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How the CBO Evaluates the UNION and UNION ALL Operators → using UNION ALL. When the Optimizer Uses UNION or UNION ALL The optimizer uses UNION or UNION ALL … when the SQL statement contains UNION or UNION ALL clauses. Example 2-30 shows a query without a UNION … clause. The query finds customers who are new
Tips for Fast Refresh with UNION ALL → You can use fast refresh for materialized views that use the UNION ALL operator by providing a … UNION ALL operator such as the following: CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW union_all_mv AS SELECT x.rowid AS … r1, y.rowid AS r2, a, b, c FROM x, y WHERE x.a = y.b UNION ALL SELECT p.rowid, r.rowid, a, c, d … fast_rf_union_all_mv AS SELECT
The UNION [ALL], INTERSECT, MINUS Operators → You can combine multiple queries using the set operators UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS … valid on columns of type BLOB, CLOB, BFILE, VARRAY, or nested table. The UNION, INTERSECT, and MINUS … results with each of the set operators. UNION Example The following statement combines the results with … the
SDO_AGGR_UNION Returns a geometry object that is the topological union OR operation of the specified… → See the usage information about spatial aggregate functions in Section 1.9. Most of these aggregate functions accept a parameter of type MDSYS.SDOAGGRTYPE, which is described in Section 1.9.1.
QSM-02170 tables must be identical across the UNION operator → Cause: A materialized view using the UNION operator was specified and the tables on each side of … the UNION operator do not match. Fast refresh is not supported in this context. Action: Restructure … the materialized view query such that the respective sides of the UNION operator have the same table.
PCC-02339 host variables cannot be of union types → Cause: A C union as a host variable cannot be used. Action: This error message is followed by … another message that gives the line and column of the reference to the illegal union. Recode, using a struct or individual scalar host variables.
QSM-02179 MV with UNION ALL requires compatibility >= 9.2.0 → Cause: The setting of the COMPATIBLE initialization parameter is less than 9.2.0. Action: Set COMPATIBLE to 9.2.0 or higher.
PCC-02338 structure contains a nested struct or union → Cause: A structure used as a host variable may not have structures or unions nested within it. Action: Rewrite the variable declaration.
PLS-00398 wrong number of columns in UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS expression → Cause: The SELECT clauses to the left and right of a UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS expression do not
QSM-02178 MV has a view with UNION ALL that is not fast refreshable → Cause: The materialized view has a view whose definition involves a UNION ALL query that does not … referenced in the materialized view satisfies conditions for fast refresh of a UNION ALL materialized view.
QSM-02150 select lists must be identical across the UNION operator → Cause: You have specified a materialized view using the UNION operator and the respective queries … on each side of the UNION operator do not have the same select list. The RELATED_NAME column shows … such that the respective sides of the UNION operator have identical select lists.
QSM-02176 MV with UNION ALL in a view is too complex → Cause: If a materialized view has a view whose definition involves a UNION ALL query, then the
PLS-00399 different types of columns in UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS expression → Cause: The select lists to the left and right of a UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS expression select at
QSM-02171 the materialized view has a join operation in the outer UNION block → Cause: Fast refresh is not supported if a materialized view having the UNION operator contains a
QSM-02175 some query block in UNION ALL MV is not fast refreshable → Cause: For a materialized view with UNION ALL to be fast refreshable, each query block must conform … query block in the UNION ALL to ensure it is either a materialized view with joins or aggregates.
QSM-02177 MV with UNION ALL in a view must match the view's SELECT list → Cause: If a materialized view has a view whose definition involves a UNION ALL query, then the … SELECT * when defining a materialized view with a UNION ALL in a view.
QSM-02123 subquery and UNION materialized views must be primary key materialized views → materialized view and uses subqueries or the union operator in this context. Action: Re-create the materialized view as a primary key materialized view.
QSM-02174 the materialized view does not have a UNION ALL marker column → Cause: For a materialized view with UNION ALL to be fast refreshable, it must have a UNION ALL … distinct values in each query block. Action: Add a UNION ALL marker column to each query block in the UNION ALL query defining the materialized view.
PLS-01705 table specified by a cursor not updatable if cursor specification has a UNION or ORDER_BY → UNION or ORDER_BY. Action: Refer to ANSI document ANSI X3.135-1992 for details.
SDO_AGGR_UNION → ; Description Returns a geometry object that is the topological union ( OR operation) of the specified geometry objects. Parameters
Nested Structures and Unions → SQL SELECT empno, sal, comm, deptno INTO:emp_record FROM emp; Also, you cannot use a C union as a … host structure, nor can you nest a union in a structure that is to be used as a host structure.
LEAST_UBOUND with Inverse Groups → upper bound is the highest level, the union of the compartments in the labels, and t he union of the … groups in the labels. With inverse groups, the least upper bound is the highest level, the union of the
SQL Features Where LOBs Cannot be Used → clobCol UNION, INTERSECT, MINUS Note: UNION ALL works for LOBs SELECT clobCol1 from tab1 UNION SELECT
Calculating Subtotals Without CUBE → Just as for ROLLUP, multiple SELECT statements combined with UNION ALL statements could provide the … would mean issuing SELECT statements linked with UNION ALL. So many SELECT statements yield … columns used in a CUBE clause, the greater the savings compared to the UNION ALL approach.
Set Operators → described, including restrictions on these operators, in "The UNION [ALL], INTERSECT, MINUS Operators … ". Table 3-4 Set Operators Operator Returns UNION All rows selected by either query UNION ALL All rows
How the CBO Executes Compound Queries → of its component queries, and then combines the resulting row sources with the union, intersection … and 2-51 illustrate the process. The query in Example 2-49 uses the UNION ALL operator to select all … Executes Compound Queries with UNION ALL SELECT part FROM orders1 UNION ALL SELECT part FROM orders2 … ; Figure 2-7
Materialized Views with Set Operators → has the UNION ALL operator at the top level and each query block in the UNION ALL, meets the … materialized view must include a constant column (known as a UNION ALL marker) that has a distinct value … "Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views With the UNION ALL Operator" for detailed restrictions on
SDO_GEOM.SDO_XOR Returns a geometry object that is the topological symmetric difference XOR operation… → SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION Returns a geometry object that is the topological union (OR operation) of two
Operations That Can Be Parallelized → example, GROUP BY, NOT IN, SELECT DISTINCT, UNION, UNION ALL, CUBE, and ROLLUP, as well as aggregate and table functions.
Recording the Locations of Datafiles, Control Files, and Online Redo Logs → redo log files for the database: SELECT NAME FROM V$DATAFILE UNION ALL SELECT MEMBER FROM V$LOGFILE … UNION ALL SELECT NAME FROM V$CONTROLFILE; Sample output follows: NAME
GROUPING SETS Expression → in the same query. GROUP BY computes all the groupings specified and combines them with UNION ALL … , country_id ) This statement is equivalent to: GROUP BY channel_desc UNION ALL GROUP BY … calendar_month_desc UNION ALL country_id Table 18-3 shows grouping sets specification and equivalent GROUP BY … , c) GROUP BY a UNION
SDO_GEOM.SDO_UNION → that is the topological union ( OR operation) of two geometry objects. Parameters
8 SQL Queries and Subqueries → Queries and Subqueries Creating Simple Queries Hierarchical Queries The UNION [ALL], INTERSECT, MINUS
1.9.1 SDOAGGRTYPE Object Type → of a spatial aggregate function. Figure 1-12 shows a spatial aggregate union ( SDO_AGGR_UNION … distance between the geometries. Figure 1-12 Tolerance in an Aggregate Union Operation Description of … the illustration tol_union.gif In the first aggregate union operation in Figure 1-12, where the … of two rectangles. In the second
MdmHierarchy Class → defined by a database administrator using the OLAP Metadata APIs. Union MdmHierarchy, which … structures is a union MdmHierarchy for time that has two regions, one for the calendar year and … another for the fiscal year. Each region is a level MdmHierarchy. A union MdmHierarchy has an … getHierarchyType method is UNION_HIERARCHY.
Composite Columns → instead equivalent to the following groupings of a UNION ALL: ( year, quarter, month, day ), ( year … BY a, b, c UNION ALL GROUP BY a UNION ALL GROUP BY () Here, (b, c) are treated as a unit and rollup … following: GROUP BY ROLLUP(a, b, c) This would be the following: GROUP BY a, b, c UNION ALL GROUP BY … a, b
Merging Labels with the MERGE_LABEL Function → second character indicates whether to merge using the union or the intersection of the compartments in … the two labels. The third character indicates whether to merge using the union or the intersection of … varchar2(1) L Minimum level First (Level) union_fmt CONSTANT varchar2(1) U Union of the two labels … (compartments) and
Query Rewrite Using Complex Materialized Views → a materialized view complex are: set operators ( UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, MINUS ), START WITH
Applying the Object Model to Remote Tables → ' UNION ALL SELECT d.deptno, d.deptname, address_t(d.deptstreet,d.deptcity,d.deptstate,d.deptzip), CAST … UNION ALL since we cannot have two employees working in more than one department. If we had to deal … with that eventuality, we could use a UNION of the rows. However, one caveat in using the UNION
Getting the Related Objects for an MdmDimension → … The following is an example of how you can get the level MdmHierarchy objects for a union … MdmDimensionDefinition Its regions. That is, if it is a union MdmHierarchy, the code obtains its component … default level MdmHierarchy, if it is a union MdmHierarchy. Methods are also available for obtaining other
Query Rewrite When Using GROUP BY Extensions → uses two strategies for rewrite: grouping match and UNION ALL rewrite. First, Oracle tries grouping … , Oracle tries a general rewrite mechanism called UNION ALL rewrite. Oracle first represents the query … with the extended GROUP BY clause as an equivalent UNION ALL query. Every grouping of the original … query is placed in a
Steps in Discovering the Metadata → MdmDimension find out whether it is a union MdmHierarchy, a level MdmHierarchy, an MdmLevel, or an
AggregateGeometry → Chapter 12. Examples The following example returns the union of the first three geometry objects in the
Non-Supported SQL Functionality for LOBs → MAX, MIN, GREATEST and LEAST SELECT DISTINCT, GROUP BY, ORDER BY (SORT), UNION, INTERSECT, MINUS JOIN
Dimensionality of Expressions → An expression is dimensioned by a union of the dimensions of all the variables, dimensions … ". Function In most cases, the union of the dimensions of its input arguments Unless otherwise noted in
Sorting Query Results → operators UNION, INTERSECT, MINUS, or UNION ALL ), the ORDER BY clause must use positions, rather
Creating a Primary Source that Represents a Default Hierarchy → MdmDimension is a union dimension by checking to see if it has an MdmUnionDimensionDefinition. If the … union dimension. Example 6-17 Retrieving a Default Hierarchy // method that gets all of the Regions
TO_TIMESTAMP_TZ → column in a UNION operation as TIMESTAMP WITH LOCAL TIME ZONE using the sample tables … ) order_date FROM order_items UNION SELECT order_id, to_number(), order_date FROM orders; ORDER_ID
Transforming ORs into Compound Queries with the RBO → optimizer transforms it into an equivalent compound query that uses the UNION ALL set operator if this … available With the RBO, the optimizer makes this UNION ALL transformation, because each component query of
Operator Precedence → those outside. SQL also supports set operators ( UNION, UNION ALL, INTERSECT, and MINUS ), which
How the Optimizer Performs Operations → Constants How the CBO Evaluates the UNION and UNION ALL Operators How the CBO Evaluates the LIKE Operator
Refresh Options → ), AND (a) ". Restrictions on Fast Refresh on Materialized Views With the UNION ALL Operator … Materialized views with the UNION ALL set operator support the REFRESH FAST option if the following conditions … are satisfied: The defining query must have the UNION ALL operator at the top level. The UNION ALL … operator
Hints for Query Transformations → compound query using the UNION ALL set operator. Generally, this transformation occurs only if the … to be transformed into a corresponding query with UNION ALL of individual groupings … to SELECT year, quarter, month, sum(sales) FROM T GROUP BY year, quarter, month UNION ALL SELECT … year, quarter, , sum(sales) FROM T GROUP BY
setAccess() → persistent handle in the xmlihdl union, which has two choices, a generic pointer (void *) or an … ) input handle union XML-READF is the reader function; it reads data from an open source into a … automatically. Parameter IN / OUT Description ctx (IN) XML context ih (IN) input handle union dest (OUT
ORA-36644 XSDUNION07 CONCAT dimension workspace object contains a previously detected leaf dimension. → Cause: Union dimension contains a previously detected leaf dimension.
ORA-36630 (XSDUNION00) An empty CONCAT dimension list was specified. → Cause: An empty union DIMENSION list was specified. Action: Specify a valid list of dimensions when defining a union DIMENSION.
GREATEST_LBOUND with Inverse Groups → compartments in the labels and the union of inverse groups in the labels. For example, with inverse
Executing Trusted Stored Program Units → policy privileges in force are a union of the invoking user's privileges and the program unit's