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Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Recovering a Control File Using a Current Copy

Recovering from Control File Corruption Using a Control File Copycorrupted, that the control file directory is still accessible, and that you have a multiplexed copy … of the control file. With the instance shut down, use an operating system command to overwrite the … bad control file with a good copy: % cp /u03/oracle/prod/control03.ctl /u02/oracle/prod/control02.ctl

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

What Is a Control File?

What Is a Control File?Every Oracle Database has a control file, which is a small binary file that records the physical … structure of the database. The control file includes: The database name Names and locations of … number Checkpoint information The control file must be available for writing

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records

Protecting the Control Fileyou protect each target database control file. You can use the following strategy to protect the … control file. To protect the control file: Create redundant copies of control files through multiplexing … control files without requiring you to restore

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records

About Control File RecordsThe control file contains two types of records: circular reuse records and noncircular reuse … available record slots are full, the database either expands the control file to make room for a new … make backups of a target database, the database records these backups in the control file.

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Command-Line Reference

CONTROL (control file)Default: none CONTROL specifies the name of the SQL*Loader control file that describes how to load … omitted, SQL*Loader prompts you for it. If the name of your SQL*Loader control file contains … documentation for more information. See Also: Chapter 8 for a detailed description of the SQL*Loader control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Re-Creating a Control Fileremain intact, then you can recover the database after creating a new control file. Note that you are … existence and currency of a control file backup, you have the options listed in the following table … Options for Creating the Control File If you... Then... Executed ALTER DATABASE

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records

Maintaining the Control File Repository, however, then the control file of each target database is the exclusive repository for RMAN metadata … . You should know how information is stored in the control file and ensure that your backup and … recovery strategy protects the control file. See Also: Oracle Database Administrator's

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

RMAN Backup Concepts

Control File and Server Parameter File AutobackupsHaving recent backups of your control file and server parameter file is extremely valuable in many … supports control file and server parameter file autobackups. The autobackup occurs independently of any … backup of the current control file explicitly

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Recovering a Control File Using a Current Copy

Recovering from Permanent Media Failure Using a Control File Copyinaccessible due to a permanent media failure and that you have a multiplexed copy of the control filecontrol file to a new, accessible location: % cp /u01/oracle/prod/control01.ctl /u04/oracle/prod … CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter. Remove the bad control file from CONTROL_FILES

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Recovering a Control File Using a Current Copy

Recovering a Control File Using a Current CopyThis section presents ways that you can recover your control file from a current backup or from a multiplexed copy.

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

RMAN Backup Concepts

When RMAN Performs Control File AutobackupsIf CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP is ON, then RMAN automatically backs up the control file and … command. If the database runs in ARCHIVELOG mode, RMAN makes control file autobackups when a … structural change to the database affects the contents of the control file. … the current

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced Topics

Configuring the Snapshot Control File Locationfile, it creates a temporary snapshot control file. RMAN needs a snapshot control file when … resynchronizing with the recovery catalog or when making a backup of the current control file. The default … location for the snapshot control file

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing RMAN Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Performing Recovery with a Backup Control FileThis section explains what to do when all current control files are lost and you must restore a control file backup.

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing RMAN Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

About Recovery with a Backup Control FileIf all copies of the current control file are lost or damaged, then you must restore and mount a … backup control file. You must then run the RECOVER command, even if no datafiles have been restored … , and open the database with the RESETLOGS option. If some copies of the current control file

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

RMAN Backup Concepts

How RMAN Performs Control File AutobackupsRMAN backs it up in the same backup set as the control file autobackup. After the autobackup completes … to the alert log located in the Automatic Diagnostic Repository (ADR). Note: Control file … autobackups are never duplexed. The control file autobackup filename has a default format

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Maintaining RMAN Backups and Repository Records

Preventing the Loss of Control File RecordsThe best way to prevent the loss of RMAN metadata because of overwritten control file records is to … may lose backup records. Store the control file in a file system rather than raw device so that it … can expand. Monitor the alert log to ensure that Oracle is not overwriting control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring the RMAN Environment

Configuring Control File and Server Parameter File AutobackupsAs explained in \"Control File and Server Parameter File Autobackups\", you can configure RMAN to … automatically back up the control file and server parameter file. The autobackup occurs whenever a … whenever the database structure metadata in the control file

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Making User-Managed Database Backups

Backing Up the Control File to a Trace FileThe primary method for backing up the control file is to use a SQL statement to generate a binary … sets and copies (if you use RMAN). If COMPATIBLE is 10.2 or higher, binary control file backups … include tempfile entries. To back up the control file after a structural change: Make

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing RMAN Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Restoring the Server Parameter File from a Control File AutobackupIf you have configured control file autobackups, then the server parameter file is backed up with … the control file whenever an autobackup is taken. To restore the server parameter file from the … control file autobackup, you must first set the DBID

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Making User-Managed Database Backups

Backing Up the Control File to a Binary FileB ack up the control file of a database after making a structural modification to a database … operating in ARCHIVELOG mode. To back up a database's control file, you must have the ALTER DATABASE … system privilege. Backing Up the Control File to a Binary File

Database Concepts, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tablespaces, Datafiles, and Control Files

Control File ContentsA control file contains information about the associated database that is required for access by an … instance, both at startup and during normal operation. Control file information can be modified … only by Oracle Database; no database administrator or user can edit a control file.

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Concepts

SQL*Loader Control FileThe control file is a text file written in a language that SQL*Loader understands. The control file … data, and more. Although not precisely defined, a control file can be said to have three sections … marks are taken literally, including case. In control

Database Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Descriptions of Wait Events

control file single write# This identifies the control file to which the session is currently writing block# Block number in … the control file where the write begins. The block size is the as the physical block size of the port … This wait is signaled while the control file's shared information is written to disk. This is an

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Control File ContentsThe SQL*Loader control file is a text file that contains data definition language (DDL … *Loader DDL. To create the SQL*Loader control file, use a text editor such as vi or xemacs. In general … , the control file has three main sections, in the following order: Session-wide

Database Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Descriptions of Wait Events

control file parallel writewhen: The session starts a control file transaction (to make sure that the control files are up to … date in case the session crashes before committing the control file transaction) The session commits a … transaction to a control file Changing a generic entry in the

Database Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Descriptions of Wait Events

control file sequential readReading from the control file. This happens in many cases. For example, while: Making a backup of … the control files Sharing information (between instances) from the control file Reading other blocks … read Parameter Description file# The control file

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Copying a Multiplexed Control File to a Default LocationIf the disk and file system containing the lost control file are intact, then you can simply copy … one of the intact control files to the location of the missing control file. In this case, you do not … have to edit the CONTROL_FILES initialization parameter. To replace a damaged control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced Topics

Viewing the Configured Location of the Snapshot Control Filecontrol file that has a nondefault filename: RMAN> SHOW SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME; CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO '/oracle/oradata/trgt/snap_trgt.ctl';

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Recovering Through an Added Datafile with a Backup Control FileIf database recovery with a backup control file rolls forward through a CREATE TABLESPACE or an … control file and perform media recovery through the CREATE TABLESPACE operation. You may see the … errors ORA-01244: unnamed datafile(s) added to control file by media recovery ORA-01110:

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Making User-Managed Database Backups

Making User-Managed Backups of the Control FileReference for more information about the DBA_DATA_FILES and DBA_TABLESPACES views Making User-Managed Backups of the Control File … * FROM V$BACKUP WHERE STATUS = 'ACTIVE'; FILE# STATUS CHANGE# TIME … no active datafiles: SQL> SELECT * FROM V$BACKUP WHERE STATUS = 'ACTIVE'; FILE# STATUS CHANGE# TIME

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Recovering Through a RESETLOGS with a Created Control File, or created control file that knows about the prior incarnations You have all available archived … redo logs If you need to re-create the control file, then the trace file generated by ALTER DATABASE … incarnation history. The V$DATABASE_INCARNATION view displays the RESETLOGS history known to the control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Copying a Multiplexed Control File to a Nondefault LocationAssuming that the disk and file system containing the lost control file are not intact, then you … cannot copy one of the good control files to the location of the missing control file. In this case … control file. To restore a control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Configuring the RMAN Environment: Advanced Topics

Setting the Location of the Snapshot Control Filesnapshot control file. Subsequent snapshot control files that RMAN creates use the specified filename … /snap_trgt.ctl'; You can also set the snapshot control file name to a raw device. To reset the … snapshot control file location to the default, run the CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Recovering with a Backup Control File in the Default LocationIf possible, restore the control file to its original location. In this way, you avoid having to … specify new control file locations in the initialization parameter file. To restore a backup control … Correct the hardware problem that caused the media failure. Restore the backup control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Recovering with a Backup Control File in a Nondefault LocationIf you cannot restore the control file to its original place because the media damage is too severe … , then you must specify new control file locations in the server parameter file. A valid control … , then the database prevents you from the mounting the database. To restore a control

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing User-Managed Recovery: Advanced Scenarios

Recovering Read-Only Tablespaces with a Backup Control Filethe backup control file indicates that a tablespace was read/write when the control file was backed … control files rather than backups to recover the database. If you need to use a backup control file, then … file: Take datafiles from read-only tablespaces

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Comments in the Control FileComments can appear anywhere in the command section of the file, but they should not appear within

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

8 SQL*Loader Control File ReferenceThis chapter describes the SQL*Loader control file. The following topics are included: Control File … Contents Specifying Command-Line Parameters in the Control File Specifying Filenames and Object … Names Identifying XMLType Tables Specifying Datafiles Identifying Data in the Control

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

OPTIONS Clausein a SQL*Loader control file: OPTIONS (BINDSIZE=100000, SILENT=(ERRORS, FEEDBACK) ) Note: Parameter … values specified on the command line override parameter values specified in the control file OPTIONS clause. … = {TRUE | FALSE} ERRORS = n EXTERNAL_TABEL = {NOT_USED | GENERATE_ONLY | EXECUTE} FILE LOAD

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Filenames That Conflict with SQL and SQL*Loader Reserved WordsSQL and SQL*Loader reserved words must be specified within double quotation marks. The only SQL*Loader reserved word is CONSTANT. You must use double quotation marks if the object name contains special characters other than those recognized by SQL ($, #, _), or if the name is case sensitive. See Also: Oracle Database SQL Language Reference

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Identifying XMLType TablesAs of Oracle Database 10 g, the XMLTYPE clause is available for use in a SQL*Loader control file … SQL*Loader control file to load data into a schema-based XMLType table. Example 8-2 Identifying … XMLType Tables in the SQL*Loader Control File The XML schema definition is as follows.

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Specifying Multiple Datafilesoptions strings, and a third could consist of data in the control file. You can also specify a separate … control file specifies four datafiles with separate bad and discard files: INFILE mydat1.dat BADFILE … . Datafiles need not have the same file processing options, although the layout of the records

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Criteria for Rejected Recordsfile. In a conventional path load, if the data file has a record that is being loaded into multiple … any of the tables. The log file indicates the Oracle error for each rejected record. Case study 4

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Specifying the Discard Filenot satisfy any of the WHEN clauses specified in the control file. These records differ from … discard file is not created. To create a discard file from within a control file, specify any of the … During execution, SQL*Loader can create a discard file for records that

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Specifying the Discard File in the Control Filespecified on the command line overrides one specified in the control file. If a discard file with that … To specify the name of the file, use the DISCARDFILE clause, followed by the filename. Description … name of the datafile, and the default file extension or file type is. dsc. A discard

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Loading Records Based on a ConditionYou can choose to load or discard a logical record by using the WHEN clause to test a condition in the record. The WHEN clause appears after the table name and is followed by one or more field conditions. The syntax for field_condition is as follows: Description of the illustration fld_cond.gif For example, the following clause indicates that any record with the value \"q\" in the fifth column position

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Distinguishing Different Input Row Object Subtypes,33,25143,1002,Human Resources, The following control file uses relative positioning based on the POSITION

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Calculations to Determine Bind Array Size)) BEGINDATA a This control file loads a 1-byte CHAR using a 1-row bind array. In this example, no data is … without doing any calculations. Run your control file without any data and with ROWS=1 to determine … control file. \"P\" is precision. \"S\" is the size of the length indicator.

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Specifying Filenames and Object NamesIn general, SQL*Loader follows the SQL standard for specifying object names (for example, table and column names). The information in this section discusses the following topics: Filenames That Conflict with SQL and SQL*Loader Reserved Words Specifying SQL Strings Operating System Considerations

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Specifying the Bad Filein the control file, overriding any bad file that may have been specified as part of that clause … When SQL*Loader executes, it can create a file called a bad file or reject file in which it places … have specified that a bad file is to be created, the following applies:

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Datafile Character SetsBy default, the datafile is in the character set defined by the NLS_LANG parameter. The datafile character sets supported with NLS_LANG are the same as those supported as database character sets. SQL*Loader supports all Oracle-supported character sets in the datafile (even those not supported as database character sets). For example, SQL*Loader supports multibyte fixed-width character sets (such as

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Discontinued Conventional Path LoadsIn a conventional path load, data is committed after all data in the bind array is loaded into all tables. If the load is discontinued, only the rows that were processed up to the time of the last commit operation are loaded. There is no partial commit of data.

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Continuing Single-Table Loadslog file in a message similar to the following: Specify SKIP=1001 when continuing the load. This

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Assembling Logical Records from Physical RecordsAs of Oracle9 i, user-defined record sizes larger than 64 KB are supported (see READSIZE (read buffer size) ). This reduces the need to break up logical records into multiple physical records. However, there may still be situations in which you may want to do so. At some point, when you want to combine those multiple physical records back into one logical record, you can use one of the following clauses,

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Extracting Multiple Logical Recordsis as follows: 1119 Smith 1120 Yvonne 1121 Albert 1130 Thomas The following control file extracts … following control file uses relative positioning instead of fixed positioning. It specifies that each … . In this example, SQL*Loader treats a single physical record in the input file as two logical

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Performance Implications of Bind ArraysLarge bind arrays minimize the number of calls to the Oracle database and maximize performance. In general, you gain large improvements in performance with each increase in the bind array size up to 100 rows. Increasing the bind array size to be greater than 100 rows generally delivers more modest improvements in performance. The size (in bytes) of 100 rows is typically a good value to use. In general,

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Operating System Considerationscharacter strings in a SQL*Loader control file that are not portable between operating systems … probably need to modify these strings. All other strings in a SQL*Loader control file should be … : filename and file processing option strings. When you convert to a different operating system, you will

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

Parameter Description… See Specifying Filenames and Object Names. * If your data is in the control file itself, use an … asterisk instead of the filename. If you have data in the control file as well as datafiles, you must … INFILE Specifies that a datafile specification follows. input_filename Name of the file containing

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

How Bad Files Are Handled with LOBFILEs and SDFsData from LOBFILEs and SDFs is not written to a bad file when there are rejected rows. If there is

Database Utilities, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL*Loader Control File Reference

How Discard Files Are Handled with LOBFILEs and SDFsData from LOBFILEs and SDFs is not written to a discard file when there are discarded rows.