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Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Sizing the Buffer Cachebuffer pool is small to begin with. To use V$DB_CACHE_ADVICE, the parameter DB_CACHE_ADVICE should … use of additional buffers that contribute little or nothing to the cache hit ratio. In the example … delta of these statistics over an interval while your application is running, then use them to

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Auditing in a Multi-Tier Environmentenables auditing of actions taken on behalf of the client. To do so, you use the BY proxy clause in

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Controlling the Growth and Size of the Audit Trailexecution of audited statements To control the growth of the audit trail, you can use the following

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Auditing Administrative Usersbe fully audited. Use the AUDIT_SYS_OPERATIONS initialization parameter to specify if user SYS is … who connect as SYSDBA, Oracle recommends that DBAs rarely use this connection and only when

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Configuring the Reserved PoolAlthough Oracle breaks down very large requests for memory into smaller chunks, on some systems there might still be a requirement to find a contiguous chunk (for example, over 5 KB) of memory. (The default minimum reserved pool allocation is 4,400 bytes.) If there is not enough free space in the shared pool, then Oracle must search for and free enough memory to satisfy this request. This operation

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Setting Auditing Optionsspecific statements on specific objects, such as ALTER TABLE on the emp table To use the AUDIT … statement to set statement and privilege options, you must have the AUDIT SYSTEM privilege. To use it to set … options causes all subsequent database sessions to use these options; existing sessions continue using … audit use

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Keep Audited Information Manageableminimizes the size of the audit trail. Use the following general guidelines when devising an auditing

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Considering Multiple Buffer Poolsbatch job only once a day). Multiple buffer pools let you address these differences. You can use a … statement to use a more selective index. If the SQL statement is tuned, you can move the large segment … for that instance. Using Multiple Buffer Pools To define a default buffer pool for an object, use

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Log Buffer Statistics$SYSSTAT. Use the following query to monitor these statistics over a period of time while your

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Configuring and Using the Shared Pool and Large Pool… Proper use and sizing of the shared pool can reduce resource consumption in at least four ways: Parse … applications use the same pool of SQL statements and dictionary resources. I/O resources are saved, because

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

26 Auditing Database UseThis chapter describes how to use the Oracle database server's auditing facilities, and contains

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Understanding Memory Allocation IssuesOracle stores information in memory caches and on disk. Memory access is much faster than disk access. Disk scans (physical I/O) take a significant amount of time, compared with memory access, typically in the order of 10 milliseconds. Physical I/O also increases the CPU resources required, because of the path length in device drivers and operating system event schedulers. For this reason, it is more

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Sizing the Log BufferApplications that insert, modify, or delete large volumes of data usually need to change the default log buffer size. The log buffer is small compared with the total SGA size, and a modestly sized log buffer can significantly enhance throughput on systems that perform many updates. A reasonable first estimate for such systems is to make the log buffer 1 MB. On most systems, sizing the log buffer larger

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Guidelines for Auditing Normal Database Activityactivities, use the following guidelines: Audit only pertinent actions. To avoid cluttering meaningful

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

What Information is Contained in the Audit Trail?Oracle can write records to either the database audit trail, an operating system file, or both. This section describes the makeup of this audit trail information.

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Interpreting and Using the Buffer Cache Advisory Statisticsbasis, there might be little purpose in keeping the block in memory for very long following its use. A … are doing full table scans or operations that do not use the buffer cache. Increasing Memory … specifies the size of the default cache for the database's standard block size. To create and use

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Using CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIMEIf you have no library cache misses, then you might be able to accelerate execution calls by setting the value of the initialization parameter CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME to true. This parameter specifies whether a cursor can be deallocated from the library cache to make room for a new SQL statement. CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME has the following values meanings: If CURSOR_SPACE_FOR_TIME is set to false (the default),

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Application Considerationsneeds. Conversely, tuning the application's use of the caches can greatly reduce resource requirements … . Efficient use of the Oracle memory caches also reduces the load on related resources, such as the

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Operating System Memory Usefit into real memory. On most operating systems, paging reduces performance. Use the operating

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Interpreting Shared Pool StatisticsShared pool statistics indicate adjustments that can be made. The following sections describe some of your choices. Increasing Memory Allocation Increasing the amount of memory for the shared pool increases the amount of memory available to both the library cache and the dictionary cache. Allocating Additional Memory for the Library Cache To ensure that shared SQL areas remain in the cache after their

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Protecting the Audit Trailadministrators only. To audit changes made to the database audit trail, use the following statement: AUDIT … administrator privileges, which itself has protection against unauthorized use.

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Creating the Audit Trail ViewsThe following views (except STMT_AUDIT_OPTION_MAP ) are created by the CATALOG.SQL and CATAUDIT.SQL scripts: View Description STMT_AUDIT_OPTION_MAP Contains information about auditing option type codes. Created by the SQL.BSQ script at CREATE DATABASE time. AUDIT_ACTIONS Contains descriptions for audit trail action type codes ALL_DEF_AUDIT_OPTS Contains default object-auditing options that will be

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Configuring and Using the Buffer Cacheoperations that use the buffer cache, this section explains the following: Using the Buffer Cache

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Guidelines for AuditingUse the Database or Operating System Audit Trail Keep Audited Information Manageable Guidelines for

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Guidelines for Auditing Suspicious Database ActivityWhen you audit to monitor suspicious database activity, use the following guidelines: Audit

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Managing the Audit TrailThis section describes various aspects of managing audit trail information, and contains the following topics: Enabling and Disabling Auditing Setting Auditing Options Auditing in a Multi-Tier Environment Turning Off Audit Options Controlling the Growth and Size of the Audit Trail Protecting the Audit Trail

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Viewing Database Audit Trail Informationavailable. They must be created by you. You can later delete them if you decide not to use auditing.

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Buffer Pool Hit RatiosThe data in V$SYSSTAT reflects the logical and physical reads for all buffer pools within one set of statistics. To determine the hit ratio for the buffer pools individually, you must query the V$BUFFER_POOL_STATISTICS view. This view maintains statistics for each pool on the number of logical reads and writes. The buffer pool hit ratio can be determined using the following formula: hit ratio = 1

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Using the Shared Pool Effectively: Oracle9i Data Warehousing Guide In an OLTP system, there are a number of ways to ensure efficient use of … Connections Single-User Logon and Qualified Table Reference Use of PL/SQL Avoid Performing DDL Cache … Sequence Numbers Cursor Access and Management Efficient use of the shared pool in high-concurrency … parsing. Soft parses

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Shared Pool Conceptscode. This is known as a soft parse, or a library cache hit. If Oracle is unable to use existing … , and comments. For example, the following statements cannot use the same shared SQL area:SELECT * FROM … only in literals cannot use the same shared SQL area. For example, the following SQL statements do not … statements must match

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Fine-Grained AuditingIn the auditing methods discussed so far, a fixed set of facts is recorded in the audit trail. Additionally, audit options can only be set to monitor access of objects or privileges. No support has been discussed for obtaining more specific information about the environment or query results, nor any mechanism to specify audit conditions in order to minimize false audits. For these purposes, Oracle

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Configuring and Using the Redo Log BufferServer processes making changes to data blocks in the buffer cache generate redo data into the log buffer. LGWR begins writing to copy entries from the redo log buffer to the online redo log if any of the following are true: The log buffer becomes one third full. LGWR is posted by a server process performing a COMMIT or ROLLBACK. DBWR posts LGWR to do so. When LGWR writes redo entries from the redo

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Configuring and Using the Java PoolIf your application uses Java, you should investigate whether you need to modify the default configuration for the Java pool. See Also: Oracle9i Java Developer's Guide

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Iteration During ConfigurationConfiguring memory allocation involves distributing available memory to Oracle memory structures, depending on the needs of the application. The distribution of memory to Oracle structures can affect the amount of physical I/O necessary for Oracle to operate. Having a good first initial memory configuration also provides an indication of whether the I/O system is effectively configured. It might be

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Keeping Large Objects to Prevent Agingloaded and aged, the free memory can become fragmented. Use the PL/SQL package DBMS_SHARED_POOL to … the loss of sequence numbers. To use the DBMS_SHARED_POOL package to pin a SQL or PL/SQL area

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

CURSOR_SHARING for Existing Applicationsplans is outweighed by the improvements in cursor sharing. When to use CURSOR_SHARING The … were generated with CURSOR_SHARING set to EXACT. To use stored outlines with CURSOR_SHARING = FORCE or

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Turning Off Audit OptionsThe NOAUDIT statement turns off the various audit options of Oracle. Use it to reset statement and … the scope of the statement and privilege audit options. You can use a NOAUDIT statement to disable an … this NOAUDIT statement is issued continue to use the default object audit options in effect at the

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

KEEP Poolconsistent gets from the older values, and use the results to compute the hit ratio. A buffer pool

Administrator's Guide, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Auditing Database Use

Enabling and Disabling AuditingAny authorized database user can set statement, privilege, and object auditing options at any time, but Oracle does not generate audit information for the database audit trail unless database auditing is enabled. The security administrator is normally responsible for controlling auditing. This section discusses the initialization parameters that enable and disable auditing. Note: All of the initialization

Performance Tuning Guide and Reference, 9i Release 2 (9.2.0.2)

Memory Configuration and Use

Using the Large Pooldifferent pool, then Oracle can use the shared pool primarily for caching shared SQL and not incur the … pools, observe UGA use for a typical user and multiply this amount by the estimated number of user … sessions. Even though use of shared memory increases with shared servers, the total amount of memory … use