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Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide - Contents

ContentsRelated Documents Conventions Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide … Partitioning VLDB and Partitioning Partitioning As the Foundation for Information Lifecycle Management

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

VLDB and Partitioning

VLDB and PartitioningA very large database has no minimum absolute size. Although a VLDB is a database like smaller … databases, there are specific challenges in managing a VLDB. These challenges are related to the sheer … challenges surrounding backup and recovery for a VLDB. Storage is a key component of a very large … database. Storage Management

Database Readme, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Documentation Addendum

4.9 Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning GuideNote the following changes in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide: It was incorrectly

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION HintUNION and UNION ALL operations. See Also: \"NO_PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hint\" Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about using this hint

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

NO_PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hintprocessing of UNION and UNION ALL operations. See Also: \"PQ_CONCURRENT_UNION Hint\" Oracle Database VLDB

Database SQL Language Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Comments

ENABLE_PARALLEL_DML HintALTER SESSION ENABLE PARALLEL DML statement. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning GuideThis chapter describes changes to Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide. Changes for Very

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Indexes

21.2.9 Consider Parallelizing Index Creationcreation. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about using parallel execution

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

Partitioned Indexes\" Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide and Oracle Database SQL Tuning Guide for more information

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager

Use the PARALLEL_SERVER_LIMIT directive attribute to specify the maximum percentage of the parallel…degree of parallelism for a consumer group. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.2.2 Specify the Type of Table to Createadministration. Partitioned tables are discussed in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

In range partitioning, the database maps rows to partitions based on ranges of values of the partitioning…, whereas a query that uses a local nonprefixed index might not. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.6.1 Reasons for Using the ALTER TABLE Statementsubpartitions at a time, such as split partition and merge partitions operations. See Oracle Database VLDB

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes for Very Large Databases and Partitioning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.2)The following are changes in Very Large Databases and Partitioning for Oracle Database 12 c Release 1 (12.1.0.2). New Features

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Changes in This Release for Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Changes for Very Large Databases and Partitioning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1 (12.1.0.1)Automatic Big Table Caching Automatic big table caching enhances in-memory query capabilities of Oracle Database in both single instance and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) environments using a temperature based algorithm with the big table cache. In Oracle RAC environments, this feature is supported only with parallel queries. In single instance environments, this feature is supported

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.7.9 Online Redefinition of One or More Partitionssubpartition that is being moved. See \" Moving a Table to a New Segment or Tablespace \". See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.3.3 Parallelizing Table Creationnumber of parallel execution servers when creating the table. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Processes

5.6.1 About Parallel Execution ServersDatabase SQL Tuning Guide for information about using parallel hints Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

Oracle Database includes the following components: the Oracle Database instance, which is a collection…UPDATE INDEXES ONLINE; See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide Oracle Database SQL Language Reference

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Indexes and Index-Organized Tables

Secondary Indexes on Index-Organized Tablesindex-organized table Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide to learn about creating secondary indexes on indexed-organized table partitions

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_ILM

79 DBMS_ILM) strategies using Automatic Data Optimization (ADO) policies. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER

END_SQL_BLOCK ProcedureStatement Queuing with Resource Manager\" in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_COMPRESSION

36 DBMS_COMPRESSIONOracle Database SQL Language Reference Oracle Database Data Warehousing Guide Oracle Database VLDB and

Database PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

DBMS_RESOURCE_MANAGER

BEGIN_SQL_BLOCK ProcedureParallel Statement Queuing with Resource Manager\" in Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide.

Database Reference, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

resmgr:pq queued

C.3.128 resmgr:pq queueddegree of parallelism Parameter Description location Location of the wait See Also: Oracle Database VLDB

Database Performance Tuning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Tuning the Database Buffer Cache

About the Database Buffer Cachestatements Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about parallel execution

Spatial and Graph Developer's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Using Partitioned Spatial Indexes

5.1.3 Using Partitioned Spatial Indexesand partitioned indexes, see Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide. A partitioned spatial index

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

Overview of Partitionsquarter. See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for an introduction to partitioning

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitions, Views, and Other Schema Objects

In range partitioning, the database maps rows to partitions based on ranges of values of the partitioning…Partitioned Index Description of \"Figure 4-6 Global Partitioned Index\" See Also: Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.2.9 Consider Using Attribute-Clustered TablesSee Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide. Attribute clustering is ignored for conventional DML

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

Examples illustrate online redefinition of tables.… Likewise for mapping tables. See Also: The section \"Exchanging Partitions\" in Oracle Database VLDB

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager

You use the CREATE_PLAN_DIRECTIVE procedure to create resource plan directives. Each directive belongs…Statement Queuing Using Parallel Server Limit \" Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for information about parallel statement queuing

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Tables

20.12.1 What Are Index-Organized Tables?Concepts for a more thorough description of index-organized tables Oracle Database VLDB and Partitioning

Database Concepts, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Topics for Database Administrators and Developers

Table 19-1 Data Warehouses and OLTP SystemsWarehousing Guide for a more detailed description of a database warehouse Oracle Database VLDB and

Database Administrator's Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Managing Resources with Oracle Database Resource Manager

An example illustrates managing parallel statements using directive attributes.Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide for more information about parallel statement queuing Note

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Dropping Partitioned Tables

About Dropping Partitioned TablesOracle Database processes a DROP TABLE statement for a partitioned table in the same way that it processes the statement for a nonpartitioned table. One exception is when you use the PURGE keyword. To avoid running into resource constraints, the DROP TABLE... PURGE statement for a partitioned table drops the table in multiple transactions, where each transaction drops a subset of the partitions or

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Merging Partitions and Subpartitions

About Merging Partitions and SubpartitionsUse the ALTER TABLE MERGE PARTITION statement to merge the contents of two partitions into one partition. The two original partitions are dropped, as are any corresponding local indexes. You cannot use this statement for a hash partitioned table or for hash subpartitions of a composite *-hash partitioned table. You cannot merge partitions for a reference-partitioned table. Instead, a merge operation

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENT

PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENTThis parameter enables users to wait for an acceptable DOP, depending on the application in use. The recommended value for the PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENT parameter is 0 (zero). Setting this parameter to values other than 0 (zero) causes Oracle Database to return an error when the requested DOP cannot be satisfied by the system at a given time. For example, if you set PARALLEL_MIN_PERCENT to 50, which translates

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitioning Restrictions for Multiple Block Sizes

Partitioning Restrictions for Multiple Block SizesUse caution when creating partitioned objects in a database with tablespaces of different block sizes. The storage of partitioned objects in such tablespaces is subject to some restrictions. Specifically, all partitions of the following entities must reside in tablespaces of the same block size: Conventional tables Indexes Primary key index segments of index-organized tables Overflow segments of index-organized

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitioning for Performance

Partition PruningPartition pruning is the simplest and also the most substantial means to improve performance using partitioning. Partition pruning can often improve query performance by several orders of magnitude. For example, suppose an application contains an Orders table containing a historical record of orders, and that this table has been partitioned by week. A query requesting orders for a single week would

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

The Importance of Nonprefixed Indexes

The Importance of Nonprefixed IndexesNonprefixed indexes are particularly useful in historical databases. In a table containing historical data, it is common for an index to be defined on one column to support the requirements of fast access by that column. However, the index can also be partitioned on another column (the same column as the underlying table) to support the time interval for rolling out old data and rolling in new data.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Best Practice 6: Plan for NOLOGGING Operations in Your Backup/Recovery Strategy

Extract, Transform, and LoadThe ETL process uses several Oracle features and a combination of methods to load (re-load) data into a data warehouse. These features consist of: Transportable tablespaces Transportable tablespaces allow users to quickly move a tablespace across Oracle Databases. It is the most efficient way to move bulk data between databases. Oracle Database provides the ability to transport tablespaces across

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Incremental Data Loading in Parallel

Incremental Data Loading in ParallelParallel DML combined with the updatable join views facility provides an efficient solution for refreshing the tables of a data warehouse system. To refresh tables is to update them with the differential data generated from the OLTP production system. In the following example, assume a refresh of a table named customers that has columns c_key, c_name, and c_addr. The differential data contains either

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Creating List-Partitioned Index-Organized Tables

Creating List-Partitioned Index-Organized TablesThe other option for partitioning index-organized tables is to use the list method. In the following example, the sales index-organized table is partitioned by the list method. Example 4-24 uses the example tablespace, which is part of the sample schemas in your seed database. Normally you would specify different tablespace storage for different partitions. Example 4-24 Creating a list-partitioned

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Modifying List Partitions: Adding Values

About Modifying List Partitions: Adding ValuesList partitioning enables you to optionally add literal values from the defining value list. This section contains the following topics: Adding Values for a List Partition Adding Values for a List Subpartition

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partition Placement

Partition PlacementPartition placement is not a concern if you stripe across all available devices and distribute the load across all available resources. If you cannot stripe data files across all available devices, then consider partition placement to optimize the use of all available hardware resources (physical disk spindles, disk controllers, and channels to disk). I/O-intensive queries or DML operations should

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Enabling and Disabling Heat Map

Enabling and Disabling Heat MapYou can enable and disable heat map tracking at the system or session level with the ALTER SYSTEM or ALTER SESSION statement using the HEAT_MAP clause. For example, the following SQL statement enables Heat Map tracking for the database instance. ALTER SYSTEM SET HEAT_MAP = ON; When Heat Map is enabled, all accesses are tracked by the in-memory activity tracking module. Objects in the SYSTEM and SYSAUX

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Impact of a Partition Maintenance Operation on a Partitioned Table with Local Indexes

Impact of a Partition Maintenance Operation on a Partitioned Table with Local IndexesWhen a partition maintenance operation takes place, Oracle Database locks the affected table partitions for any DML operation, except in the case of an ONLINE MOVE. Data in the affected partitions, except a DROP or TRUNCATE operation, is still fully accessible for any SELECT operation. Because local indexes are logically coupled with the table (data) partitions, only the local index partitions of

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Exchanging a Subpartition of a *-List Partitioned Table

About Exchanging a Subpartition of a *-List Partitioned TableThe semantics of the ALTER TABLE EXCHANGE SUBPARTITION are the same as described previously in \" Exchanging a Subpartition of a *-Hash Partitioned Table \".

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Rebuilding Global Index Partitions

About Rebuilding Global Index PartitionsYou can rebuild global index partitions in two ways: Rebuild each partition by issuing the ALTER INDEX REBUILD PARTITION statement (you can run the rebuilds concurrently). Drop the entire global index and re-create it. This method is more efficient because the table is scanned only one time. For most maintenance operations on partitioned tables with indexes, you can optionally avoid the need to rebuild

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Monitoring Parallel Execution Performance with Dynamic Performance Views

V$PX_PROCESSThe V$PX_PROCESS view contains information about the parallel processes, including status, session ID, process ID, and other information.

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Rebuilding Index Partitions

About Rebuilding Index PartitionsSome reasons for rebuilding index partitions include: To recover space and improve performance To repair a damaged index partition caused by media failure To rebuild a local index partition after loading the underlying table partition with SQL*Loader or an import utility To rebuild index partitions that have been marked UNUSABLE To enable key compression for B-tree indexes The following sections discuss

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Additional Considerations for Parallel DML

Database Writer Process (DBWn) WorkloadParallel DML operations use a large number of data, index, and undo blocks in the buffer cache during a short interval. For example, suppose you see a high number of free_buffer_waits after querying the V$SYSTEM_EVENT view, as in the following syntax: SELECT TOTAL_WAITS FROM V$SYSTEM_EVENT WHERE EVENT = 'FREE BUFFER WAITS'; In this case, you should consider increasing the DBW n processes. If there

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Exchanging a Hash Partitioned Table with a *-Hash Partition

Exchanging a Hash Partitioned Table with a *-Hash PartitionIn this example, you are exchanging a whole hash partitioned table, with all of its partitions, with the partition of a *-hash partitioned table and all of its hash subpartitions. The following example illustrates this concept for a range-hash partitioned table. First, create a hash partitioned table: CREATE TABLE t1 (i NUMBER, j NUMBER) PARTITION BY HASH(i) (PARTITION p1, PARTITION p2); Populate

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Specifying Partitioning When Creating Index-Organized Tables

Specifying Partitioning When Creating Index-Organized TablesFor index-organized tables, you can use the range, list, or hash partitioning method. The semantics for creating partitioned index-organized tables is similar to that for regular tables with these differences: When you create the table, you specify the ORGANIZATION INDEX clause, and INCLUDING and OVERFLOW clauses as necessary. The PARTITION clause can have OVERFLOW subclauses that allow you to specify

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

About Parallel DML Operations

About Parallel DML OperationsParallel DML ( PARALLEL INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, and MERGE ) uses parallel execution mechanisms to speed up or scale up large DML operations against large database tables and indexes. Note: Although DML generally includes queries, in this chapter the term DML refers only to INSERT, UPDATE, MERGE, and DELETE operations. This section discusses the following parallel DML topics: When to Use Parallel DML

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Creating a Local Index Across Multiple Tablespaces

Creating a Local Index Across Multiple TablespacesThe following statement is an example of creating a local index on a table where the index segments are spread across tablespaces ts7, ts8, and ts9. CREATE INDEX employee_ix ON employees_range_hash(department_id) LOCAL STORE IN (ts7, ts8, ts9); This local index is equipartitioned with the base table so that it consists of as many partitions as the base table. Each index partition consists of as many

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Tuning General Parameters for Parallel Execution

Tuning General Parameters for Parallel ExecutionThis section discusses the following topics: Parameters Establishing Resource Limits for Parallel Operations Parameters Affecting Resource Consumption Parameters Related to I/O

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Merging Range Partitions

Merging Range PartitionsYou are allowed to merge the contents of two adjacent range partitions into one partition. Nonadjacent range partitions cannot be merged. The resulting partition inherits the higher upper bound of the two merged partitions. One reason for merging range partitions is to keep historical data online in larger partitions. For example, you can have daily partitions, with the oldest partition rolled up

Database VLDB and Partitioning Guide, 12c Release 1 (12.1)

Partitioning Concepts

2 Partitioning ConceptsPartitioning enhances the performance, manageability, and availability of a wide variety of applications and helps reduce the total cost of ownership for storing large amounts of data. Partitioning allows tables, indexes, and index-organized tables to be subdivided into smaller pieces, enabling these database objects to be managed and accessed at a finer level of granularity. Oracle provides a rich