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Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

Alphabetical Listing of HintsThis section provides syntax and semantics for all hints in alphabetical order.

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Sorting Query Results

Sorting Query ResultsUse the ORDER BY clause to order the rows selected by a query. Sorting by position is useful in the … following cases: To order by a lengthy select list expression, you can specify its position in the … ORDER BY clause rather than duplicate the entire expression. For compound queries containing set … operators

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatype Comparison Rules

Object ValuesObject values are compared using one of two comparison functions: MAP and ORDER. Both functions … TYPE for a description of MAP and ORDER methods and the values they return

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

INDEX_SS_ASC Hintscans the index entries in ascending order of their indexed values. In a partitioned index, the results … are in ascending order within each partition. Each parameter serves the same purpose as in \"INDEX … Hint\". The default behavior for a range scan is to scan index entries in ascending order of their … indexed values, or in

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

INDEX_ASC Hintentries in ascending order of their indexed values. Each parameter serves the same purpose as in … \"INDEX Hint\". The default behavior for a range scan is to scan index entries in ascending order of their … indexed values, or in descending order for a descending index. This hint does not change the … default order

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

INDEX_SS_DESC Hintascending, then Oracle scans the index entries in descending order of their indexed values. In a … partitioned index, the results are in descending order within each partition. For a descending index, this … hint effectively cancels out the descending order, resulting in a scan of the index entries in … ascending order.

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

INDEX_DESC Hint, then Oracle scans the index entries in descending order of their indexed values. In a partitioned … index, the results are in descending order within each partition. For a descending index, this hint … effectively cancels out the descending order, resulting in a scan of the index entries in ascending … order.

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Statements: ALTER CLUSTER to ALTER JAVA

10 SQL Statements: ALTER CLUSTER to ALTER JAVAvarious types of SQL statements and then describes the first set (in alphabetical order) of SQL … statements. The remaining SQL statements appear in alphabetical order in Chapter 11 through Chapter 19

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

ORDERED Hintin the order in which they appear in the FROM clause. Oracle recommends that you use the LEADING hint … requiring a join, the optimizer chooses the order in which to join the tables. You might want to … use the ORDERED hint to specify a join order if you know something that the optimizer does not know

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

INDEX_SS Hintentries in ascending order of their indexed values. In a partitioned index, the results are in ascending … order within each partition. Each parameter serves the same purpose as in \"INDEX Hint\". For

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CEIL

CEILgreater than or equal to the order total of a specified order: SELECT order_total, CEIL(order_total

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

NO_USE_MERGE Hintexample: SELECT /*+ NO_USE_MERGE(e d) */ * FROM employees e, departments d WHERE e.department_id = d.department_id ORDER BY d.department_id;

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

FIRST_VALUE

FIRST_VALUE(ORDER BY salary ASC ROWS UNBOUNDED PRECEDING) AS lowest_sal FROM (SELECT * FROM employees WHERE … department_id = 90 ORDER BY employee_id); DEPARTMENT_ID LAST_NAME SALARY LOWEST_SAL … are ordered by employee_id in descending order, as in the next example, then the function returns a … different value: SELECT department_id, last_name,

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ROWNUM Pseudocolumn

ROWNUM PseudocolumnFor each row returned by a query, the ROWNUM pseudocolumn returns a number indicating the order in … query, as in this example: SELECT * FROM employees WHERE ROWNUM If an ORDER BY clause follows ROWNUM … in the same query, then the rows will be reordered by the ORDER BY clause. The results can vary … depending on the way the

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

LAST_VALUE

LAST_VALUEsalary: SELECT last_name, salary, hire_date, LAST_VALUE(hire_date) OVER (ORDER BY salary ROWS … department_id = 90 ORDER BY hire_date); LAST_NAME SALARY HIRE_DATE LV … descending order, as in the next example, then the function returns a different value: SELECT … last_name, salary, hire_date, LAST_VALUE(hire_date) OVER (ORDER

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CUME_DIST

CUME_DISTby CUME_DIST is >0 to SELECT CUME_DIST(15500,.05) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY salary, commission_pct … , salary, CUME_DIST() OVER (PARTITION BY job_id ORDER BY salary) AS cume_dist FROM employees WHERE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Lexical Conventions

Lexical Conventions) FROM employees WHERE department_id = 30 ORDER BY last_name; SELECT last_name, salary * 12 … , MONTHS_BETWEEN( hire_date, SYSDATE ) FROM employees ORDER BY last_name; Case is insignificant in reserved words

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ROW_NUMBER

ROW_NUMBER, the query must ensure a deterministic sort order. You cannot use ROW_NUMBER or any other analytic … numbers to each row in order of employee's hire date: SELECT department_id, last_name, employee_id … , ROW_NUMBER() OVER (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY employee_id) AS emp_id FROM employees … (SELECT last_name, ROW_NUMBER()

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Model Conditions

IS ANY Conditionthe illustration is_any_condition.gif The condition always returns a Boolean value of TRUE in order to … ) IGNORE NAV UNIQUE DIMENSION RULES UPSERT SEQUENTIAL ORDER ( s[ANY, 2000] = 0 ) ORDER BY country

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

FIRST

FIRSTinformation on syntax, semantics, and restrictions of the ORDER BY clause and OVER clause Purpose FIRST … commission: SELECT department_id, MIN(salary) KEEP (DENSE_RANK FIRST ORDER BY commission_pct) \"Worst … \", MAX(salary) KEEP (DENSE_RANK LAST ORDER BY commission_pct) \"Best\" FROM employees GROUP BY … , department_id, salary,

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Joins

Cartesian Productsspecific pair, then the optimizer may choose a join order that avoids producing an intermediate Cartesian product.

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Functions

Analytic Functionsare the last set of operations performed in a query except for the final ORDER BY clause. All joins … . Therefore, analytic functions can appear only in the select list or ORDER BY clause. Analytic … or ORDER BY clause. To filter the results of a query based on an analytic function, nest these … functions except PERCENTILE_CONT

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

PERCENT_RANK

PERCENT_RANKargument expressions and the expressions in the ORDER BY clause of the aggregate match by position … with a salary of $15,500 and a commission of 5%: SELECT PERCENT_RANK(15000,.05) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY … (PARTITION BY department_id ORDER BY salary DESC) AS pr FROM employees ORDER BY pr, salary; DEPARTMENT_ID

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

PERCENTILE_DISC

PERCENTILE_DISCpercentile value. This expression must be constant within each aggregate group. The ORDER BY clause … P, PERCENTILE_DISC sorts the values of the expression in the ORDER BY clause and returns the value … (ORDER BY salary DESC) OVER (PARTITION BY department_id) \"Percentile_Disc\", CUME_DIST() OVER … (PARTITION BY department_id

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Comments

LEADING Hintjoined first in the order specified because of dependencies in the join graph. If you specify two or

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SELECT

Restriction on the WAIT Clausedept_total > (SELECT avg FROM avg_cost) ORDER BY department_name; DEPARTMENT_NAME DEPT_TOTAL … employees WHERE department_id = 30 ORDER BY last_name; The following statement selects the name, job … department_id = 30) ORDER BY last_name; The following statement selects from subqueries in the FROM clause … ORDER

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CREATE TYPE BODY

CREATE TYPE BODYeither one MAP method or one ORDER method, regardless of how many MEMBER or STATIC methods you declare … . If you declare either a MAP or ORDER method, then you can compare object instances in SQL. If you do … MAP function can have no arguments other than the implicit SELF argument. ORDER MEMBER Clause … Specify ORDER

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

COVAR_POP

COVAR_POPsample schema oe: SELECT product_id, supplier_id, COVAR_POP(list_price, min_price) OVER (ORDER BY … product_id, supplier_id) AS CUM_COVP, COVAR_SAMP(list_price, min_price) OVER (ORDER BY product_id … , supplier_id) AS CUM_COVS FROM product_information p WHERE category_id = 29 ORDER BY product_id

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

User-Defined Operators

User-Defined Operatorscondition of a WHERE clause, or in ORDER BY clauses and GROUP BY clauses. However, you must have EXECUTE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

About SQL Conditions

Condition PrecedencePrecedence is the order in which Oracle Database evaluates different conditions in the same

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Oracle Compliance with FIPS 127-2

Oracle Compliance with FIPS 127-2list 120 (Note 5) Sort specifications in ORDER BY clause 6 255 (Note 5) Length of ORDER BY column … in an ORDER BY clause. However, the sum of the sizes of all the expressions in either a GROUP BY … clause or an ORDER BY clause is limited to the size of an Oracle data block (specified by the

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Model Expressions

Model Expressionsleft-hand side of the rule contains a FOR loop or an ORDER BY clause. The arguments in the OVER clause … -cell reference. When AUTOMATIC ORDER is specified in the model_rules_clause, a nested cell reference … DIMENSION RULES UPSERT SEQUENTIAL ORDER ( s[prod='Mouse Pad', year=2000] = s['Mouse Pad', 1998] + s … ['Mouse Pad', 1999],

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

RANK

RANKeach group. The constant argument expressions and the expressions in the ORDER BY clause of the … ,.05) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY salary, commission_pct) \"Rank\" FROM employees; Rank ---------- 105 … : SELECT RANK(15500) WITHIN GROUP (ORDER BY salary DESC) \"Rank of 15500\" FROM employees; Rank of 15500 … department_id, last_name,

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Sequence Pseudocolumns

How to Use Sequence Values: Example  This example adds a new order with the next order number to the master order table. It then … adds suborders with this number to the detail order table: INSERT INTO orders (order_id, order_date

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ITERATION_NUMBER

ITERATION_NUMBERRULES UPSERT SEQUENTIAL ORDER ITERATE(2) ( s['Mouse Pad', 2001 + ITERATION_NUMBER] = s['Mouse Pad … ', 1998 + ITERATION_NUMBER] ) ORDER BY country, prod, year; COUNTRY PROD YEAR S

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

PRESENTV

PRESENTVSEQUENTIAL ORDER ( s['Mouse Pad', 2001] = PRESENTV(s['Mouse Pad', 2000], s['Mouse Pad', 2000], 0 … ) ) ORDER BY country, prod, year; COUNTRY PROD YEAR S

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

VAR_POP

VAR_POP)) OVER (ORDER BY t.calendar_month_desc) \"Var_Pop\", VAR_SAMP(SUM(s.amount_sold)) OVER (ORDER BY

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Model Conditions

IS PRESENT Condition) MEASURES (sale s) IGNORE NAV UNIQUE DIMENSION RULES UPSERT SEQUENTIAL ORDER ( s['Mouse Pad', 2000] = CASE … WHEN s['Mouse Pad', 1999] IS PRESENT THEN s['Mouse Pad', 1999] ELSE 0 END ) ORDER BY country, prod

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CV

CVORDER ( s[FOR prod IN ('Mouse Pad', 'Standard Mouse'), 2001] = s[CV( ), 1999] + s[CV( ), 2000] ) ORDER

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

PRESENTNNV

PRESENTNNVDIMENSION RULES UPSERT SEQUENTIAL ORDER ( s['Mouse Pad', 2002] = PRESENTNNV(s['Mouse Pad', 2002], s … ['Mouse Pad', 2002], 10) ) ORDER BY country, prod, year; COUNTRY PROD YEAR S