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Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide - Contents

ContentsRelated Documents Conventions Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide … Partitioning VLDB and Partitioning Partitioning As the Foundation for Information Lifecycle Management

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

VLDB and Partitioning

VLDB and PartitioningA very large database has no minimum absolute size. Although a VLDB is a database like smaller … databases, there are specific challenges in managing a VLDB. These challenges are related to the sheer … challenges surrounding backup and recovery for a VLDB. Storage is a key component of a very large … database. Storage Management

Database Readme, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Documentation Addendum

4.9 Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning GuideNote the following changes in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide: It was incorrectly

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION HintUNION and UNION ALL operations. See Also: \"NO_PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hint\" Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about using this hint

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

NO_PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hintprocessing of UNION and UNION ALL operations. See Also: \"PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hint\" Oracle Database VLDB

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning GuideThis chapter describes changes to Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide. Changes for Very

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

ENABLE_PARALLEL_DML HintALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DML statement. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Indexes

21.2.9 Consider Parallelizing Index Creationcreation. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about using parallel execution

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

Partitioned Indexes\" Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide and Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for more information

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager

Use the PARALLEL_SERVER_LIMIT directive attribute to specify the maximum percentage of the parallel…degree of parallelism for a consumer group. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes for Very Large Databases and Partitioning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)The following are changes in Very Large Databases and Partitioning for Oracle Database 12 c Release 1 (12.1.0.2). New Features

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes for Very Large Databases and Partitioning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)Automatic Big Table Caching Automatic big table caching enhances in-memory query capabilities of Oracle Database in both single instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environments using a temperature based algorithm with the big table cache. In Oracle RAC environments, this feature is supported only with parallel queries. In single instance environments, this feature is supported

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.2.2 Specify the Type of Table to Createadministration. Partitioned tables are discussed in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

In range partitioning, the database maps rows to partitions based on ranges of values of the partitioning…, whereas a query that uses a local nonprefixed index might not. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.6.1 Reasons for Using the ALTER TABLE Statementsubpartitions at a time, such as split partition and merge partitions operations. See Oracle Database VLDB

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER

BEGIN_SQL_BLOCK ProcedureParallel Statement Queuing with Resource Manager\" in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_ILM

79 DBMS_ILM) strategies using Automatic Data Optimization (ADO) policies. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

resmgr:pq queued

C.3.128 resmgr:pq queueddegree of parallelism Parameter Description location Location of the wait See Also: Oracle Database VLDB

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_COMPRESSION

36 DBMS_COMPRESSIONOracle Database SQL Language Reference Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide Oracle Database VLDB and

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER

END_SQL_BLOCK ProcedureStatement Queuing with Resource Manager\" in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.3.3 Parallelizing Table Creationnumber of parallel execution servers when creating the table. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

Oracle Database includes the following components: the Oracle Database instance, which is a collection…UPDATE INDEXES ONLINE; See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide Oracle Database SQL Language Reference

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Indexes and Index-Organized Tables

Secondary Indexes on Index-Organized Tablesindex-organized table Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide to learn about creating secondary indexes on indexed-organized table partitions

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.7.9 Online Redefinition of One or More Partitionssubpartition that is being moved. See \" Moving a Table to a New Segment or Tablespace \". See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Processes

5.6.1 About Parallel Execution ServersDatabase SQL Tuning Guide for information about using parallel hints Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Performance Tuning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Tuning the Database Buffer Cache

About the Database Buffer Cachestatements Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about parallel execution

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Manually Specifying the Degree of Parallelism

Manually Specifying the Degree of ParallelismA specific DOP can be requested from Oracle Database for both tables and indexes. For example, you can set a fixed DOP at a table level with the following: ALTER TABLE sales PARALLEL 8; ALTER TABLE customers PARALLEL 4; In this example, queries accessing just the sales table use a requested DOP of 8 and queries accessing the customers table request a DOP of 4. A query accessing both the sales and

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Implementing an ILM System Manually Using Partitioning

Implementing an ILM System Manually Using PartitioningExample 5-11 illustrates how to manually create storage tiers and partition a table across those storage tiers and then setup a virtual private database (VPD) policy on that database to restrict access to the online archive tier data. See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference for information about the CREATE TABLE SQL statement Oracle Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference for information

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Modifying a Subpartition Template

Modifying a Subpartition TemplateYou can modify a subpartition template of a composite partitioned table by replacing it with a new subpartition template. Any subsequent operations that use the subpartition template (such as ADD PARTITION or MERGE PARTITIONS ) now use the new subpartition template. Existing subpartitions remain unchanged. If you modify a subpartition template of an interval-* composite partitioned table, then interval

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Renaming Partitions and Subpartitions

Renaming a Table SubpartitionLikewise, you can assign new names to subpartitions of a table. In this case you would use the ALTER TABLE RENAME SUBPARTITION syntax.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Single-Level Partitioning

Single-Level PartitioningA table is defined by specifying one of the following data distribution methodologies, using one or more columns as the partitioning key: Range Partitioning Hash Partitioning List Partitioning For example, consider a table with a column of type NUMBER as the partitioning key and two partitions less_than_five_hundred and less_than_one_thousand. The less_than_one_thousand partition contains rows where

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

PARALLEL_MIN_TIME_THRESHOLD

PARALLEL_MIN_TIME_THRESHOLDThis parameter specifies the minimum execution time a statement should have before the statement is considered for automatic degree of parallelism. Automatic degree of parallelism is only enabled if PARALLEL_DEGREE_POLICY is set to AUTO or LIMITED. See Also: Oracle Database Reference for information about the PARALLEL_MIN_TIME_THRESHOLD initialization parameter

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Creating a Composite Range-List Partitioned Table

Creating a Composite Range-List Partitioned TableExample 4-10 illustrates how range-list partitioning might be used. The example tracks sales data of products by quarters and within each quarter, groups it by specified states. A row is mapped to a partition by checking whether the value of the partitioning column for a row falls within a specific partition range. The row is then mapped to a subpartition within that partition by identifying the subpartition

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Adding Partitions to a Composite *-Hash Partitioned Table

Adding a Subpartition to a *-Hash Partitioned TableYou use the MODIFY PARTITION ADD SUBPARTITION clause of the ALTER TABLE statement to add a hash subpartition to a [range | list | interval]-hash partitioned table. The newly added subpartition is populated with rows rehashed from other subpartitions of the same partition as determined by the hash function. For an interval-hash partitioned table, you can only add subpartitions to range or interval

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Truncating Multiple Partitions

Truncating Multiple PartitionsYou can truncate multiple partitions from a range or list partitioned table with the TRUNCATE PARTITION clause of the ALTER TABLE statement. The corresponding partitions of local indexes are truncated in the operation. Global indexes must be rebuilt unless UPDATE INDEXES is specified.For example, the following SQL statement truncates multiple partitions in the range-partitioned sales table. ALTER

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Local Partitioned Indexes

Local Partitioned IndexesIn a local index, all keys in a particular index partition refer only to rows stored in a single underlying table partition. A local index is created by specifying the LOCAL attribute. Oracle constructs the local index so that it is equipartitioned with the underlying table. Oracle partitions the index on the same columns as the underlying table, creates the same number of partitions or subpartitions,

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Best Practice 6: Plan for NOLOGGING Operations in Your Backup/Recovery Strategy

Flashback Database and Guaranteed Restore PointsFlashback Database is a fast, continuous point-in-time recovery method to repair widespread logical errors. Flashback Database relies on additional logging, called flashback logs, which are created in the fast recovery area and retained for a user-defined time interval according to the recovery needs. These logs track the original block images when they are updated. When a Flashback Database operation

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Splitting a *-Hash Partition

Splitting a *-Hash PartitionThis is the opposite of merging *-hash partitions. When you split *-hash partitions, the new subpartitions are rehashed into either the number of subpartitions specified in a SUBPARTITIONS or SUBPARTITION clause. Or, if no such clause is included, the new partitions inherit the number of subpartitions (and tablespaces) from the partition being split. The inheritance of properties is different when

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET

HASH_AREA_SIZEhas been deprecated and you should use PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET instead.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET

SORT_AREA_SIZEhas been deprecated and you should use PGA_AGGREGATE_TARGET instead.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Adding a Partition or Subpartition to a Reference-Partitioned Table

About Adding a Partition or Subpartition to a Reference-Partitioned TableA partition or subpartition can be added to a parent table in a reference partition definition just as partitions and subpartitions can be added to a range, hash, list, or composite partitioned table. The add operation automatically cascades to any descendant reference partitioned tables. The DEPENDENT TABLES clause can set specific properties for dependent tables when you add partitions or subpartitions

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partition Pruning

Partition PruningPartition pruning is an essential performance feature for data warehouses. In partition pruning, the optimizer analyzes FROM and WHERE clauses in SQL statements to eliminate unneeded partitions when building the partition access list. This functionality enables Oracle Database to perform operations only on those partitions that are relevant to the SQL statement. This section contains the following

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Recovery Point Objective (RPO)

More Data Means a Longer Backup WindowThe most obvious characteristic of the data warehouse is the size of the database. This can be upward of 100's of terabytes. Hardware is the limiting factor to a fast backup and recovery. However, today's tape storage continues to evolve to accommodate the amount of data that must be offloaded to tape (for example, advent of Virtual Tape Libraries which use disks internally with the standard tape

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Default Parallelism

Default ParallelismIf the PARALLEL clause is specified but no degree of parallelism is listed, the object gets the default DOP. Default parallelism uses a formula to determine the DOP based on the system configuration, as in the following: For a single instance, DOP = PARALLEL_THREADS_PER_CPU x CPU_COUNT For an Oracle RAC configuration, DOP = PARALLEL_THREADS_PER_CPU x CPU_COUNT x INSTANCE_COUNT By default, INSTANCE_COUNT

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

How Parallel Execution Works

How Parallel Execution WorksThis section discusses the parallel execution process for SQL statements. This section contains the following topics: Parallel Execution of SQL Statements How Parallel Execution Servers Communicate Degree of Parallelism About Parallel Statement Queuing Parallel Execution Server Pool Granules of Parallelism Balancing the Workload to Optimize Performance Parallel Execution Using Oracle RAC

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Merging Subpartitions in a *-List Partitioned Table

Merging Subpartitions in a *-List Partitioned TableYou can merge the contents of any two arbitrary list subpartitions belonging to the same partition. The resulting subpartition value-list descriptor includes all of the literal values in the value lists for the partitions being merged. The following statement merges two subpartitions of a table partitioned using range-list method into a new subpartition located in tablespace ts4: ALTER TABLE quarterly_regional_sales

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

SHARED_POOL_SIZE

SHARED_POOL_SIZEParallel execution requires memory resources in addition to those required by serial SQL execution. Additional memory is used for communication and passing data between query server processes and the query coordinator. Oracle Database allocates memory for query server processes from the shared pool. Tune the shared pool as follows: Allow for other clients of the shared pool, such as shared cursors

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Interval Partitioning

Interval PartitioningInterval partitioning is an extension of range partitioning which instructs the database to automatically create partitions of a specified interval when data inserted into the table exceeds all of the existing range partitions. You must specify at least one range partition. The range partitioning key value determines the high value of the range partitions, which is called the transition point, and

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Automatic Big Table Caching

Automatic Big Table CachingAutomatic big table caching integrates queries with the buffer cache to enhance the in-memory query capabilities of Oracle Database, in both single instance and Oracle RAC environments. In Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environments, this feature is supported only with parallel queries. In single instance environments, this feature is supported with both parallel and serial queries.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Critical Parallel Statement Prioritization

Critical Parallel Statement PrioritizationThe parallel_stmt_critical parameter specifies consumer groups as critical in respect to parallel statements in the plan directive. When a consumer group is marked as critical, parallel statements issued from these consumer groups bypass the parallel statement queue and execute immediately. Because critical parallel statements bypass the parallel statement queue, the system may encounter more active

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Step 3: Create Data Access and Migration Policies

Step 3: Create Data Access and Migration PoliciesThe next step is to ensure that only authorized users have access to the data and to specify how to move the data during its lifetime. As the data ages, there are multiple techniques that can migrate the data between the storage tiers.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Splitting Index Partitions

Splitting Index PartitionsYou cannot explicitly split a partition in a local index. A local index partition is split only when you split a partition in the underlying table. However, you can split a global index partition as is done in the following example: ALTER INDEX quon1 SPLIT PARTITION canada AT ( 100 ) INTO PARTITION canada1..., PARTITION canada2...); ALTER INDEX quon1 REBUILD PARTITION canada1; ALTER INDEX quon1 REBUILD

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Introduction to Partitioning

Introduction to PartitioningPartitioning addresses key issues in supporting very large tables and indexes by decomposing them into smaller and more manageable pieces called partitions, which are entirely transparent to an application. SQL queries and Data Manipulation Language (DML) statements do not need to be modified to access partitioned tables. However, after partitions are defined, data definition language (DDL) statements

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Global Partitioned Indexes

Global Partitioned IndexesOracle offers global range partitioned indexes and global hash partitioned indexes, discussed in the following topics: Global Range Partitioned Indexes Global Hash Partitioned Indexes Maintenance of Global Partitioned Indexes

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Space Considerations for Parallel DML

Space Considerations for Parallel DMLParallel UPDATE uses the existing free space in the object, while direct-path INSERT gets new extents for the data. Space usage characteristics may be different in parallel than serial execution because multiple concurrent child transactions modify the object.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Performance

Performancein OLTP environments heavily relies on efficient index access, thus the choice of the most appropriate index strategy becomes crucial. The following section discusses best practices for deciding whether to partition indexes in an OLTP environment.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Global Hash Partitioned Indexes

Global Hash Partitioned IndexesGlobal hash partitioned indexes improve performance by spreading out contention when the index is monotonically growing. In other words, most of the index insertions occur only on the right edge of an index, which is uniformly spread across N hash partitions for a global hash partitioned index.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Using Table Compression with Partitioned Tables

Using Table Compression with Partitioned TablesFor heap-organized partitioned tables, you can compress some or all partitions using table compression. The compression attribute can be declared for a tablespace, a table, or a partition of a table. Whenever the compress attribute is not specified, it is inherited like any other storage attribute. Example 4-21 creates a range-partitioned table with one compressed partition costs_old. The compression

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Summary of Partitioned Index Types

A B, A AGlobal Prefixed (range partitioning only) No 2

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Modifying Real Attributes of a Subpartition

Modifying Real Attributes of a SubpartitionWith the MODIFY SUBPARTITION clause of ALTER TABLE you can perform the same actions as listed previously for partitions, but at the specific composite partitioned table subpartition level. For example: ALTER TABLE employees_rebuild_index MODIFY SUBPARTITION p3_s1 REBUILD UNUSABLE LOCAL INDEXES;