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LOCK TABLE → Purpose Use the LOCK TABLE statement to lock one or more tables, table partitions, or table … access to a table or view by other users for the duration of your operation. Some forms of locks can be … placed on the same table at the same time. Other locks allow only one lock for a table.
TRUNCATE TABLE → Purpose Caution: You cannot roll back a TRUNCATE TABLE statement, nor can you use a FLASHBACK TABLE … statement to retrieve the contents of a table that has been truncated. Use the TRUNCATE TABLE … statement to remove all rows from a table. By default, Oracle Database also performs the following tasks
CREATE TABLE → Purpose Us e the CREATE TABLE statement to create one of the following types of tables: A … relational table, which is the basic structure to hold user data. An object table, which is a table that uses … an object type for a column definition. An object table is explicitly defined to hold object
DROP TABLE → Purpose Use the DROP TABLE statement to move a table or object table to the recycle bin or to … remove the table and all its data from the database entirely. Caution: Unless you specify the PURGE … clause, the DROP TABLE statement does not result in space being released back to the tablespace for use
ALTER TABLE → Purpose Use the ALTER TABLE statement to alter the definition of a nonpartitioned table, a … partitioned table, a table partition, or a table subpartition. For object tables or relational tables with … object columns, use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to the latest
FLASHBACK TABLE → Purpose Use the FLASHBACK TABLE statement to restore an earlier state of a table in the event of … human or application error. The time in the past to which the table can be flashed back is dependent … on the amount of undo data in the system. Also, Oracle Database cannot restore a table to an earlier … state
Selecting from the DUAL Table → DUAL is a table automatically created by Oracle Database along with the data dictionary. DUAL is in … , DUMMY, defined to be VARCHAR2(1), and contains one row with a value X. Selecting from the DUAL table is … expression from any table, but the value will be returned as many times as there are rows in the table
Researching and Reversing Erroneous Table Changes → the option of using Oracle Flashback Table, described in \"Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flashback … Table\". Note: You must be using automatic undo management to use Oracle Flashback features. See
Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flashback Table → Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flash back Table Oracle Flashback Table enables you to restore a … table to its state as of a previous point in time. It provides a fast, online solution for recovering a … table that has been accidentally modified or deleted by a user or application. In many cases … , Oracle Flashback
12 SQL Statements: ALTER TABLE to ALTER TABLESPACE → This chapter contains the following SQL statements: ALTER TABLE ALTER TABLESPACE
Table 7-6 AND Truth Table → : SELECT * FROM employees WHERE hire_date 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; Table 7-7 shows the results of applying OR to two expressions.
Table 7-5 NOT Truth Table → -- TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN NOT FALSE TRUE UNKNOWN Table 7-6 shows the results of combining the AND condition to two expressions.
Table 7-7 OR Truth Table → OR TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN UNKNOWN TRUE UNKNOWN UNKNOWN For example, the following query returns employees who have a 40% commission rate or a salary greater than $20,000: SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE commission_pct =.4 OR salary > 20000 ORDER BY employee_id;
Online Table Redefinition Examples → descriptions of all DBMS_REDEFINITION subprograms. Example Description Example 1 Redefines a table by adding … single table partition, moving it to a different tablespace. Example 1 This example illustrates online … redefinition of the previously created table hr.admin_emp, which at this point only contains columns … : empno,
Parallelizing Table Creation → When you specify the AS SELECT clause to create a table and populate it with data from another … table, you can utilize parallel execution. The CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT statement contains two parts: a … in the CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT statement An ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL DDL statement is … one of the tables
Adding Table Columns → To add a column to an existing table, use the ALTER TABLE...ADD statement. The following statement … alters the hr.admin_emp table to add a new column named bonus: ALTER TABLE hr.admin_emp ADD (bonus … NUMBER (7,2)); If a new column is added to a table, the column is initially NULL unless you specify
Error Logging Table Format → The error logging table consists of two parts: A mandatory set of columns that describe the error … . For example, one column contains the Oracle error number. Table 18-1 lists these error description … names match the column names from the table being inserted into (the \"DML table\"). The number of … columns
Creating a CHAINED_ROWS Table → To create the table to accept data returned by an ANALYZE...LIST CHAINED ROWS statement, execute … table named CHAINED_ROWS in the schema of the user submitting the script. Note: Your choice of script to … execute for creating the CHAINED_ROWS table is dependent upon the compatibility level of your … database and the type of table
The Job Table → The job table is a container for all the jobs, with one table per database. The job table stores
Example: Creating a Table → When you issue the following statement, you create a table named admin_emp in the hr schema and … store it in the admin_tbs tablespace: CREATE TABLE hr.admin_emp ( empno NUMBER(5) PRIMARY KEY, ename … (department_id)) TABLESPACE admin_tbs STORAGE ( INITIAL 50K); COMMENT ON TABLE hr.admin_emp IS 'Enhanced … employee table';
Creating a Temporary Table → optional itineraries. Each itinerary is represented by a row in a temporary table. The application … wants to use, the application moves the row for that itinerary to a persistent table. During the … . The definition of a temporary table is visible to all sessions, but the data in a temporary table is … visible
Consider Parallelizing Table Creation → CREATE TABLE statement. Because multiple processes work together to create the table, performance of the … table creation operation is improved. Parallelizing table creation is discussed in the section \"Parallelizing Table Creation\".
Consider Using Table Compression → As your database grows in size to gigabytes or terabytes and beyond, consider using table … compression. Table compression saves disk space and reduces memory use in the buffer cache. Table compression … loading and DML. Table compression is completely transparent to applications. It is especially … can also be
Dropping Table Columns → You can drop columns that are no longer needed from a table, including an index-organized table … data then re-create indexes and constraints. You cannot drop all columns from a table, nor can you … drop columns from a table owned by SYS. Any attempt to do so results in an error. See Also: Oracle … Database SQL
Renaming Table Columns → Oracle Database lets you rename existing columns in a table. Use the RENAME COLUMN clause of the … ALTER TABLE statement to rename a column. The new name must not conflict with the name of any existing … column in the table. No other clauses are allowed in conjunction with the RENAME COLUMN clause. The … following statement renames
Examples: Building a Repair Table or Orphan Key Table → The ADMIN_TABLE procedure is used to create, purge, or drop a repair table or an orphan key table … . A repair table provides information about the corruptions that were found by the CHECK_OBJECT … to drive the execution of the FIX_CORRUPT_BLOCKS procedure. An orphan key table is used when the … DUMP_ORPHAN_KEYS
Table 7-10 BETWEEN Conditions → Type of Condition Operation Example [NOT] BETWEEN x AND y [ NOT ] ( expr2 less than or equal to expr1 AND expr1 less than or equal to expr3 ) SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary BETWEEN 2000 AND 3000 ORDER BY employee_id;
Table 7-9 Null Conditions → Type of Condition Operation Example IS [NOT] NULL Tests for s. See Also: \"Nulls\" SELECT last_name FROM employees WHERE commission_pct IS NULL ORDER BY last_name;
Overview of Pipelined Table Functions → Pipelined table functions let you use PL/SQL to program a row source. You invoke the table function … as the operand of the table operator in the FROM list of a SQL SELECT statement. It is also … possible to invoke a table function as a SELECT list item; here, you do not use the table operator. A table
Table A-1 Syntax Parameters → Parameter Description Examples table The substitution value must be the name of an object of the
Table 4-2 Arithmetic Operators → Operator Purpose Example + - When these denote a positive or negative expression, they are unary operators. SELECT * FROM order_items WHERE quantity = -1 ORDER BY order_id, line_item_id, product_id; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE -salary + - When they add or subtract, they are binary operators. SELECT hire_date FROM employees WHERE SYSDATE - hire_date > 365 ORDER BY hire_date; * / Multiply, divide.
Table 7-2 Comparison Conditions → Type of Condition Purpose Example = Equality test. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary = 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; != ^= ÿ= Inequality test. Some forms of the inequality condition may be unavailable on some platforms. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary != 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; > Greater-than and less-than tests. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary > 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; SELECT *
Features of Online Table Redefinition → Online table redefinition enables you to: Modify the storage parameters of a table or cluster Move … a table or cluster to a different tablespace Note: If it is not important to keep a table available … for DML when moving it to another tablespace, you can use the simpler ALTER TABLE MOVE command. See
Example: Creating a Repair Table → The following example creates a repair table for the users tablespace. BEGIN … => dbms_repair.create_action, TABLESPACE => 'USERS'); END; / For each repair or orphan key table, a view is also … corresponds to the name of the repair or orphan key table and is prefixed by DBA_ (for example … , DBA_REPAIR_TABLE or DBA_ORPHAN_KEY_TABLE
Table 7-4 Logical Conditions → ' OR department_id = 10 ORDER BY employee_id; Table 7-5 shows the result of applying the NOT condition to an expression.
Table 18-1 System Privileges → … CREATE ANY CLUSTER Create a cluster in any schema. Behaves similarly to CREATE ANY TABLE. ALTER ANY … schema a domain index or an index on any table in any schema. ALTER ANY INDEX Alter indexes in any … view on any table in the database. Alter a refresh-on-demand materialized on any table in the database
Table 7-12 IN Conditions → Type of Condition Operation Example IN Equal-to-any-member-of test. Equivalent to =ANY. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE job_id IN ('PU_CLERK','SH_CLERK') ORDER BY employee_id; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary IN (SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE department_id =30) ORDER BY employee_id; NOT IN Equivalent to != ALL. Evaluates to FALSE if any member of the set is NULL. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE
Table 4-4 Set Operators → Operator Returns UNION All distinct rows selected by either query UNION ALL All rows selected by either query, including all duplicates INTERSECT All distinct rows selected by both queries MINUS All distinct rows selected by the first query but not the second
Creating an Error Logging Table → You can create an error logging table manually, or you can use a PL/SQL package to automatically create one for you.
Creating Single-Table Hash Clusters → You can also create a single-table hash cluster, which provides fast access to rows in a table … . However, this table must be the only table in the hash cluster. Essentially, there must be a one-to-one … mapping between hash keys and data rows. The following statement creates a single-table hash