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Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Distributed Database Administration

Authentication Without PasswordsWhen using a connected user or current user database link, you can use an external authentication … source such as Kerberos to obtain end-to-end security. In end-to-end authentication, credentials are

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Using Operating System AuthenticationThis section describes how to authenticate an administrator using the operating system.

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Using Password File AuthenticationThis section describes how to authenticate an administrative user using password file authentication.

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Database Administrator Authenticationsecure authentication scheme. This section contains the following topics: Administrative Privileges … Selecting an Authentication Method for Database Administrators Using Operating System Authentication Using Password File Authentication

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Distributed Database Administration

Authentication Through Database LinksDatabase links are either private or public, authenticated or non-authenticated. You create public links by specifying the PUBLIC keyword in the link creation statement. For example, you can issue: CREATE PUBLIC DATABASE LINK foo USING 'sales'; You create authenticated links by specifying the CONNECT TO clause, AUTHENTICATED BY clause, or both clauses together in the database link creation statement.

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Connecting Using Operating System AuthenticationWindows platform only, remote operating system authentication over a secure connection is supported

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Connecting Using Password File AuthenticationSYSOPER Note: Operating system authentication takes precedence over password file authentication

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

OSDBA and OSOPERsystem authentication. These groups are generically referred to as OSDBA and OSOPER. The groups are

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Local Connections and Secure Remote Connectionstherefore not in the password file, you can use operating system authentication. On most operating … systems, authentication for database administrators involves placing the operating system username

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

SYSDBA and SYSOPERare authorized to use these privileges depends upon the method of authentication that you use. When

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Preparing to Use Password File AuthenticationTo enable authentication of an administrative user using password file authentication you must do

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Connecting with Administrative Privileges: ExampleOperating System Authentication\" \"Using Password File Authentication\"

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Nonsecure Remote Connectionsauthenticated by a password file. When using password file authentication, the database uses a password … . This form of authentication is discussed in \"Using Password File Authentication\".

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Selecting an Authentication Method for Database Administratorsnormal data dictionary authentication, the following methods are available for authenticating database … administrators with the SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege: Operating system (OS) authentication A password … file Strong authentication with a network-based authentication service, such as Oracle Internet … remainder

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Administrative PrivilegesAdministrative privileges that are required for an administrator to perform basic database operations are granted through two special system privileges, SYSDBA and SYSOPER. You must have one of these privileges granted to you, depending upon the level of authorization you require. Note: The SYSDBA and SYSOPER system privileges allow access to a database instance even when the database is not open.

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Database Administrator Authentication

Preparing to Use Operating System AuthenticationTo enable operating system authentication of an administrative user: Create an operating system

Ultra Search Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Understanding the Oracle Ultra Search Administration Tool

AuthenticationUse this page to enter authentication information that applies to all data sources. Note: The data … source specific authentication takes precedence over this global authentication. HTTP Authentication … Oracle Ultra Search supports both basic and digest authentication. Specify the user name and

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

About AuthenticationAuthentication means verifying the identity of someone (a user, device, or other entity) who wants … for further interactions. Authentication also enables accountability by making it possible to link … access and actions to specific identities. After authentication, authorization processes can allow or … and nondatabase users

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Creating a Database with the CREATE DATABASE Statement

Step 3: Choose a Database Administrator Authentication Methodpassword file With operating system authentication In this step, you decide on an authenticationauthentication, ensure that you log in to the host computer with a user account that is a member of the … Privileges\" \"Database Administrator Authentication\" for information about password files and operating system

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Creating a User Who Is Authenticated by the DatabaseThe following SQL statement creates a user who is identified and authenticated by Oracle Database. User sebastian must specify the assigned password whenever he connects to Oracle Database. CREATE USER sebastian IDENTIFIED BY password;

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Using the Operating System to Authenticate Users/ With control over user authentication centralized in the operating system, Oracle Database need not … information about authentication, operating systems, distributed database concepts, and distributed data

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Configuring Global User Authentication and Authorization: \"Strong Authentication and Centralized Management for Database Administrators\" if you want to centralize the management of SYSDBA or SYSOPER access

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

About External AuthenticationWhen you use external authentication for user accounts, Oracle Database maintains the user account … , but an external service performs the password administration and user authentication. This external … authentication, your database relies on the underlying operating system or network authentication service

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Using Client Identifiers to Identify Application Users Not Known to the DatabaseOracle Database provides the CLIENT_IDENTIFIER attribute of the built-in USERENV application context namespace for application users. These users are known to an application but unknown to the database. The CLIENT_IDENTIFIER attribute can capture any value that the application uses for identification or access control, and passes it to the database. The CLIENT_IDENTIFIER attribute is supported in

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

3 Configuring AuthenticationThis chapter contains: About Authentication Configuring Password Protection Authenticating Database … Users Using the Network to Authenticate Users Configuring Global User Authentication and … Authentication and Authorization Preserving User Identity in Multitiered Environments Finding Information About User Authentication

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Table 3-1 Password-Specific Settings in the Default Profile\"Configuring the Maximum Number of Authentication Attempts\" for more information about this parameter. See

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Using Multitier Authentication and AuthorizationInterface to create lightweight sessions, which enable database password authentication for each

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Finding Information About User AuthenticationTable 3-3 lists data dictionary views that contain information about user authentication. For

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Configuring Password ProtectionThis section contains: What Are the Oracle Database Built-in Password Protections? Minimum Requirements for Passwords Using a Password Management Policy Ensuring Against Password Security Threats by Using the SHA-1 Hashing Algorithm Managing the Secure External Password Store for Password Credentials See also \"Guidelines for Securing Passwords\" for advice on securing passwords. If you want to configure

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

What Are the Oracle Database Built-in Password Protections?Oracle Database provides a set of built-in password protections designed to protect your users' passwords. These password protections are as follows: Password encryption. Oracle Database automatically and transparently encrypts passwords during network (client-to-server and server-to-server) connections, using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) before sending them across the network. Password complexity

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Minimum Requirements for PasswordsPasswords must not exceed 30 characters. For greater security, however, follow the additional guidelines described in \"Guidelines for Securing Passwords\". To create passwords for users, you can use the CREATE USER or ALTER USER SQL statements. SQL statements that accept the IDENTIFIED BY clause also enable you to create passwords. Example 3-1 shows several SQL statements that create passwords with

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Using a Password Management PolicyThis section contains: About Managing Passwords Finding User Accounts That Have Default Passwords Configuring Password Settings in the Default Profile Automatically Locking a User Account After a Failed Login Controlling Password Aging and Expiration Password Change Life Cycle Controlling User Ability to Reuse Previous Passwords Enforcing Password Complexity Verification Enabling or Disabling Password

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Table 3-2 Parameters Controlling Reuse of a Previous Passwordcurrent, correct password before the authentication can proceed. If the user has an Oracle Active Data … Guard configuration, where there is a primary and a stand-by database, and the authentication attempt

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Strong Authentication and Centralized Management for Database AdministratorsStrong authentication lets you centrally control SYSDBA and SYSOPER access to multiple databases … . Consider using this type of authentication for database administration for the following situations … Authentication for Administrative Users Configuring Kerberos Authentication for Administrative Users … Configuring

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Authenticating Database Administrators by Using the Operating SystemOperating system authentication for a database administrator typically involves establishing a … Windows native authentication. If these users work with Oracle Database using their domain accounts … : Your Oracle Database operating system-specific documentation for information about configuring operating system authentication of database

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Creating a User Who Is Authorized by a Directory ServiceYou have the following options to specify users who are authorized by a directory service: Creating a Global User Who Has a Private Schema Creating Multiple Enterprise Users Who Share Schemas Creating a Global User Who Has a Private Schema The following statement shows the creation of a global user with a private schema, authenticated by SSL, and authorized by the enterprise directory service: CREATE

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Advantages of Global Authentication and Global AuthorizationSome advantages of global user authentication and authorization are as follows: Provides strong … authentication using SSL, Kerberos, or Windows native authentication. Enables centralized management of … . Because global user authentication and authorization provide password-based access, you can migrate … Utility)

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Authentication User Logins Using Network AuthenticationOracle Advanced Security performs network authentication, which you can configure to use a third … authentication service, then the REMOTE_OS_AUTHENT parameter setting is irrelevant, because Oracle Advanced Security allows only secure connections.

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Authenticating Database Administrators on Windows SystemsWindows native authentication. If these users work with Oracle Database using their domain accounts

Database Security Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring Authentication

Authentication Using Third-Party ServicesYou need to use third-party network authentication services if you want to authenticate Oracle … RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service), and directory-based services, as described in … the following sections. If network authentication services are available to you, then Oracle … Database can accept authentication