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Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SET

SETSyntax Description of the illustration set.gif Purpose SET converts a nested table into a set by … table the unique elements of the cust_address_ntab nested table column: SELECT customer_id, SET

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Set Operators

Set OperatorsSet operators combine the results of two component queries into a single result. Queries containing … set operators are called compound queries. Table 4-4 lists SQL set operators. They are fully … Operators\". Table 4-4 Set Operators Operator Returns UNION All distinct rows selected by either

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SET ROLE

SET ROLEPurpose Use the SET ROLE statement to enable and disable roles for your current session. You cannot … the session, the user or an application can use the SET ROLE statement any number of times to change … roles that you name in the SET ROLE statement. Syntax set_role::= Description of the illustration … : SET

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SET TRANSACTION

SET TRANSACTIONPurpose Use the SET TRANSACTION statement to establish the current transaction as read-only or read … performed by a SET TRANSACTION statement affect only your current transaction, not other users or … language (DDL) statement. See Also: COMMIT and ROLLBACK Prerequisites If you use a SET TRANSACTION … SET TRANSACTION

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SET CONSTRAINT[S]

SET CONSTRAINT[S]Purpose Use the SET CONSTRAINTS statement to specify, for a particular transaction, whether a … or more integrity constraints. ALL Specify ALL to set all deferrable constraints for this … : You can verify the success of deferrable constraints prior to committing them by issuing a SET … statement: SET CONSTRAINTS

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Character Set Support

Character Set SupportOracle supports most national, international, and vendor-specific encoded character set standards … Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide. Unicode is a universal encoded character set that lets you … store information from any language using a single character set. Unicode is required by modern … can store Unicode data in

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Multiset Conditions

IS A SET ConditionUse IS A SET conditions to test whether a specified nested table is composed of unique elements … is a set, even if it is a nested table of length zero, and FALSE otherwise. is_a_set_conditions … SET; CUSTOMER_ID CUST_ADDRESS_NTAB(STREET_ADDRESS, POSTAL_CODE, CITY, STATE_PROVINCE, COUNTRY_ID

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Statements: SAVEPOINT to UPDATE

19 SQL Statements: SAVEPOINT to UPDATEThis chapter contains the following SQL statements: SAVEPOINT SELECT SET CONSTRAINT[S] SET ROLE SET TRANSACTION TRUNCATE UPDATE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

NLS_CHARSET_ID

NLS_CHARSET_IDcharacter set ID number corresponding to character set name string. The string argument is a run-time … VARCHAR2 value. The string value ' CHAR_CS ' returns the database character set ID number of the server … . The string value ' NCHAR_CS ' returns the national character set ID number of the server. Invalid

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Functions

Hierarchical FunctionThe hierarchical function applies hierarchical path information to a result set. SYS_CONNECT_BY_PATH

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

NLS_CHARSET_NAME

NLS_CHARSET_NAMEname of the character set corresponding to ID number number. The character set name is returned as a … VARCHAR2 value in the database character set. If number is not recognized as a valid character set ID … , then this function returns . Examples The following example returns the character set

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CONVERT

CONVERTone character set to another. The datatype of the returned value is VARCHAR2. The char argument is … NCLOB. The dest_char_set argument is the name of the character set to which char is converted. The … source_char_set argument is the name of the character set in which char is stored in the database … . The default value is the

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Functions

NLS Character FunctionsThe NLS character functions return information about the character set. The NLS character functions

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Functions

Collection Functions: CARDINALITY COLLECT POWERMULTISET POWERMULTISET_BY_CARDINALITY SET

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_NCHAR (character)

TO_NCHAR (character)(character) converts a character string, CHAR, VARCHAR2, CLOB, or NCLOB value to the national character set … function with a USING clause in the national character set. See Also: \"Data Conversion\" and TRANSLATE … national character set: SELECT TO_NCHAR(cust_last_name) FROM customers WHERE customer_id=103

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Functions

General Comparison FunctionsThe general comparison functions determine the greatest and or least value from a set of values. The general comparison functions are: GREATEST LEAST

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_CLOB

TO_CLOBLOB data from the national character set to the database character set. Examples The following … column, replacing existing data in that column. UPDATE PRINT_MEDIA SET AD_FINALTEXT = TO_CLOB (AD_FLTEXTN);

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_NCHAR (datetime)

TO_NCHAR (datetime)character set to the national character set. Examples The following example converts the order_date of … all orders whose status is 9 to the national character set: SELECT TO_NCHAR(order_date) FROM orders

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CURRENT_DATE

CURRENT_DATESET TIME_ZONE = '-5:0'; ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'DD-MON-YYYY HH24:MI:SS'; SELECT … --------------- -------------------- -05:00 29-MAY-2000 13:14:03 ALTER SESSION SET TIME_ZONE = '-8:0'; SELECT SESSIONTIMEZONE, CURRENT_DATE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_NCLOB

TO_NCLOBcharacter set of char from the database character set to the national character set. Examples The following

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Types of SQL Statements

Session Control Statements… The session control statements are: ALTER SESSION SET ROLE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LEN

NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LENthe width of the column. The char_set_id argument is the character set ID of the column. Examples The … a multibyte character set: SELECT NLS_CHARSET_DECL_LEN (200, nls_charset_id('ja16eucfixed')) FROM

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TRANSLATE ... USING

TRANSLATE ... USINGchar into the character set specified for conversions between the database character set and the … national character set. Note: The TRANSLATE... USING function is supported primarily for ANSI … converting data to the database or national character set. TO_CHAR and TO_NCHAR can take as arguments a … database character

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

About SQL Expressions

About SQL Expressionscompared. If NLS_COMP is set to LINGUISTIC for your database, then all entities in this chapter will be … interpreted according to the rules specified by the NLS_SORT parameter. If NLS_COMP is not set to … explicitly set. If it is not set explicitly, it is derived from NLS_LANGUAGE. Please refer to Oracle … ORDER

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

LTRIM

LTRIMall of the characters contained in set. If you do not specify set, it defaults to a single blank. If … scanning char from its first character and removes all characters that appear in set until reaching a … character not in set and then returns the result. Both char and set can be any of the datatypes

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

RTRIM

RTRIMall of the characters that appear in set. This function is useful for formatting the output of a … query. If you do not specify set, then it defaults to a single blank. If char is a character literal … , then you must enclose it in single quotes. RTRIM works similarly to LTRIM. Both char and set can be

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatypes

NCHAR Datatypedefine the column length in characters. You define the national character set when you create your … database. The maximum length of a column is determined by the national character set definition. Width … translated_description column of the pm.product_descriptions table with a national character set string: SELECT

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ASCII

ASCIIin the database character set of the first character of char. char can be of datatype CHAR, VARCHAR2 … , NCHAR, or NVARCHAR2. The value returned is of datatype NUMBER. If your database character set is 7 … -bit ASCII, then this function returns an ASCII value. If your database character set is EBCDIC Code

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

LAST

LASTLAST are very similar functions. Both are aggregate and analytic functions that operate on a set of … values from a set of rows that rank as the FIRST or LAST with respect to a given sorting specification … . If only one row ranks as FIRST or LAST, the aggregate operates on the set with only one element

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_NCHAR (number)

TO_NCHAR (number)(number) converts n to a string in the national character set. The value n can be of type NUMBER … character set: SELECT TO_NCHAR(customer_id) \"NCHAR_Customer_ID\" FROM orders WHERE order_status > 9; NCHAR_Customer_ID ----------------- 102 103 148 149 148

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ALTER SYSTEM

System Parameters and ALTER SYSTEMyou cannot set them in a pfile or spfile. However, you can set them using an ALTER SYSTEM statement

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ASCIISTR

ASCIISTR, or an expression that resolves to a string, in any character set and returns an ASCII version of … the string in the database character set. Non-ASCII characters are converted to the form \\xxxx

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ALTER SESSION

Initialization Parameters and ALTER SESSIONDatabase Reference. When you set these parameters using ALTER SESSION, the value you set persists … only for the duration of the current session. A number of parameters that can be set using ALTER … SESSION are not initialization parameters. That is, you can set them only with ALTER SESSION, not in an … full description

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SYSDATE

SYSDATEtime set for the operating system on which the database resides. The datatype of the returned value is … and time set for the operating system of your local database. You cannot use this function in the

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

RAWTONHEX

RAWTONHEXcharacter set. Examples The following hypothetical example returns the hexadecimal equivalent of a

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatype Comparison Rules

Symbol Decimal value Symbol Decimal value+ 43 _ 95, 44 ' 96 - 45 a-z 97-122. 46 { 123 / 47 | 124 0-9 48-57 } 125: 58 ~ 126 Table 2-9 EBCDIC Character Set

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

ROWIDTONCHAR

ROWIDTONCHARto NVARCHAR2 datatype. The result of this conversion is always in the national character set and is

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SAVEPOINT

SAVEPOINTon rolling back transactions SET TRANSACTION for information on setting characteristics of the … the salary for Greene: UPDATE employees SET salary = 7000 WHERE last_name = 'Banda'; SAVEPOINT … banda_sal; UPDATE employees SET salary = 12000 WHERE last_name = 'Greene'; SAVEPOINT greene_sal; SELECT … SUM(salary) FROM employees;

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

LENGTH

LENGTHthe length of char. LENGTH calculates length using characters as defined by the input character set … CLOB and NCLOB data in a multibyte character set. Examples The following example uses the LENGTH … function using a single-byte database character set: SELECT LENGTH('CANDIDE') \"Length in characters … database character set.

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

About SQL Operators

About SQL Operatorsand compared. If NLS_COMP is set to LINGUISTIC for your database, then all entities in this chapter … set to LINGUISTIC, then the functions are interpreted without regard to the NLS_SORT setting … . NLS_SORT can be explicitly set. If it is not set explicitly, it is derived from NLS_LANGUAGE. Please refer

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Types of SQL Statements

Transaction Control Statementsstatements are: COMMIT ROLLBACK SAVEPOINT SET TRANSACTION All transaction control statements, except

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

VAR_SAMP

VAR_SAMPinformation on syntax, semantics, and restrictions Purpose VAR_SAMP returns the sample variance of a set of … numbers after discarding the s in this set. You can use it as both an aggregate and analytic … information on implicit conversion If the function is applied to an empty set, then it returns . The … ) This function is similar

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Expression Lists

Expression Listsor more sets of expressions where each set contains one or more comma-delimited expressions. In the … latter case (multiple sets of expressions): Each set is bounded by parentheses Each set must … contain the same number of expressions The number of expressions in each set must match the number of … -delimited

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Oracle Support for Optional Features of SQL/Foundation:2003

Feature ID FeatureF442 Mixed column references in set functions F491 Constraint management F555 Enhanced seconds … Deferrable constraints F731 INSERT column privileges F781 Self-referencing operations F801 Full set

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

DROP CONTEXT

DROP CONTEXTcontext namespace does not invalidate any context under that namespace that has been set for a user … session. However, the context will be invalid when the user next attempts to set that context. See

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Oracle Compliance To Core SQL:2003

Feature ID Featureprivileges E091 Set functions E101 Basic data manipulation E111 Single row SELECT statement E131 Null … E152 Basic SET TRANSACTION statement E153 Updatable queries with subqueries E161 SQL comments using

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

UPPER

UPPERmapping defined for the underlying character set. For linguistic-sensitive uppercase, please refer

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatypes

ANYDATASETThis type contains a description of a given type plus a set of data instances of that type

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatypes

CHAR Datatypein characters. A character is technically a code point of the database character set. Its size can … range from 1 byte to 4 bytes, depending on the database character set. The BYTE and CHAR qualifiers … to set length semantics and that you use the BYTE and CHAR qualifiers only when necessary to … Support Guide for more information

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

SQL Statements: ALTER CLUSTER to ALTER JAVA

10 SQL Statements: ALTER CLUSTER to ALTER JAVAvarious types of SQL statements and then describes the first set (in alphabetical order) of SQL

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

DBTIMEZONE

DBTIMEZONEassumes that the database time zone is set to UTC time zone: SELECT DBTIMEZONE FROM DUAL; DBTIME ------ +00:00

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

DUMP

DUMPin the database character set. For the datatype corresponding to each code, see Table 2-2 … default, the return value contains no character set information. To retrieve the character set name of … result in octal and provides the character set name of expr. The arguments start_position and length

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Introduction to Oracle SQL

1 Introduction to Oracle SQLStructured Query Language (SQL) is the set of statements with which all programs and users access

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

TO_CHAR (character)

TO_CHAR (character)) converts NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, or NCLOB data to the database character set. The value returned … set, if the LOB value to be converted is larger than the target type, then the database returns an … pm.print_media table to the database character set: SELECT TO_CHAR(ad_sourcetext) FROM print_media WHERE

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

Datatypes

VARCHAR2 Datatypecharacter set. CHAR and BYTE qualifiers override the setting of the NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS parameter, which … NLS_LENGTH_SEMANTICS parameter to set length semantics and that you use the BYTE and CHAR qualifiers only when … . See Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information on character set support. See

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

UNISTR

UNISTRliteral or an expression that resolves to character data and returns it in the national character set … . The national character set of the database can be either AL16UTF16 or UTF8. UNISTR provides support … character set: SELECT UNISTR('abc\\00e5\\00f1\\00f6') FROM DUAL; UNISTR ------ abcåñö

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

CURRENT_TIMESTAMPthe session time zone: ALTER SESSION SET TIME_ZONE = '-5:0'; ALTER SESSION SET NLS_DATE_FORMAT = 'DD … 01.17.56.917550 PM -05:00 ALTER SESSION SET TIME_ZONE = '-8:0'; SELECT SESSIONTIMEZONE, CURRENT_TIMESTAMP

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

COVAR_SAMP

COVAR_SAMPinformation on syntax, semantics, and restrictions Purpose COVAR_SAMP returns the sample covariance of a set … information on numeric precedence Oracle Database applies the function to the set of ( expr1, expr2 … type NUMBER. If the function is applied to an empty set, then it returns . See Also: \"About SQL

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

CHR

CHRequivalent to n as a VARCHAR2 value in either the database character set or, if you specify USING … NCHAR_CS, the national character set. For single-byte character sets, if n > 256, then Oracle Database … -based machine with the database character set defined as WE8ISO8859P1: SELECT CHR(67)||CHR(65)||CHR(84 … WE8EBCDIC1047 character

Database SQL Reference, 10g Release 2 (10.2)

The UNION [ALL], INTERSECT, MINUS Operators

The UNION [ALL], INTERSECT, MINUS OperatorsYou can combine multiple queries using the set operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS … . All set operators have equal precedence. If a SQL statement contains multiple set operators, then … , then the returned values have datatype NUMBER. In queries using set operators, Oracle does not … returns an error: