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AUDIT → Purpose Use the AUDIT statement to: Track the issuance of SQL statements in subsequent user … To audit issuances of a SQL statement, you must have AUDIT SYSTEM system privilege. To collect … auditing is enabled. However, Oracle Database does not generate audit records until you enable auditing … . To audit
Table 13-2 Additional SQL Statement Shortcuts for Auditing → SQL Statement Shortcut SQL Statements and Operations Audited ALTER SEQUENCE ALTER SEQUENCE ALTER TABLE ALTER TABLE COMMENT TABLE COMMENT ON TABLE table, view, materialized view COMMENT ON COLUMN table. column, view. column, materialized view. column DELETE TABLE DELETE FROM table, view EXECUTE PROCEDURE CALL Execution of any procedure or function or access to any variable, library, or cursor inside
Table 13-3 Schema Object Auditing Options → Object SQL Operations Table ALTER AUDIT COMMENT DELETE FLASHBACK (Note 3) GRANT INDEX INSERT LOCK … RENAME SELECT UPDATE View AUDIT COMMENT DELETE FLASHBACK (Note 3) GRANT INSERT LOCK RENAME SELECT … UPDATE Sequence ALTER AUDIT GRANT SELECT Procedure, Function, Package (Note 1) AUDIT EXECUTE GRANT … Materialized
Table 13-1 SQL Statement Shortcuts for Auditing → SYNONYM SYSTEM AUDIT AUDIT sql_statements NOAUDIT sql_statements SYSTEM GRANT GRANT … USER ALTER USER DROP USER Notes: AUDIT USER audits these three SQL statements. Use AUDIT ALTER USER … to audit statements that require the ALTER USER system privilege. An AUDIT ALTER USER statement
Audit Feature Description → statements entered against tables, and DDL auditing at SCHEMA or DATABASE level. Centralized Audit Trail All … database audit information is recorded centrally and automatically using the auditing features of … cannot audit by session; an audit record is generated each time a trigger-audited table is referenced
1.4.5 Default Audit Policy and Initialization Parameters → Administrator's Guide for more information on the database audit policy
Recommended Audit Settings → Database schema or structure changes. Use the following AUDIT statement settings: AUDIT ALTER ANY … PROCEDURE BY ACCESS; AUDIT ALTER ANY TABLE BY ACCESS; AUDIT ALTER DATABASE BY ACCESS; AUDIT ALTER … SYSTEM BY ACCESS; AUDIT CREATE ANY JOB BY ACCESS; AUDIT CREATE ANY
About Audit Records → Audit records include information about the operation that was audited, the user who performed the … choose, you can write audit records to data dictionary tables, called the database audit trail, or in … operating system files, called the operating system audit trail. If you choose to write audit records
Managing Audit Trail Records → This section contains: About Audit Records Managing the Database Audit Trail Managing the Operating System Audit Trail
Creating an Audit Trail for Fine-Grained Audit Records → You designate the audit trail format for fine-grained auditing by setting the audit_trail parameter … parameter) when you create the audit policy. Setting this parameter to XML or XML+EXTENDED writes the … records to the operating system files in XML format. If you prefer to write the fine-grained audit records … to DB or DB+EXTENDED.
Deleting the Audit Trail Views → If you disable auditing and no longer need the audit trail views, then delete them by connecting to … application users who are recognized in the database using the CLIENT_IDENTIFIER attribute. To audit this type … of user, you can use a fine-grained audit policy. See \"Auditing Specific Activities with Fine
Protecting the Database Audit Trail → When auditing for suspicious database activity, you should protect the integrity of the audit trail … writes the database audit trail to the SYS.AUD $ and SYS.FGA_LOG$ tables. Audit records generated as a … result of object audit options set for the SYS.AUD $ and SYS.FGA_LOG$ tables can only be deleted … from
Change to AUDIT BY SESSION → The BY SESSION clause of the AUDIT statement now writes one audit record for every audited event … . In previous releases, BY SESSION wrote one audit record for all SQL statements or operations of the … SESSION and BY ACCESS write one audit record for each audit operation. In addition, there are separate
Managing the Database Audit Trail → This section contains: Database Audit Trail Contents Controlling the Size of the Database Audit … Trail Auditing the Database Audit Trail See Also: \"Archiving and Purging the Database Audit Trail … \" Database Audit Trail Contents The database audit trail is a pair of tables, AUD$ (for
Archiving and Purging Audit Trail Records → This section contains: About Archiving and Purging Audit Trail Records Archiving and Purging the … Database Audit Trail Archiving and Purging the Operating System Audit Trail
Using the Operating System Audit Trail → This section contains: About the Operating System Trail What Do the Operating System Audit Trail … Records Look Like? Advantages of the Operating System Audit Trail How the Operating System Audit Trail … Works See Also: \"Using the Syslog Audit Trail on UNIX Systems\" \"Managing the Operating System … Audit
Archiving and Purging the Database Audit Trail → You should periodically archive and then purge the audit trail to prevent it from growing too large … . This both frees audit trail space and facilitates the purging of the database audit trail. In this … section: Archiving the Database Audit Trail Purging the Database Audit Trail Archiving the Database
About Archiving and Purging Audit Trail Records → You should periodically archive and then delete (purge) audit trail records, because the audit … purge the database audit trail and the operating system audit trail. Note: Oracle Database audits all … deletions from the audit trail, without exception. See \"Auditing the Database Audit
Managing the Operating System Audit Trail → This section contains: Specifying a Directory for the Operating System Audit Trail If the Operating … System Audit Trail Becomes Full Specifying a Directory for the Operating System Audit Trail Use the … audit trail is written, when the AUDIT_TRAIL initialization parameter is set to OS, XML, or XML … , as do audit
Archiving and Purging the Operating System Audit Trail → You should periodically archive and then purge the operating system audit trail. Use your platform … -specific operating system tools to create an archive of the operating system audit files. Use the … following methods to archive the operating system audit files: Use Oracle Audit Vault. You install … Oracle Audit