and many-to-one entity relationships that TopLink Grid stores in the Coherence cache. Lazy loading is implemented through byte code weaving in EclipseLink and must be enabled explicitly if not running in a Java EE 5-compliant application server. For more information, see "Changing Compiled Java Classes with Byte Code Weaving".

1.6.3 Defining Near Caches for Applications Using TopLink Grid

Near cache is one of the standard cache configurations offered by Oracle Coherence. The use of near caches can improve throughput by avoiding network access when an object is retrieved repeatedly. For example, in an environment where users are pinned to a particular Web server, near caching may improve performance.

The near cache is a hybrid cache consisting of a front cache, which is of limited size and offers fast data access, and a larger back cache, which can be scalable, can load on demand, and provide failover protection.

For applications using TopLink Grid, you configure the near cache in the same way as any other application using Oracle Coherence. See "Near Cache" and "Defining Near Cache Schemes" in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Developing Applications with Oracle Coherence for more information on near caches.

Note:

Near caches are used only on a Coherence cache get operation, but not when a Filter operation is executed. This is because the Filter operation is sent to each member, and they return results directly to the caller. In this case, a near cache will not add value.

This can also become an issue if you are using JPQL queries. In the TopLink Grid Grid Read or Grid Entity configurations, JPQL queries are mapped to Filter operations. In the case of either of these configurations, if you execute TopLink JPQL queries, you will not see any cache hits.

1.6.4 Ensuring Prefixed Cache Names Use Wildcard in Cache Configuration

When using TopLink Grid with applications that use Coherence caches and Coherence*Web, you might want to apply different configuration properties to the TopLink Grid caches for entities and the Coherence*Web caches. The most efficient way to specify and configure a set of caches is to use a wildcard character ("*"). However, this will match both sets of caches. To separate the Coherence*Web caches from entity caches, you must create a wildcard pattern that will match entities only. One way to do this is to prepend a unique prefix to the entity cache names.

The following steps describe how to create and use a custom session customizer to prepend a specified prefix to TopLink Grid-enabled classes.

  1. Create a session customizer class that will prepend TopLink-enabled classes with a specified prefix.

    Example 1-21 illustrates a custom session customizer class, CacheNamePrefixCustomizer, which implements the EclipseLink SessionCustomizer class. The class defines a PREFIX_PROPERTY myapp.cache-prefix that represents the prefix that will be added to the TopLink-enabled classes. The value of the property can be either specified in the persistence.xml file (described in Step 2) or passed in an optional property map to the Persistence.createEntityManagerFactory method.

    Example 1-21 Session Customizer to Prepend

    import java.util.Collection;
    
    import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.IntegrationProperties;
    import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.cache.CoherenceInterceptor;
    import oracle.eclipselink.coherence.integrated.internal.cache.CoherenceCacheHelper;
    import org.eclipse.persistence.config.SessionCustomizer;
    import org.eclipse.persistence.descriptors.ClassDescriptor;
    import org.eclipse.persistence.sessions.Session;
    
    public class CacheNamePrefixCustomizer implements SessionCustomizer {
    
       private static final String PREFIX_PROPERTY = "myapp.cache-prefix";
    
       public void customize(Session session) throws Exception {
          // Look up custom persistence unit cache prefix property
          String prefix = (String) session.getProperty(PREFIX_PROPERTY);
          if (prefix == null) {
             throw new RuntimeException(
                "Cache name prefix customizer configured but prefix property '" +
                PREFIX_PROPERTY + "' not specified");
          }
          // Iterate over all entity descriptors
          Collection<ClassDescriptor> descriptors = session.getDescriptors().values();
          for (ClassDescriptor classDescriptor : descriptors) {
             // If entity is TopLink Grid-enabled, prepend cache name with prefix
             if (CoherenceInterceptor.class.equals(classDescriptor.getCacheInterceptorClass())) {
                String cacheName = CoherenceCacheHelper.getCacheName(classDescriptor);
                classDescriptor.setProperty(IntegrationProperties.COHERENCE_CACHE_NAME, prefix + cacheName);
             }
          }
       }
    }
    
  2. Edit the persistence.xml file to declare a value for the prefix property.

    In the following example, MyApp_ is defined as the value of the prefix property myapp.cache-prefix in the persistence.xml file. The myapp.cache-prefix prefix property is defined in the custom session customizer file.

    <property name="myapp.cache-prefix" value="MyApp_"/>
    

    See http://www.eclipse.org/eclipselink/ for more information on the EclipseLink SessionCustomizer class.

  3. Edit the persistence.xml file to add the name of the custom session customizer class as the value of the eclipselink.session.customizer context property.

    <property name="eclipselink.session.customizer" value="CacheNamePrefixCustomizer"/>
    
  4. Edit the coherence-cache-config.xml file to add the name of the prefix with a wildcard character to the cache mapping.

    <cache-mapping>
        <cache-name>MyApp_*</cache-name>
        <scheme-name>eclipselink-distributed-readonly</scheme-name>
    </cache-mapping>
    

1.6.5 Overriding the Default Cache Name

There may be situations where you want to override the default name given to an entity cache. In TopLink Grid, entity cache names default to the entity name. The following list describes how the name of the cache can be determined, and how you can change it explicitly:

Cache Name—the cache name can be set either by default, or set explicitly:

  • Default: cache name defaults to entity name. The entity name, in turn can be set either by default, or set explicitly:

    • Default: Entity name defaults to class short name.

    • Explicit: Entity name can be set explicitly by using the name property of the @Entity annotation.

  • Explicit: the cache name can be set explicitly by using the @Property annotation.

For example, the following code fragment illustrates the Employee class. By default, the entity cache name would be Employee. However, you can force the name of the Employee entity cache to be EMP_CACHE by using the @Property annotation.

import static oracle.eclipselink.coherence.IntegrationProperties.COHERENCE_CACHE_NAME;
import org.eclipse.persistence.annotations.Property;
 
    ...
    @Entity(name="Emp")
    @Property(name=COHERENCE_CACHE_NAME, value="EMP_CACHE")
    public class Employee implements Serializable {
... 
 

Notice that the code explicitly specifies the entity name as Emp. If the name="Emp" value were not present, then the entity name would have defaulted to the short class name Employee.