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Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

LOCK TABLE

LOCK TABLEPurpose Use the LOCK TABLE statement to lock one or more tables, table partitions, or table … access to a table or view by other users for the duration of your operation. Some forms of locks can be … placed on the same table at the same time. Other locks allow only one lock for a table.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

TRUNCATE TABLE

TRUNCATE TABLEPurpose Caution: You cannot roll back a TRUNCATE TABLE statement, nor can you use a FLASHBACK TABLE … statement to retrieve the contents of a table that has been truncated. Use the TRUNCATE TABLE … statement to remove all rows from a table. By default, Oracle Database also performs the following tasks

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

CREATE TABLE

CREATE TABLEPurpose Us e the CREATE TABLE statement to create one of the following types of tables: A … relational table, which is the basic structure to hold user data. An object table, which is a table that uses … an object type for a column definition. An object table is explicitly defined to hold object

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

DROP TABLE

DROP TABLEPurpose Use the DROP TABLE statement to move a table or object table to the recycle bin or to … remove the table and all its data from the database entirely. Caution: Unless you specify the PURGE … clause, the DROP TABLE statement does not result in space being released back to the tablespace for use

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

ALTER TABLE

ALTER TABLEPurpose Use the ALTER TABLE statement to alter the definition of a nonpartitioned table, a … partitioned table, a table partition, or a table subpartition. For object tables or relational tables with … object columns, use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to the latest

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

FLASHBACK TABLE

FLASHBACK TABLEPurpose Use the FLASHBACK TABLE statement to restore an earlier state of a table in the event of … human or application error. The time in the past to which the table can be flashed back is dependent … on the amount of undo data in the system. Also, Oracle Database cannot restore a table to an earlier … state

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Selecting from the DUAL Table

Selecting from the DUAL TableDUAL is a table automatically created by Oracle Database along with the data dictionary. DUAL is in … , DUMMY, defined to be VARCHAR2(1), and contains one row with a value X. Selecting from the DUAL table is … expression from any table, but the value will be returned as many times as there are rows in the table

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Researching and Reversing Erroneous Table Changes

Researching and Reversing Erroneous Table Changesthe option of using Oracle Flashback Table, described in \"Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flashback … Table\". Note: You must be using automatic undo management to use Oracle Flashback features. See

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flashback Table

Recovering Tables Using Oracle Flashback TableRecovering Tables Using Oracle Flash back Table Oracle Flashback Table enables you to restore a … table to its state as of a previous point in time. It provides a fast, online solution for recovering a … table that has been accidentally modified or deleted by a user or application. In many cases … , Oracle Flashback

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

SQL Statements: ALTER TABLE to ALTER TABLESPACE

12 SQL Statements: ALTER TABLE to ALTER TABLESPACEThis chapter contains the following SQL statements: ALTER TABLE ALTER TABLESPACE

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Logical Conditions

Table 7-6 AND Truth Table: SELECT * FROM employees WHERE hire_date 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; Table 7-7 shows the results of applying OR to two expressions.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Logical Conditions

Table 7-5 NOT Truth Table-- TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN NOT FALSE TRUE UNKNOWN Table 7-6 shows the results of combining the AND condition to two expressions.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Logical Conditions

Table 7-7 OR Truth TableOR TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN TRUE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE FALSE UNKNOWN UNKNOWN TRUE UNKNOWN UNKNOWN For example, the following query returns employees who have a 40% commission rate or a salary greater than $20,000: SELECT employee_id FROM employees WHERE commission_pct =.4 OR salary > 20000 ORDER BY employee_id;

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Redefining Tables Online

Online Table Redefinition Examplesdescriptions of all DBMS_REDEFINITION subprograms. Example Description Example 1 Redefines a table by adding … single table partition, moving it to a different tablespace. Example 1 This example illustrates online … redefinition of the previously created table hr.admin_emp, which at this point only contains columns … : empno,

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Creating Tables

Parallelizing Table CreationWhen you specify the AS SELECT clause to create a table and populate it with data from another … table, you can utilize parallel execution. The CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT statement contains two parts: a … in the CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT statement An ALTER SESSION FORCE PARALLEL DDL statement is … one of the tables

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Adding Table ColumnsTo add a column to an existing table, use the ALTER TABLE...ADD statement. The following statement … alters the hr.admin_emp table to add a new column named bonus: ALTER TABLE hr.admin_emp ADD (bonus … NUMBER (7,2)); If a new column is added to a table, the column is initially NULL unless you specify

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Loading Tables

Error Logging Table FormatThe error logging table consists of two parts: A mandatory set of columns that describe the error … . For example, one column contains the Oracle error number. Table 18-1 lists these error description … names match the column names from the table being inserted into (the \"DML table\"). The number of … columns

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Analyzing Tables, Indexes, and Clusters

Creating a CHAINED_ROWS TableTo create the table to accept data returned by an ANALYZE...LIST CHAINED ROWS statement, execute … table named CHAINED_ROWS in the schema of the user submitting the script. Note: Your choice of script to … execute for creating the CHAINED_ROWS table is dependent upon the compatibility level of your … database and the type of table

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Scheduler Architecture

The Job TableThe job table is a container for all the jobs, with one table per database. The job table stores

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Creating Tables

Example: Creating a TableWhen you issue the following statement, you create a table named admin_emp in the hr schema and … store it in the admin_tbs tablespace: CREATE TABLE hr.admin_emp ( empno NUMBER(5) PRIMARY KEY, ename … (department_id)) TABLESPACE admin_tbs STORAGE ( INITIAL 50K); COMMENT ON TABLE hr.admin_emp IS 'Enhanced … employee table';

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Creating Tables

Creating a Temporary Tableoptional itineraries. Each itinerary is represented by a row in a temporary table. The application … wants to use, the application moves the row for that itinerary to a persistent table. During the … . The definition of a temporary table is visible to all sessions, but the data in a temporary table is … visible

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Guidelines for Managing Tables

Consider Parallelizing Table CreationCREATE TABLE statement. Because multiple processes work together to create the table, performance of the … table creation operation is improved. Parallelizing table creation is discussed in the section \"Parallelizing Table Creation\".

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Guidelines for Managing Tables

Consider Using Table CompressionAs your database grows in size to gigabytes or terabytes and beyond, consider using table … compression. Table compression saves disk space and reduces memory use in the buffer cache. Table compression … loading and DML. Table compression is completely transparent to applications. It is especially … can also be

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Dropping Table ColumnsYou can drop columns that are no longer needed from a table, including an index-organized table … data then re-create indexes and constraints. You cannot drop all columns from a table, nor can you … drop columns from a table owned by SYS. Any attempt to do so results in an error. See Also: Oracle … Database SQL

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Renaming Table ColumnsOracle Database lets you rename existing columns in a table. Use the RENAME COLUMN clause of the … ALTER TABLE statement to rename a column. The new name must not conflict with the name of any existing … column in the table. No other clauses are allowed in conjunction with the RENAME COLUMN clause. The … following statement renames

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

DBMS_REPAIR Examples

Examples: Building a Repair Table or Orphan Key TableThe ADMIN_TABLE procedure is used to create, purge, or drop a repair table or an orphan key table … . A repair table provides information about the corruptions that were found by the CHECK_OBJECT … to drive the execution of the FIX_CORRUPT_BLOCKS procedure. An orphan key table is used when the … DUMP_ORPHAN_KEYS

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

BETWEEN Conditions

Table 7-10 BETWEEN ConditionsType of Condition Operation Example [NOT] BETWEEN x AND y [ NOT ] ( expr2 less than or equal to expr1 AND expr1 less than or equal to expr3 ) SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary BETWEEN 2000 AND 3000 ORDER BY employee_id;

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Null Conditions

Table 7-9 Null ConditionsType of Condition Operation Example IS [NOT] NULL Tests for s. See Also: \"Nulls\" SELECT last_name FROM employees WHERE commission_pct IS NULL ORDER BY last_name;

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Overview of Pipelined Table FunctionsPipelined table functions let you use PL/SQL to program a row source. You invoke the table function … as the operand of the table operator in the FROM list of a SQL SELECT statement. It is also … possible to invoke a table function as a SELECT list item; here, you do not use the table operator. A table

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Graphic Syntax Diagrams

Table A-1 Syntax ParametersParameter Description Examples table The substitution value must be the name of an object of the

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Arithmetic Operators

Table 4-2 Arithmetic OperatorsOperator Purpose Example + - When these denote a positive or negative expression, they are unary operators. SELECT * FROM order_items WHERE quantity = -1 ORDER BY order_id, line_item_id, product_id; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE -salary + - When they add or subtract, they are binary operators. SELECT hire_date FROM employees WHERE SYSDATE - hire_date > 365 ORDER BY hire_date; * / Multiply, divide.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Comparison Conditions

Table 7-2 Comparison ConditionsType of Condition Purpose Example = Equality test. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary = 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; != ^= ÿ= Inequality test. Some forms of the inequality condition may be unavailable on some platforms. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary != 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; > Greater-than and less-than tests. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary > 2500 ORDER BY employee_id; SELECT *

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Redefining Tables Online

Features of Online Table RedefinitionOnline table redefinition enables you to: Modify the storage parameters of a table or cluster Move … a table or cluster to a different tablespace Note: If it is not important to keep a table available … for DML when moving it to another tablespace, you can use the simpler ALTER TABLE MOVE command. See

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

DBMS_REPAIR Examples

Example: Creating a Repair TableThe following example creates a repair table for the users tablespace. BEGIN … => dbms_repair.create_action, TABLESPACE => 'USERS'); END; / For each repair or orphan key table, a view is also … corresponds to the name of the repair or orphan key table and is prefixed by DBA_ (for example … , DBA_REPAIR_TABLE or DBA_ORPHAN_KEY_TABLE

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Logical Conditions

Table 7-4 Logical Conditions' OR department_id = 10 ORDER BY employee_id; Table 7-5 shows the result of applying the NOT condition to an expression.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

GRANT

Table 18-1 System Privileges… CREATE ANY CLUSTER Create a cluster in any schema. Behaves similarly to CREATE ANY TABLE. ALTER ANY … schema a domain index or an index on any table in any schema. ALTER ANY INDEX Alter indexes in any … view on any table in the database. Alter a refresh-on-demand materialized on any table in the database

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

IN Condition

Table 7-12 IN ConditionsType of Condition Operation Example IN Equal-to-any-member-of test. Equivalent to =ANY. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE job_id IN ('PU_CLERK','SH_CLERK') ORDER BY employee_id; SELECT * FROM employees WHERE salary IN (SELECT salary FROM employees WHERE department_id =30) ORDER BY employee_id; NOT IN Equivalent to != ALL. Evaluates to FALSE if any member of the set is NULL. SELECT * FROM employees WHERE

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Set Operators

Table 4-4 Set OperatorsOperator Returns UNION All distinct rows selected by either query UNION ALL All rows selected by either query, including all duplicates INTERSECT All distinct rows selected by both queries MINUS All distinct rows selected by the first query but not the second

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Loading Tables

Creating an Error Logging TableYou can create an error logging table manually, or you can use a PL/SQL package to automatically create one for you.

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Creating Hash Clusters

Creating Single-Table Hash ClustersYou can also create a single-table hash cluster, which provides fast access to rows in a table … . However, this table must be the only table in the hash cluster. Essentially, there must be a one-to-one … mapping between hash keys and data rows. The following statement creates a single-table hash

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Writing a Pipelined Table FunctionYou declare a pipelined table function by specifying the PIPELINED keyword. Pipelined functions can … indicates that the function returns rows iteratively. The return type of the pipelined table function must … be a supported collection type, such as a nested table or a varray. This collection type can be … table

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Concatenation Operator

Table 4-3 Concatenation Operatorbars, as shown in Table 4-3. However, some IBM platforms use broken vertical bars for this operator … more information about CLOB s Concatenation Example  This example creates a table with both CHAR and … preserved. CREATE TABLE tab1 (col1 VARCHAR2(6), col2 CHAR(6), col3 VARCHAR2(6), col4 CHAR(6) ); INSERT

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Managing Index-Organized Tables

Parallelizing Index-Organized Table CreationThe CREATE TABLE...AS SELECT statement enables you to create an index-organized table and load data … from an existing table into it. By including the PARALLEL clause, the load can be done in parallel … . The following statement creates an index-organized table in parallel by selecting rows from the … conventional

Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Performing Flashback and Database Point-in-Time Recovery

Rewinding a Table with Flashback TableDatabase, and on the related restore points feature Rewinding a Table with Flashback Table

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Performing Multiple Transformations with Pipelined Table FunctionsThis section explains how to chain together special kinds of functions known as pipelined table … transformations to data. Note: A pipelined table function cannot be run over a database link. The reason is … that the return type of a pipelined table function is a SQL user-defined type, which can be used only … ). Although the

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

STATS_BINOMIAL_TEST

Table 5-3 STATS_BINOMIAL Return ValuesReturn Value Meaning TWO_SIDED_PROB The probability that the given population proportion, p, could result in the observed proportion or a more extreme one. EXACT_PROB The probability that the given population proportion, p, could result in exactly the observed proportion. ONE_SIDED_PROB_OR_MORE The probability that the given population proportion, p, could result in the observed proportion or a larger

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

STATS_WSR_TEST

Table 5-10 STATS_WSR_TEST_* Return ValuesReturn Value Meaning STATISTIC The observed value of Z ONE_SIDED_SIG One-tailed significance of Z TWO_SIDED_SIG Two-tailed significance of Z One-sided significance is always with respect to the upper tail. The high value (the value whose rejection region is the upper tail) is expr1.

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

CREATE DISKGROUP

Table 14-1 Disk Group AttributesAttribute Valid Values Description AU_SIZE Size in bytes. Valid values are powers of 2 from 1M to 64M. Examples '4M', '4194304'. Specifies the allocation unit size. This attribute can be set only during disk group creation; it cannot be modified with an ALTER DISKGROUP statement. COMPATIBLE.RDBMS Valid Oracle Database version number (Note 1) This setting is not reversible. It dictates the format of

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

STATS_MW_TEST

Table 5-7 STATS_MW_TEST Return ValuesReturn Value Meaning STATISTIC The observed value of Z U_STATISTIC The observed value of U ONE_SIDED_SIG One-tailed significance of Z TWO_SIDED_SIG Two-tailed significance of Z The one-tailed significance is always in relation to the upper tail. The final argument, expr3, indicates which of the two groups specified by expr1 is the high value (the value whose rejection region is the upper tail). STATS_MW_TEST

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Adding a Column to a Compressed TableAdding a Col umn to a Compressed Table If you enable compression for all operations on a table, you … can add columns to that table with or without default values. If you enable compression for direct … -path inserts only, you can add columns only if you do not specify default values. See Also: \"Consider Using Table

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Pipelining Data Between PL/SQL Table FunctionsWith serial execution, results are pipelined from one PL/SQL table function to another using an … function g to function f: SELECT * FROM TABLE(f(CURSOR(SELECT * FROM TABLE(g())))); Parallel

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Optimizing Multiple Calls to Pipelined Table FunctionsMultiple calls to a pipelined table function, either within the same query or in separate queries … reuse of rows. For example: SELECT * FROM TABLE(f(...)) t1, TABLE(f(...)) t2 WHERE t1.id = t2.id … ; SELECT * FROM TABLE(f()); SELECT * FROM TABLE(f()); If the function always produces the same result

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Performing DML Operations Inside Pipelined Table FunctionsTo execute DML statements, declare a pipelined table function with the AUTONOMOUS_TRANSACTION … ; END; / During parallel execution, each instance of the table function creates an independent transaction.

Database PL/SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Tuning PL/SQL Applications for Performance

Handling Exceptions in Pipelined Table FunctionsException handling in pipelined table functions works just as it does with regular functions. Some … exception raised within a table function is handled, the table function executes the exception handler … exception is cleared, execution proceeds normally. An unhandled exception in a table function causes the parent

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Altering Physical Attributes of a TableWhen altering the transaction entry setting INITRANS of a table, note that a new setting for … INITRANS applies only to data blocks subsequently allocated for the table. The storage parameters INITIAL … , NEXT, PCTINCREASE ) affect only extents subsequently allocated for the table. The size of the next

Database Administrator's Guide, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Altering Tables

Placing a Table in Read-Only ModeYou can place a table in read-only mode with the ALTER TABLE... READ ONLY statement, and return it … to read/write mode with the ALTER TABLE... READ WRITE statement. An example of a table for which … read-only mode makes sense is a configuration table. If your application contains configuration

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Datatype Comparison Rules

Table 2-8 ASCII Character SetSymbol Decimal value Symbol Decimal value blank 32. 59 ! 33 62 $ 36 ? 63 % 37 @ 64 & 38 A-Z 65-90 ' 39 [ 91 ( 40 \\ 92 ) 41 ] 93 * 42 ^ 94 + 43 _ 95, 44 ' 96 - 45 a-z 97-122. 46 { 123 / 47 | 124 0-9 48-57 } 125: 58 ~ 126

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

STATS_KS_TEST

Table 5-6 STATS_KS_TEST Return ValuesReturn Value Meaning STATISTIC Observed value of D SIG Significance of D STATS_KS_TEST Example  Using the Kolmogorov Smirnov test, the following example determines whether the distribution of sales between men and women is due to chance: SELECT stats_ks_test(cust_gender, amount_sold, 'STATISTIC') ks_statistic, stats_ks_test(cust_gender, amount_sold) p_value FROM sh.customers c, sh.sales s WHERE c.cust_id

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

STATS_F_TEST

Table 5-5 STATS_F_TEST Return ValuesReturn Value Meaning STATISTIC The observed value of f DF_NUM Degree of freedom for the numerator DF_DEN Degree of freedom for the denominator ONE_SIDED_SIG One-tailed significance of f TWO_SIDED_SIG Two-tailed significance of f The one-tailed significance is always in relation to the upper tail. The final argument, expr3, indicates which of the two groups specified by expr1 is the high value or numerator

Database SQL Language Reference, 11g Release 1 (11.1)

Datatypes

Table 2-1 Built-in Datatype Summary64 string representing the unique address of a row in its table. This datatype is primarily for … address of a row of an index-organized table. The optional size is the size of a column of type