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SAA (Systems Application Architecture) The IBM architecture for implementing enterprise-wide computing.

save To store change(s) in a form, menu, or library module.

savepoint A point at which work done thus far in a transaction is temporarily named using the SQL statement SAVEPOINT. Then the name can be used as an intermediate point for either committing or rolling back work. You may use multiple savepoints in one transaction at a time, but they may not be nested.

scale (1) A user-defined limit on the number of decimal places to be stored for a column of datatype NUMBER. A scale is set when a table is created or changed using ALTER TABLE. (2) An option in the Oracle Data Browser Print... menu that allows you to reduce or enlarge the size of your output to a printer.

schema A collection of table definitions.

schema objects A collection of related objects. Schema objects are the logical structures that directly refer to the database's data. Schema objects include such structures as tables, views, sequences, stored procedures, synonyms, indexes, clusters, and database links. (There is no relationship between a tablespace and a schema: objects in the same schema can be in different tablespaces, and a tablespace can hold objects from different schemas.)

scope The level at, or range in which, a trigger operates. This domain is determined by the level (form, block, or item) at which you define the trigger.

screen cursor In SQL*Forms, a marker on the display screen, such as a rectangle or a flashing bar, that indicates the designer's or operator's current position.

screen-edit reads An AOS/VS-specific feature that minimizes terminal I/O. The Peripheral Manager (PMGR) handles most I/O, and only allows interrupts to the CPU whenever the user presses a function key or a similar delimiter.

screen painter A component of SQL*Forms (Design) used to create custom forms and modify forms. Using the screen painter, you design the appearance of forms, for example, by cutting and pasting fields and text.

script An executable procedure written in SQL used to perform database administration. See also SQL script.

scroll arrow An arrow contained in a scroll bar, used for finely-tuned scrolling.

scroll bar A narrow column at the lower and/or right edges of a window or list box, indicating that you can scroll through the information contained in the window or list box. See also scroll bar.

scroll bar alley A scroll bar alley is an area of a window that is reserved for the scroll bars.

scroll box A box inside the scroll bar. Dragging the mouse to move the scroll box causes the values in a list box or window to move up or down, according to your selection.

scroll region See multi-line field.

SDLC (Synchronous Data Link Control) An essential part of IBM's SNA, SDLC is a more efficient method than the older BISYNC protocol when packaging data for transmission between computers. Packets of data are sent out over the line without the overhead created by synchronization and other padding bits.

search criteria One or more criterion specified in WHERE clauses using expressions and conditions, to indicate the rows to be fetched by a particular query.

searchlist The list of directories through which the CLI searches when you specify a filename.

secondary access controlled element An element in CASE*Dictionary that is indirectly owned by an application system through the primary access controlled element on which it is dependent; for example, attributes are secondary access controlled elements, dependent on the entities (primary access controlled elements) they describe. Secondary access controlled elements may only be inserted, updated or deleted in the context of a version of the owning application system.

secondary index An optimization technique used on a set of columns (optional or mandatory), which improves the performance of access to rows.

security domain A set of properties that determine for users such things as the actions (privileges and roles) available, the tablespace quotas (available disk space), and the system resource limits (e.g., CPU processing time).

security level The combination of a hierarchical classification and a set of non-hierarchical compartments that represent the sensitivity of information.

SED The Data General Screen Editor.

see The action of moving the read/write head of a disk drive to the correct cylinder on a disk preparatory to a read/write operation.

segment A collection of blocks, grouped in extents, reserved for a table's data, for an index, or for a rollback segment. Every table has one data segment and every index has one index segment. A cluster always has at least two segments (one for data and one for the cluster index).

segment header block The first block in the first extent of a segment, which contains segment overhead information, including a list of extents for this segment.

segment offset The assembly-level address of a block of code.

segments A set of extents allocated for a certain logical structure. There are different types of segments including data segments, index segments, rollback segments, and temporary segments. ORACLE allocates space for all types of segments in extents. Therefore, when the existing extents of a segment are full, ORACLE allocates another extent for that segment as needed. Because extents are allocated as needed, the extents of a segment may or may not be contiguous on disk.

select (1) To fetch rows from one or more database tables using a query (the SQL statement SELECT). (2) In SQL*Forms, to choose a value, enable an option, turn on, or put into effect. The opposite of deselect. (3) In the SQL*Forms screen painter, a function key used to choose a field, to choose an option from a window, or to mark a location on the screen.

SELECT list The list of items that follow the keyword SELECT in a query. These items may include column names, SQL functions, constants, pseudo-columns, calculations on columns, and aliases. The number of columns in the result of the query will match the number of items in the SELECT list.

SELECT statement A SQL statement that specifies which rows and columns to fetch from one or more tables or views. See also SQL statement.

selection owner The view that contains data currently selected by the user.

selection point A selection point is an intercharacter point in a text string at which the cursor can be placed for inserting, deleting or selecting characters.

self-join A query in which one table is joined to itself by treating it as two tables, where one copy of the table is joined to the other copy in the join condition. Self-joins require the use of aliases, to give each copy of the table a temporary distinct name. See also join and join condition.

self-relationship A relationship in Oracle Data Browser where a data source is related to itself, so it behaves in many ways as if it were two separate data sources. A self-relationship can exist when one table contains two fields that are equal, such as MANAGER_NUMBER and EMPLOYEE_NUMBER, where the manager number is the employee number of the manager. See also relationship, key, and foreign key.

send string A component of an exchange block representing data sent from the client to the host system by the autologon facility that is specified in a dialogue file.

separator A line that has a three-dimensional appearance on platforms that support a three-dimensional look and feel.

sequence A database structure used to generate unique integers to be used as primary keys (which are guaranteed to be unique). Concurrent database users can use a sequence simultaneously. Sequences may be defined with many characteristics (for example, to ascend or descend, have any increment or decrement, and to recycle values or not).

sequences A database object used to generate a serial list of unique numbers for numeric columns of a database's tables. Sequences simplify data entry in a multi-user system by automatically generating unique numerical values for the rows of a single table or multiple tables. For example, assume two users are simultaneously inserting new employee rows into the EMP table. By using a sequence to generate unique employee numbers for the EMPNO column, neither user has to wait for the other to input the next available employee number. The sequence automatically generates the correct values for each user. Sequence numbers are independent of tables; therefore, the same sequence can be used for one or multiple tables. After creation, a sequence can be accessed by various users to generate actual sequence numbers, as needed.

serial text searching Processing text by examining each character in turn (scanning).

serializable The property that guarantees the result of concurrent database operations be the same as if the operations occurred sequentially.

server (1) The provider of services requested by a client. (2) A process providing services to other cooperating processes.

Server ORACLE software that handles the functions required for concurrent, shared data access to an ORACLE database. The server portion receives and processes SQL and PL/SQL statements originating from client applications. The computer that manages the server portion must be optimized for its duties.

server group A group containing up to 1000 server machines. Users are assigned server machines from one of the server groups.

server machine Performs database work on behalf of the user. The server machines are used by networking and two-task users.

server process (1) A process in charge of communicating with the user process and interacting with ORACLE to carry out requests of the associated user process. For example, if a user queries some data that is not already in the database buffers of the SGA, the associated server process reads the proper data blocks from the data files into the SGA. ORACLE can be configured to vary the number of user processes per server process. In a dedicated server configuration, a server process handles requests for a single user process. A multi-threaded server configuration allows many user processes to share a small number of server processes, thus minimizing the number of server processes and maximizing the utilization of available system resources. On some systems, the user and server processes are separate, while on others they are combined into a single process. If a system uses the multi-threaded server, or if the user and server processes run on different machines, the user and server processes must be separate. (2) In SQL*Net, an ORACLE process that receives SQL statements from the client and sends them to the ORACLE database on the server machine. The server parses and executes the SQL statements, and sends data and status values back to the client. See also shadow process.

server sublayer In a user-developed gateway, a conceptual grouping of interface calls that perform actions at the server level. Potential actions include starting or stopping the target system, defining the delta capabilities table, allocating and deallocating system memory, and so on. See also intermediate layer.

service call In a user-developed gateway, a function in the service layer, which can be called by interface calls to perform general actions, such as memory allocation. See also context handle.

service layer A conceptual grouping of service calls provided in an Oracle gateway developer's kit.

service name The name used to identify a SQL*Net server process. The services file on client and server machines maps each service name to a port number and protocol.

services file A file that identifies the available services on the network.

session (1) The time after a username connects to an ORACLE database and before disconnecting, and the events that happen in that time. (2) The name for the connection between a PC emulating a mainframe terminal and the mainframe when they are communicating. (3) In SQLREP, the period from invoking SQL*ReportWriter to quitting SQL*ReportWriter. In RUNREP, the period between running a report and quitting it. (4) The period between invoking and quitting an Oracle Graphics executable.

session sublayer In a user-developed gateway, a conceptual grouping of interface calls that perform actions at the gateway user session level. Potential actions include user authentication, allocating and deallocating user memory for one user session, connecting and disconnecting user sessions, and so on.

set condition A logical expression using a set operation.

set operation An operation applicable to two groups of objects or data. The set operations include UNION, INTERSECT, or MINUS.

setting An attribute of an object that determines the effect or presentation of that object. Examples of properties include Vertical Sizing, Region, and Datatype.

SGA See System Global Area.

SGML declaration File that contains a list of which characters are used in a document instance, which syntax the DTD is written in, and which SGML features are used. Like the DTD, this file should accompany the SGML document it pertains to when that document is transferred.

shadow process A feature of the two-task architecture for database security. When a user starts an ORACLE program, a shadow process is invoked on behalf of that user to access the ORACLE database. See also server process.

share lock A type of lock that allows other locks of the same type to coexist on the locked resource, so that more than one user may have access to that resource. Contrast with exclusive lock; often synonymous with read lock.

share update lock A data lock that permits other users to query and lock the data simultaneously. See also row locking.

share update mode See row locking.

shared code system An ORACLE installation where the DCSS containing ORACLE code is loaded as shared and thus may be accessed by several ORACLE systems. The decision to use shared code is made at installation time.

shared database link A database link definition used in Oracle Names. The database link is considered "shared" based on the security in the Oracle7 databasses involved.

shared disk system A computer system that has multiple CPUs sharing access to disks and other peripheral devices, such as printers and tape drives. An example is a VAXcluster. Shared disk systems can be either loosely coupled or tightly coupled. In a tightly coupled system, the CPUs cooperate through shared memory; in a loosely coupled system, each CPU operates independently of the other nodes, except when sharing a resource such as a data file or print queue. Same as multi-instance system.

Shared Global Area (SGA) The shared segment containing temporary data caches used by ORACLE Server during ORACLE operation. The SGA is initialized when ORACLE is started, and unavailable when ORACLE is not running. See System Global Area.

shared memory See System Global Area.

shared mode An ORACLE instance running in shared mode (parallel mode) can share access to the database with other instances that are part of the same ORACLE Parallel Server. A distributed lock that an instance holds in shared mode provides read-only access to the data or other resource covered by that lock; other instances can acquire the same lock in shared mode simultaneously.

shared pool A portion of the SGA, created on instance startup, that contains shared memory constructs such as shared SQL areas. A shared SQL area is required to process every unique SQL statement submitted to a database. A shared SQL area contains information such as the parse tree and execution plan for the corresponding statement. A single shared SQL area is used by multiple applications that issue the same statement, leaving more shared memory for other uses.

shared re-entrant code ORACLE program code that can be shared among simultaneous users. One benefit is that memory requirements are reduced.

shift key A key on your terminal that modifies the effect of other keys while it is held down. Most often used to signify upper or lowercase characters.

shut down The process of stopping a running instance in order to make a database unavailable, including closing and dismounting a database if one has been mounted and opened. Contrast with start up.

SHUTDOWN A privileged SQL*DBA command used to shut down an ORACLE instance.

sibling One of two or more objects that have the same parent object in its group tree. All objects that belong to one group object are siblings.

SID System identifier, also known as system_ID. See ORACLE System Identifier.

signalling An efficient method of interprocess communication using low-level system calls (specifically ?SIGNL and ?WTSIG). Signalling is usually used in conjunction with shared memory.

simple relationship A relationship that enables you to combine data from more than one data source for an Oracle Data Browser query. See also relationship.

single community connection A connection between an initiator and a destination that belong to the same community. The connection is confined to one community and thus a single network protocol.

single-instance mode The default mode in which a database is mounted and opened, and where only one instance can access a database (the instance that opened it).

single-process A mode of database operation that allows only one database user at any time. The ORACLE Server can be invoked in either single- or multiple-process mode. If invoked in single-process mode, the operation of ORACLE Server is somewhat simplified, as the multiple-user protections are not necessary. This will not necessarily achieve performance gains, however. Contrast with multiple-process.

single-record block A block that can display only one record at a time. Contrast with multi-record block.

single-task An operating system that can run programs serially only (one at a time). Contrast with multitasking operating system.

single-user mode Mode of using ORACLE Server in which only one user may access the database. This mode does not require the background virtual machines, whereas multi-user mode does require them.

single-user system See single-process.

site autonomy Means that each database participating in a distributed database is administered separately and independently from the other databases, as though each database were a non-networked database. Although each database can work with others, they are distinct, separate systems that are cared for individually.

size box A small rectangular area of a window that the user can click in or drag to change the size of the window. Size boxes are not available on all platforms.

SMON (System Monitor task) See System Monitor task.

SNA See Systems Network Architecture.

snapshot Information stored in rollback segments to provide transaction recovery and read consistency. Rollback segment information can be used to recreate a snapshot of a row before an update.

snapshots Read-only copies of a master table located on a remote node. A snapshot can be queried, but not updated; only the master table can be updated. A snapshot is periodically refreshed to reflect changes made to the master table.

socket A TCP/IP port number associated with a specific application.

sort (1) (verb) To rearrange a set of values into a new sequence, using rules of precedence, as in alphabetizing or putting in numeric order. (2) (noun) A program designed to perform a sort.

sound item An item that, when selected by the operator, plays back sound from a file.

soundex A method of representing the sound of a word in a four-character code. Soundex codes are often used to query names when the exact spelling is unknown (for example, the same soundex code would locate both "SMITH" and "SMYTHE").

source (Column and Field Definitions) For columns, the name of the column to be summarized. For fields, the source of the data appearing in the field.

source program A program written in a language other than machine code that must be compiled or assembled to be used.

split bar A small rectangle at the top of the vertical scroll bar and to the left of the horizontal scroll bar in the Results Window; also the small rectangle at the bottom of the Query Window that separates the Datasource Panel from the Conditions Panel. In the Results Window, dragging and releasing the mouse button creates a pane, creates a new split bar at that location, and divides the scroll bar into separate scroll bars for each pane. See also pane and scroll bar.

split-screen scrolling The scrolling of data in one portion of a screen without affecting other parts of the screen.

spooling Sending or saving output to a disk storage area. Often used in order to print or transfer files.

spread table A screen display that can span more than one screen and contains information on multiple objects of the same type (e.g., all of the columns in a report).

SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) A network protocol known for high performance and acceptance among many major network management systems, in particular, Novell's Advanced NetWare.

SQL (Structured Query Language) The internationally accepted standard for relational systems, covering not only query but also data definition, manipulation, security and some aspects of referential integrity. See also Data Manipulation (DML) language, Data Definition (DDL) language, and Data Control (DCL) language.

SQL buffer In SQL*Plus, the default buffer used to contain the SQL command or PL/SQL block most recently entered.

SQL command See SQL statement.

SQL Communications Area See SQLCA.

SQL file In Oracle Data Query, a file containing the SQL generated by a query. Users can choose to save the SQL in a file. If they do, they can use the SQL generated by Oracle Data Query in other Oracle applications. Users can also load SQL files containing queries created in other Oracle applications.

SQL script A file containing SQL statements that you can run in SQL*Plus to perform database administration quickly and easily

SQL statement A complete command or statement written in the SQL language. In SQL*Forms, SQL statements can be invoked by triggers at various points in the processing of forms. Synonymous with statement (SQL).

SQL-based gateway A transparent gateway that uses an access method similar to that used by a relational database. In principal, SQL-based gateways have read-write capabilities.

SQL*Calc An interactive spreadsheet, which can be used either as a standalone facility or integrated with an ORACLE relational database.

SQL*Connect SQL*Connect allows ORACLE applications built with certain ORACLE tools to connect to non-ORACLE database management systems, including SQL/DS, DB2, RMS, VSAM, and IMS. Selected ORACLE utilities (such as SQL*Plus or ORACLE for 1-2-3) can be used with these products as if they were running with ORACLE (provided that ORACLE-specific SQL extensions are not used). In conjunction with SQL*Net, SQL*Connect also permits remote applications to access RMS, IMS, SQL/DS, or DB2 database.

SQL*DBA An ORACLE utility that allows DBAs to start, stop, and monitor databases, and perform database maintenance.

SQL*Forms A non-procedural tool for creating, maintaining, and running full-screen, interactive applications (called "forms") in order to see and change data in an ORACLE database. A fourth-generation language for creating interactive screens for use in block-mode, character-mode or bit mapped environments. It has a define time and a runtime component.

SQL*Forms (Convert) The component that allows the designer or operator to convert between various versions or representations (i.e., binary to text format) of an application.

SQL*Forms (Design) The component that allows a designer to define objects in form, menu, and library modules.

SQL*Forms (Generate) The component that allow the designer or operator to create a form, menu, or library executable that SQL*Forms (Runform) can execute.

SQL*Forms (Runform) The component that allows operators to execute predefined applications interactively.

SQL*Forms command A series of functions invoked by a step in a SQL*Forms trigger.

SQL*Loader An ORACLE tool used to load data from operating system files into ORACLE database tables.

SQL*Menu A comprehensive computerized menu system, which may be used in a variety of different formats such as pull-down menus and strip menus, to enable users to access forms, reports, batch programs, other menus and any other form of computer process. It has a define time and a runtime component.

SQL*Net An Oracle product that works with ORACLE Server and enables two or more computers that run the ORACLE Server to exchange data through a third-party network. SQL*Net supports distributed processing and distributed database capability. SQL*Net is an "open system" because it is independent of the communications protocol, and users can interface SQL*Net to many network environments.

SQL*Net 3270 An Oracle product that uses 3270 data stream to allow peer-to-peer communications between Oracle products on desktop computers and those on VM or MVS mainframes. 3270 is the native block-mode communications protocol used by IBM for host-to-terminal connectivity.

SQL*Net administration tool The means of configuring and maintaining a SQL*Net network, including SQL*Net, the MultiProtocol Interchange, and Oracle Names.

SQL*Net Asynchronous A protocol that makes use of asynchronous terminal lines to allow PCs or Macintoshes to access the host and initiate a session with an ORACLE server process on the host.

SQL*Net DECnet Communications protocol that uses the DECnet listener process to start the ORACLE server process on the host machine. Can be used with DECnet running over Ethernet, asynchronous lines, or over a synchronous line (into an X.25 network).

SQL*Net driver The software that allows SQL*Net to use a specific communications protocol.

SQL*Net MAP Communications protocol driver that uses an architecture and database string similar to that used for SQL*Net TCP/IP. Recommended for existing networks or for an environment that intends to migrate to MAP 3.0.

SQL*Net TCP/IP A set of related protocols that support process-to-process communication and applications such as file transfer and terminal emulation. SQL*Net TCP/IP is especially popular for connecting minicomputers. TCP/IP is a portable protocol, commonly run on top of Ethernet, although support is available for IBM's Token Ring interface card as well as X.25 networks.

SQL*Net VTAM (LU0) An Oracle product for distributed database and distributed processing between MVS and VM/CMS processors. This version of SQL*Net depends on VTAM (IBM's Virtual Telecommunications Access Method) and the underlying LU0 protocol, to set up process-to-process communications on IBM VM and MVS nodes.

SQL*Net Xodiac The communications protocol driver recommended for DG-to-DG connections, useful for both LAN and WAN (over X.25) connections. It can be used with interactive and SQL-intensive applications such as SQL*Forms. It is similar to SQL*Net TCP/IP on VMS, and comparable to DECnet when run over Ethernet.

SQL*Plus An interactive SQL-based language for data manipulation, data definition and the definition of access rights for an ORACLE database. Often used as an end-user reporting tool.

SQL*ReportWriter A fourth-generation language for creating sophisticated reports in a variety of formats such as master detail and matrix. It has a define time and a runtime component.

SQL*Star ORACLE's open systems architecture, that supports distributed processing and distributed databases. SQL*Star is comprised of three Oracle products: SQL*Net, ORACLE Server, and SQL*Connect. It is preferable to reference the individual product names rather than use the term SQL*Star.

SQL*TextRetrieval A set of capabilities to enable unstructured documents to be stored either in an ORACLE database or external to it, and subsequently enable users to locate desired text in a performance-effective manner using content and concept searching.

SQLCA (SQL Communications Area) A temporary storage area used by user-written programs (such as SQL*Forms user-exits) to return information to the program, such as error codes and the number of rows fetched.

SQLLIB The family of functions contained in the file SQL.LB. The precompiler translates embedded SQL statements into calls to these functions.

SQLPME (SQL Protected-Mode Executive) A routine that allows ORACLE Server and ORACLE tools to run on MS-DOS workstations in protected mode.

SQLREP An executable command that invokes SQL*ReportWriter's design interface, allowing you to define and run reports.

stacked canvas A programmatically controlled canvas that displays overlays a content canvas in the same window.

star A LAN topology in which all workstations are wired directly to a central server or hub.

start/stop See asynchronous.

start up To start an instance using the SQL*DBA command START, presumably with the intention of mounting and opening a database, in order to make a database system available for use.

STARTUP The command issued in conjunction with SQL*DBA to start an instance (presumably with the intention of mounting and opening a database), and thus make a database system available for use.

State Transition Diagram A visual means of modelling an object, the states through which it might go during its life-cycle, events that affect it and its interrelationships to other objects and states. Such diagrams may be used to model objects such as an entity, a system, a process/function, a program, and are particularly useful to model real-time situations.

statement (SQL) A SQL statement, and analogous to a complete sentence, as opposed to a phrase. Portions of SQL statements or commands are called expressions, predicates, or clauses. See also SQL statement.

statement auditing The auditing of specific SQL statements without regard to specifically named objects. (In addition, database triggers allow a DBA to extend and customize ORACLE's built-in auditing features.) Statement auditing can be broad and audit all users of the system, or can be focused to audit only selected users of the system. For example, system auditing by user can audit connections to and disconnections from the database by the users SCOTT and LORI.

statement failure Occurs when there is a logical failure in the handling of a statement in an ORACLE program (e.g., the statement is not a valid SQL construction). When statement failure occurs, the effects (if any) of the statement are automatically undone by ORACLE and control is returned to the user or user program.

statement level rollback To undo or discard the effect of a single SQL statement. A statement level rollback is automatically performed if an error occurs in the processing of a SQL statement. See roll back.

static data dictionary A data dictionary that contains data definitions that are not an integral part of the data source. Changes to data structures require the data source to be rebuilt. See also dynamic data dictionary, gateway data dictionary.

static record group A record group whose columns and rows are defined at design time; it cannot be modified programmatically at runtime. A static record group cannot be defined programmatically.

status line In various Oracle products, a line on the screen where current status information is displayed; usually the last line on the screen.

step One operation in a SQL*Forms trigger. A step may execute a SQL command, a SQL*Forms command, or a user exit.

steward The person who administers a Bulletin Board category. The steward solicits and reviews articles and decides when items will be posted or deleted.

Stop list A list of insignificant words that are not to be included in the index and selected by the user. Such words might include: and, to, but, the, as.

storage object The passive repositories in which database named objects are stored. Storage objects are labeled based on the sensitivity of the information contained in the object.

stored query expression (SQE) A query expression that is stored along with the results obtained by performing that query. Each SQE can be named.

storyboard A technique, borrowed from the film industry, for describing screen dialogues. A storyboard consists of an ordered series of pictures, illustrating stages of the dialogue. The pictures are annotated with notes about logic and user input.

string angle The counterclockwise angle between the baseline of a text string and the X-axis of the coordinate plane.

string Any sequence of words or characters on a line.

stripe cluster See striped file system.

stripe width In a striped file system, each volume consists of one or more partitions and each partition can contain multiple stripes. The stripe width is the number of logically contiguous blocks in one partition of a volume.

striped file system A file system that stores information on multiple physical devices while making it appear to be stored on a single logical device. ORACLE on the nCUBE 2 supercomputer uses a striped file system for database files, redo log files, and control files. Each striped file system can contain one or more files. A striped file system is also known as a stripe cluster.

structured data Typically numerical, graphical, or tabular data.

structures Well-defined objects that store the data of a database. Structures and the data contained within them can be manipulated by operations.

sub-entity See sub-type.

sub-schema A subset of a schema. In relational terms, a view is often a more applicable concept.

sub-type In ORACLE CASE*Method, a type of entity. An entity may be sub-classified as being of two or more sub-types, each of which has common attributes and/or relationships. These are defined explicitly once only at the higher level. Sub-types may have attributes and/or relationships in their own right. A sub-type may be further sub-typed to lower levels See also super-type.

subcube An allocated subset of processing nodes. A subcube is n-dimensional; that is, it contains 2n nodes, where n is less than or equal to the dimension of the hypercube.

subdirectory A directorythat is contained within another directory.

subject An active entity, generally in the form of a user, process, or device, that causes information to flow among objects or change the system state.

submenu A menu structure below the level of the menu bar that contains one or more menu items. A submenu can have its own submenu.

subnet A network that is part of a larger, extended network. See also internet.

subprogram A named PL/SQL construct. Functions and procedures constitute subprograms.

subquery A query that is nested in a clause of a SQL command.

substitution parameter A variable in a dialogue file for which you can assign a string. At runtime the string is substituted into the dialogue.

substitution variable In SQL*Plus, a variable name or numeral preceded by one or two ampersands (&). Substitution variables are used in a command file to represent values to be provided when the command file is run.

subsystem communication character A unique national character assigned to an ORACLE instance. This allows a user to communicate with a particular instance without specifying the subsystem name.

subsystem name A unique identifier used to identify a subsystem on MVS. ORACLE runs as a subsystem on MVS and each ORACLE subsystem on MVS has its own unique subsystem name.

subtotal In a report, a total of values in a number column, taken over a group of rows that have the same value in a break field. See also summary.

success In SQL*Forms, one of two possible results of the execution of a trigger or a trigger step. A query succeeds if it retrieves one or more rows and fails if it retrieves no rows. A DML command succeeds if it inserts, updates, or deletes at least one row and fails if it affects no rows.

success label In SQL*Forms, a label that is specified as part of a step in a trigger and that identifies the step SQL*Forms should execute next if this step succeeds. See also label, failure label.

success unit Normally, that component of work carried out by a computer program that takes the database from one state of consistency to another.

summary Summaries, or summary columns, are used to compute subtotals, grand totals, running totals, and other summarizations of the data in a report.

summary function A summary function performs a mathematical operation on a value or series of values in one column of a relational database table. For example, a function to work out the average of the values in a column is a summary function. Summary functions include AVERAGE, COUNT, MAXIMUM, MINIMUM, and SUM.

summary line In a report, a line containing totals, averages, maximums, or other computed values.

summary report A report showing a summary of information in the database, produced using summary functions. For example, the average of the values in a column, or the total number of entries in a column.

super-type In ORACLE CASE*Method, an entity that has sub-types.

superprocess mode In superprocess mode, a user can modify the state (type, priority, and various privileges) of any process in the process tree.

superuser A privilege that allows a user to bypass file access controls (ACLs) and refer to any file on the system.

switch An option that can be selected or deselected, enabled or disabled, usually by pressing a toggle key.

switched line A communications link for which the physical path may vary with usage. An example is the dial-up telephone network.

synchronization The process by which the different nodes in a domain update their information by retrieving it from their designated synchronization nodes.

synchronization node A node designated to provide updated information to another node within a domain.

synchronous A communication mode in which data has a constant time interval between successive bits or characters. Implies that all the equipment in the system is in step. Contrast with asynchronous.

synchronous event A synchronous event is delivered to the event handler immediately upon being generated.

synchronous terminal A terminal that transmits and receives data a screen or a field at a time as opposed to a character at a time. See also block-mode terminal and contrast with asynchronous terminal.

synonym An alias for a table, view, sequence, or program unit; a synonym is not actually an object itself, it is a direct reference to its base object. Synonyms are used to mask the real name and owner of an object, provide public access to an object, provide location transparency for tables, views, or program units of a remote database, and simplify the SQL statements for database users. A synonym can be public or private. In SQL*TextRetrieval, a synonym is a word that has the same meaning as, or represents the same concept as another word.

synonym chaining A method of nesting synonyms to access data on remote nodes. Synonyms can greatly simplify the process of accessing multiple server machines using various networks.

synonym ring A group of synonymous terms.

syntax The orderly system by which commands, qualifiers, and parameters are combined to form valid command strings.

SYS username One of two standard DBA usernames automatically created with each database (the other is SYSTEM). The ORACLE username SYS is created with the password CHANGE_ON_INSTALL. SYS owns the base data dictionary tables and views.

system A named, defined and interacting collection of real-world facts, procedures and processes, along with the organized deployment of people, machines, various mechanisms and other resources that carry out those procedures and processes. See also Application System.

system administrator A person responsible for operation and maintenance of the operating system of a computer.

system data Data used by the Names server to control regular functioning or communicate with other servers. Includes Names server parameters and the names and addresses of other servers.

system editor The text editor provided by the operating system on which a SQL*Forms (Runform) application is running. Contrast with Built-in Editor.

system event In ORACLE CASE*Method, any point in the life of an enterprise when one or more functions have been completed and the initiation of further functions is triggered.

System Global Area (SGA) A shared storage area required by ORACLE Server that contains information required by user processes and background processes. Every instance starting a multiple-user database first creates an SGA in main or virtual memory. The SGA supports communication between user and background processes and tracks resources shared by users (such as cache buffers, database and log buffers, locks, and dictionary caches). May also be called the shared global area.

system glossary A list of terms with their meanings.

system identifier Used in SGML as part of an external entity declaration, this reserved keyword SYSTEM determines that the referenced value is specific to the (operating) system on which the document was processed.

system ID A synonym for instance identifier. Often abbreviated to SID. On VAX/VMS also called a "sysID."

system memory In a user-developed gateway, the memory that can be accessed by any interface call. System memory is shared by all gateway user sessions. Gateway developers must ensure that system memory is persistent for all sessions. See also server sublayer, user memory.

System Monitor (SMON) task Task that performs instance recovery at instance startup. In a multiple instance system (one that uses the Parallel Server), SMON of one instance can also perform instance recovery for other instances that have failed. SMON also cleans up temporary segments that are no longer in use and recovers dead transactions skipped during crash and instance recovery because of file-read or offline errors. These transactions are eventually recovered by SMON when the tablespace or file is brought back online. SMON also coalesces free extents within the database, to make free space contiguous and easier to allocate.

System Network Architecture (SNA) Developed by IBM, SNA defines a standard logical structure for the transmission of data in distributed processing networks.

system-owned tables Tables that are not owned by users (i.e., the users share these tables with other users), used by SQL*ReportWriter to store module definitions.

system privileged SQL*DBA commands The subset of the SQL*DBA commands that require not only access to the SQL*DBA utility, but additional operating system privileges. These commands require the highest level of security.

system security The mechanisms that control the access and use of the database at the system level. For example, system security includes valid username/password combinations, user authorization, the amount of disk space available, resource limits, and which system operations a user can perform.

SYSTEM username One of two standard DBA usernames automatically created with each database (the other is SYS). The ORACLE user SYSTEM is created with the password MANAGER. The SYSTEM username is the preferred username for DBAs to use when performing database maintenance.

system variable A variable that indicates status or environment, which is given a default value by ORACLE or SQL*Plus. Examples are LINESIZE and PAGESIZE. Use the SQL*Plus commands SHOW and SET to see and alter system variables.

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