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Streams, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Streams Staging and Propagation

Event Propagation Between QueuesYou can use Streams to configure event propagation between two queues, which may reside in … different databases. Streams uses job queues to propagate events. A propagation is always between a source … queue and a destination queue. Although propagation is always between two queues, a single queue may … . However, only one propagation

Oracle Database, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Oracle9i Database Documentation Readme

Differences Between Documentation FormatsAs a result of publishing deadlines, the online versions of manuals in this library may contain updates or corrections that are not included in the printed books. Additionally, the HTML version of a manual may contain minor updates or corrections that do not appear in the PDF version.

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Managing Tablespaces

Transporting Tablespaces Between DatabasesThis section describes how to transport tablespaces between databases, and contains the following … Transportable Tablespaces Transporting Tablespaces Between Databases: A Procedure Object Behaviors Using Transportable Tablespaces

Oracle Database, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Oracle Ultra Search APIs: Class Between

oracle.ultrasearch.query Class BetweenDETAIL:  FIELD |  CONSTR  |  METHOD oracle.ultrasearch.query Class Between java.lang.Object … | +--oracle.ultrasearch.query.Between public class Between extends java.lang.Object implements Query Find … documents that has an attribute value within a range. Between can be applied to Date attribute, or Number … attribute. Since:

Workflow Guide (Oracle Workflow Help), 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Mapping Between WF_EVENT_T and OMBAQ_TEXT_MSG (Oracle Workflow Help)

Mapping Between WF_EVENT_T and OMBAQ_TEXT_MSGmessages between systems. OMB queues require messages to be stored in a structure defined by a Java … called WF_EVENT_OMB_QH which you can use to translate between the standard Workflow WF_EVENT_T message

Replication Management API Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Managing Replication Objects and Queues

Determining Differences Between Replicated Tablesoptionally rectify, the differences between two tables when both sites are Oracle release 7.3 or higher.

Concepts, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files

Transport of Tablespaces Between Databasesthe tablespace between databases, or you can unplug a tablespace from one Oracle database and plug … it into another Oracle database, moving the tablespace between databases on the same platform … transport tablespaces only between Oracle databases that use the same character set and that run on

Application Developer's Guide - Large Objects, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Frequently Asked Questions about LOBs

Converting Between Different LOB TypesIs Implicit LOB Conversion Between Different LOB Types Allowed? Question There are no implicit LOB … conversions between different LOB types? For example, in PL/SQL, I cannot use: INSERT INTO t VALUES

JPublisher User's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

JPublisher Concepts

JPublisher Compatibility Between JDK Versionsof.sqlj files that are completely compatible between JDK 1.1.x and JDK 1.2.x or higher. (With this … i JPublisher default behavior, and is what makes translated.java code incompatible between JDK 1.1

Label Security Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Advanced Topics in Oracle Label Security

Analyzing the Relationships Between LabelsThis section describes relationships between labels. It contains these topics: Dominant and

Developer's Guide to the OLAP DML, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Defining Data Objects, 6 of 11

Example: Relation Between Two Dimensionsbetween them to associate each city with the state that it is in. Assume that the state.city relation was

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of SQL Support in PL/SQLManaging Cursors Separating Cursor Specs and Bodies with Packages

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of Explicit CursorsThe set of rows returned by a query can consist of zero, one, or multiple rows, depending on how many rows meet your search criteria. When a query returns multiple rows, you can explicitly declare a cursor to process the rows. Moreover, you can declare a cursor in the declarative part of any PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package. You use three commands to control a cursor: OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE. First,

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor AttributesEvery explicit cursor and cursor variable has four attributes: %FOUND, %ISOPEN %NOTFOUND, and %ROWCOUNT. When appended to the cursor or cursor variable, these attributes return useful information about the execution of a data manipulation statement. You can use cursor attributes in procedural statements but not in SQL statements.

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Ending TransactionsA good programming practice is to commit or roll back every transaction explicitly. Whether you issue the commit or rollback in your PL/SQL program or in the host environment depends on the flow of application logic. If you neglect to commit or roll back a transaction explicitly, the host environment determines its final state. For example, in the SQL*Plus environment, if your PL/SQL block does not

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Calling Autonomous Functions from SQLA function called from SQL statements must obey certain rules meant to control side effects. (See \"Controlling Side Effects of PL/SQL Subprograms\".) To check for violations of the rules, you can use the pragma RESTRICT_REFERENCES. The pragma asserts that a function does not read or write database tables or package variables. (For more information, See Oracle9i Application Developer's Guide - Fundamentals.)

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor AttributesUsing Cursor Expressions

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

SQL PseudocolumnsPL/SQL recognizes the following SQL pseudocolumns, which return specific data items: CURRVAL, LEVEL, NEXTVAL, ROWID, and ROWNUM. Pseudocolumns are not actual columns in a table but they behave like columns. For example, you can select values from a pseudocolumn. However, you cannot insert into, update, or delete from a pseudocolumn. Also, pseudocolumns are allowed in SQL statements, but not in procedural

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor Variablespass cursor variables back and forth between an application and server through remote procedure calls (RPCs).

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Cursor Variable Example: Master Table and Details TablesConsider the stored procedure below, which searches the database of a main library for books, periodicals, and tapes. A master table stores the title and category code (where 1 = book, 2 = periodical, 3 = tape) of each item. Three detail tables store category-specific information. When called, the procedure searches the master table by title, uses the associated category code to pick an OPEN-FOR statement,

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of Implicit Cursor AttributesImplicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of an INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, or SELECT INTO statement. The values of the cursor attributes always refer to the most recently executed SQL statement. Before Oracle opens the SQL cursor, the implicit cursor attributes yield NULL. Note: The SQL cursor has another attribute, %BULK_ROWCOUNT, designed for use with the FORALL statement. For

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Advantages of Autonomous TransactionsOnce started, an autonomous transaction is fully independent. It shares no locks, resources, or commit-dependencies with the main transaction. So, you can log events, increment retry counters, and so on, even if the main transaction rolls back. More important, autonomous transactions help you build modular, reusable software components. For example, stored procedures can start and finish autonomous

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Undoing Partial Changes with SAVEPOINTSAVEPOINT names and marks the current point in the processing of a transaction. Used with the ROLLBACK TO statement, savepoints let you undo parts of a transaction instead of the whole transaction. In the example below, you mark a savepoint before doing an insert. If the INSERT statement tries to store a duplicate value in the empno column, the predefined exception DUP_VAL_ON_INDEX is raised. In that

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

How Oracle Does Implicit RollbacksBefore executing an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement, Oracle marks an implicit savepoint (unavailable to you). If the statement fails, Oracle rolls back to the savepoint. Normally, just the failed SQL statement is rolled back, not the whole transaction. However, if the statement raises an unhandled exception, the host environment determines what is rolled back. If you exit a stored subprogram with

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor FOR LoopsIn most situations that require an explicit cursor, you can simplify coding by using a cursor FOR loop instead of the OPEN, FETCH, and CLOSE statements. A cursor FOR loop implicitly declares its loop index as a %ROWTYPE record, opens a cursor, repeatedly fetches rows of values from the result set into fields in the record, and closes the cursor when all rows have been processed. Consider the PL/SQL

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Passing Parameters to a Cursor FOR LoopYou can pass parameters to the cursor in a cursor FOR loop. In the following example, you pass a department number. Then, you compute the total wages paid to employees in that department. Also, you determine how many employees have salaries higher than $2000 and/or commissions larger than their salaries. -- available online in file 'examp8' DECLARE CURSOR emp_cursor(dnum NUMBER) IS SELECT sal, comm

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Why Use Cursor Variables?Mainly, you use cursor variables to pass query result sets between PL/SQL stored subprograms and

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Controlling Cursor VariablesYou use three statements to control a cursor variable: OPEN-FOR, FETCH, and CLOSE. First, you OPEN a cursor variable FOR a multi-row query. Then, you FETCH rows from the result set. When all the rows are processed, you CLOSE the cursor variable. Opening a Cursor Variable The OPEN-FOR statement associates a cursor variable with a multi-row query, executes the query, and identifies the result set. Here

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Cursor Variable Example: Manipulating Host Variables in SQL*PlusA host variable is a variable you declare in a host environment, then pass to one or more PL/SQL programs, which can use it like any other variable. In the SQL*Plus environment, to declare a host variable, use the command VARIABLE. For example, you declare a variable of type NUMBER as follows: VARIABLE return_code NUMBER Both SQL*Plus and PL/SQL can reference the host variable, and SQL*Plus can display

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor ExpressionsA cursor expression returns a nested cursor. Each row in the result set can contain values as usual, plus cursors produced by subqueries involving the other values in the row. Thus, a single query can return a large set of related values retrieved from multiple tables. You can process the result set with nested loops that fetch first from the rows of the result set, then any nested cursors within

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of Transaction Processing in PL/SQLThis section explains how to do transaction processing. You learn the basic techniques that safeguard the consistency of your database, including how to control whether changes to Oracle data are made permanent or undone. The jobs or tasks that Oracle manages are called sessions. A user session is started when you run an application program or an Oracle tool and connect to Oracle. To allow user sessions

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

6 Interaction Between PL/SQL and OracleKnowledge is of two kinds. We know a subject ourselves, or we know where we can find information upon it. -- Samuel Johnson This chapter helps you harness the power of Oracle. You learn how PL/SQL supports the SQL commands, functions, and operators that let you manipulate Oracle data. You also learn how to manage cursors, use cursor variables, and process transactions. This chapter discusses the following

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

SQL FunctionsPL/SQL lets you use all the SQL functions including the following aggregate functions, which summarize entire columns of Oracle data: AVG, COUNT, GROUPING, MAX, MIN, STDDEV, SUM, and VARIANCE. Except for COUNT(*), all aggregate functions ignore s. You can use the aggregate functions in SQL statements, but not in procedural statements. Aggregate functions operate on entire columns unless you use the

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor SubqueriesYou can use cursor subqueries, also know as cursor expressions, to pass sets of rows as parameters to functions. For example, this statement passes a parameter to the StockPivot function consisting of a REF CURSOR that represents the rows returned by the cursor subquery: SELECT * FROM TABLE(StockPivot(CURSOR(SELECT * FROM StockTable))); Cursor subqueries are often used with table functions, which

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

What Are Cursor Variables?Cursor variables are like C or Pascal pointers, which hold the memory location (address) of some item instead of the item itself. So, declaring a cursor variable creates a pointer, not an item. In PL/SQL, a pointer has datatype REF X, where REF is short for REFERENCE and X stands for a class of objects. Therefore, a cursor variable has datatype REF CURSOR. To execute a multi-row query, Oracle opens

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Avoiding Errors with Cursor VariablesIf both cursor variables involved in an assignment are strongly typed, they must have the same datatype. In the following example, even though the cursor variables have the same return type, the assignment raises an exception because they have different datatypes: DECLARE TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; TYPE TmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; PROCEDURE open_emp_cv ( emp_cv

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Restrictions on Cursor VariablesCurrently, cursor variables are subject to the following restrictions: You cannot declare cursor variables in a package. For example, the following declaration is not allowed:CREATE PACKAGE emp_stuff AS TYPE EmpCurTyp IS REF CURSOR RETURN emp%ROWTYPE; emp_cv EmpCurTyp; -- not allowed END emp_stuff; Remote subprograms on another server cannot accept the values of cursor variables. Therefore, you cannot

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of Explicit Cursor AttributesExplicit cursor attributes return information about the execution of a multi-row query. When an explicit cursor or a cursor variable is opened, the rows that satisfy the associated query are identified and form the result set. Rows are fetched from the result set. %FOUND Attribute: Has a Row Been Fetched? After a cursor or cursor variable is opened but before the first fetch, %FOUND yields NULL. Thereafter,

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Setting Transaction Properties with SET TRANSACTIONYou use the SET TRANSACTION statement to begin a read-only or read-write transaction, establish an isolation level, or assign your current transaction to a specified rollback segment. Read-only transactions are useful for running multiple queries against one or more tables while other users update the same tables. During a read-only transaction, all queries refer to the same snapshot of the database,

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Doing Independent Units of Work with Autonomous TransactionsA transaction is a series of SQL statements that does a logical unit of work. Often, one transaction starts another. In some applications, a transaction must operate outside the scope of the transaction that started it. This can happen, for example, when a transaction calls out to a data cartridge. An autonomous transaction is an independent transaction started by another transaction, the main transaction.

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Autonomous TriggersAmong other things, you can use database triggers to log events transparently. Suppose you want to track all inserts into a table, even those that roll back. In the example below, you use a trigger to insert duplicate rows into a shadow table. Because it is autonomous, the trigger can commit inserts into the shadow table whether or not you commit inserts into the main table. -- create a main table

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of Transaction Processing in PL/SQLDoing Independent Units of Work with Autonomous Transactions

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overview of SQL Support in PL/SQLEnsuring Backward Compatibility of PL/SQL Programs Overview of SQL Support in PL/SQL By extending SQL, PL/SQL offers a unique combination of power and ease of use. You can manipulate Oracle data flexibly and safely because PL/SQL fully supports all SQL data manipulation statements (except EXPLAIN PLAN ), transaction control statements, functions, pseudocolumns, and operators. PL/SQL also supports

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Transaction ControlOracle is transaction oriented; that is, Oracle uses transactions to ensure data integrity. A transaction is a series of SQL data manipulation statements that does a logical unit of work. For example, two UPDATE statements might credit one bank account and debit another. Simultaneously, Oracle makes permanent or undoes all database changes made by a transaction. If your program fails in the middle

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Managing CursorsPL/SQL uses two types of cursors: implicit and explicit. PL/SQL declares a cursor implicitly for all SQL data manipulation statements, including queries that return only one row. However, for queries that return more than one row, you must declare an explicit cursor, use a cursor FOR loop, or use the BULK COLLECT clause.

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Subqueries Instead of Explicit CursorsYou need not declare a cursor because PL/SQL lets you substitute a subquery. The following cursor FOR loop calculates a bonus, then inserts the result into a database table: DECLARE bonus REAL; BEGIN FOR emp_rec IN (SELECT empno, sal, comm FROM emp) LOOP bonus:= (emp_rec.sal * 0.05) + (emp_rec.comm * 0.25); INSERT INTO bonuses VALUES (emp_rec.empno, bonus); END LOOP; COMMIT; END;

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Defining REF CURSOR TypesTo create cursor variables, you take two steps. First, you define a REF CURSOR type, then declare cursor variables of that type. You can define REF CURSOR types in any PL/SQL block, subprogram, or package using the syntax TYPE ref_type_name IS REF CURSOR [RETURN return_type]; where ref_type_name is a type specifier used in subsequent declarations of cursor variables and return_type must represent

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Defining Autonomous TransactionsTo define autonomous transactions, you use the pragma (compiler directive) AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION. The pragma instructs the PL/SQL compiler to mark a routine as autonomous (independent). In this context, the term routine includes Top-level (not nested) anonymous PL/SQL blocks Local, standalone, and packaged functions and procedures Methods of a SQL object type Database triggers You can code the pragma

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Ensuring Backward Compatibility of PL/SQL ProgramsPL/SQL Version 2 allows some abnormal behaviors that are no longer allowed. Specifically, Version 2 lets you: Make forward references to RECORD and TABLE types when declaring variables Specify the name of a variable (not a datatype) in the RETURN clause of a function spec Assign values to the elements of an index-by table IN parameter Pass the fields of a record IN parameter to another subprogram

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

SQL Operatorsyields TRUE if any of the individual comparisons yields TRUE. BETWEEN Tests whether a value lies in

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Defining Aliases for Expression Values in a Cursor FOR LoopFields in the implicitly declared record hold column values from the most recently fetched row. The fields have the same names as corresponding columns in the SELECT list. But, what happens if a select item is an expression? Consider the following example: CURSOR c1 IS SELECT empno, sal+NVL(comm,0), job FROM... In such cases, you must include an alias for the select item. In the following example,

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Cursor Variable Example: Pro*C ProgramThe following Pro*C program prompts the user to select a database table, opens a cursor variable for a query of that table, then fetches rows returned by the query: #include #include void sql_error(); main() { char temp[32]; EXEC SQL BEGIN DECLARE SECTION; char * uid = \"scott/tiger\"; SQL_CURSOR generic_cv; /* cursor variable */ int table_num; /* selector */ struct /* EMP record */ { int emp_num;

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Reducing Network Traffic When Passing Host Cursor Variables to PL/SQLWhen passing host cursor variables to PL/SQL, you can reduce network traffic by grouping OPEN-FOR statements. For example, the following PL/SQL block opens five cursor variables in a single round trip: /* anonymous PL/SQL block in host environment */ BEGIN OPEN:emp_cv FOR SELECT * FROM emp; OPEN:dept_cv FOR SELECT * FROM dept; OPEN:grade_cv FOR SELECT * FROM salgrade; OPEN:pay_cv FOR SELECT * FROM

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Example of Cursor ExpressionsIn this example, we find a specified location ID, and a cursor from which we can fetch all the departments in that location. As we fetch each department's name, we also get another cursor that lets us fetch their associated employee details from another table. CREATE OR REPLACE procedure emp_report(p_locid number) is TYPE refcursor is ref cursor; -- The query returns only 2 columns, but the second

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Undoing Changes with ROLLBACKThe ROLLBACK statement ends the current transaction and undoes any changes made during that transaction. Rolling back is useful for two reasons. First, if you make a mistake like deleting the wrong row from a table, a rollback restores the original data. Second, if you start a transaction that you cannot finish because an exception is raised or a SQL statement fails, a rollback lets you return to

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Overriding Default LockingBy default, Oracle locks data structures for you automatically. However, you can request specific data locks on rows or tables when it is to your advantage to override default locking. Explicit locking lets you share or deny access to a table for the duration of a transaction. With the LOCK TABLE statement, you can explicitly lock entire tables. With the SELECT FOR UPDATE statement, you can explicitly

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Controlling Autonomous TransactionsThe first SQL statement in an autonomous routine begins a transaction. When one transaction ends, the next SQL statement begins another transaction. All SQL statements executed since the last commit or rollback make up the current transaction. To control autonomous transactions, use the following statements, which apply only to the current (active) transaction: COMMIT ROLLBACK [TO savepoint_name]

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Using Cursor FOR LoopsUsing Cursor Variables

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Data ManipulationTo manipulate Oracle data, you use the INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, SELECT, and LOCK TABLE commands. INSERT adds new rows of data to database tables; UPDATE modifies rows; DELETE removes unwanted rows; SELECT retrieves rows that meet your search criteria; and LOCK TABLE temporarily limits access to a table.

User's Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Interaction Between PL/SQL and Oracle

Separating Cursor Specs and Bodies with PackagesYou can separate a cursor specification (spec for short) from its body for placement in a package. That way, you can change the cursor body without having to change the cursor spec. You code the cursor spec in the package spec using this syntax: CURSOR cursor_name [(parameter[, parameter]...)] RETURN return_type; In the following example, you use the %ROWTYPE attribute to provide a record type that





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