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TA lock The abbreviation for a transaction lock that appears in the SQL*DBA MONITOR display. The presence of a transaction lock indicates a row lock.

tab-delimited This term refers to the format of an ASCII file, using a tab to separate each column value and a carriage return to separate each row. Some computer applications accept data in tab-delimited format. Oracle Data Browser exports data to the tab-delimited format through the Export Data... option from the File menu. A tab-delimited file contains the .TXT file extension. See also ASCII. A tab-delimited file contains the .PRN file extension, used in a number of computer applications.

table The basic unit of storage in a relational database management system. A table represents entities and relationships, and consists of one or more units of information (rows), each of which contains the same kinds of values (columns). Each column is given a column name, a datatype (such as CHAR, DATE, or NUMBER), and a width (the width may be predetermined by the datatype, as in DATE). Once a table is created, valid rows of data can be inserted into it. Table information can then be queried, deleted, or updated. To enforce defined business rules on a table's data, integrity constraints and triggers can also be defined for a table. In SQL*Forms, a block in a form is associated with one base table. See also base table, view, synonym.

table alias A temporary substitute name for a table, defined in a query and only good during that query. If used, an alias is set in the FROM clause of a SELECT statement and may appear in the SELECT list. See also alias.

table constraint An integrity constraint that applies to multiple columns of the same table.

table list Contains the tables and views that users have access to. You can specify the Table List for different users in different ways using the Table List definition scripts.

table locking A lock that reserves an entire table for reads or writes. A table lock is obtained using the SQL statement LOCK TABLE.

table look-up field A field displaying data from a table that is not the base table for that block but rather is a table in which the data was "looked up."

table replication The process of replicating tables often queried by users of several nodes in a distributed database. By having read-only copies of highly accessed data on several nodes, the distributed database does not need to send information across a network, thus helping to maximize the performance of the database application.

table usage A module data usage of a table.

tablespace A logical portion of an ORACLE database used to allocate storage for table and index data. Each tablespace corresponds to one or more physical database files. Every ORACLE database has a tablespace called SYSTEM and may have additional tablespaces. A tablespace is used to group related logical structures together. For example, tablespaces commonly group all of an application's objects to simplify certain administrative operations.

tablespace locks One of three types of internal locks acquired automatically by ORACLE Server. These locks exist on tablespaces and rollback segments to ensure that instances properly access and write to tablespaces and rollback segments.

tablespace quotas A mechanism that limits the collective amount of disk space available to the objects in a schema. Quotas (space limits) can be set for each tablespace available to a user. The tablespace quota security feature permits selective control over the amount of disk space that can be consumed by the objects of specific schemas.

tabstop A view to which the user can navigate using the Tab or BackTab key.

tabular Default layout displaying labels at the top of the page and rows of data underneath the labels.

TAR See Technical Assistance Request.

target See clipboard target.

target sublayer 1. In a user-developed transparent gateway, a conceptual grouping of interface calls that perform actions specific to the access category. Potential actions include the manipulation of data in the data source. 2. In a user-developed procedural gateway, the 3GL routines supplied by the user that interact with the target system.

target system A system accessed by a procedural gateway or transparent gateway. For example, a data source, operating system, real-time system, process control monitor, and so on. Target systems are categorized by access category.

task (1) Synonym for an operating-system process. (2) A task is the first subdivision of a stage in the business system life cycle.

task-to-task communication See process-to-process communication.

TCB (Task Control Block)

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) A part of the TCP/IP protocol, commonly used over Ethernet. See also IP.

TCPPCTL Utility program provided by ORACLE that controls TCPSRV.

TCPSRV The SQL*Net TCP/IP network server process that runs on each SQL*Net TCP/IP server node and accepts all incoming connection requests for a specified database on that node. See also TCPCTL.

TD lock The abbreviation for a dictionary lock that appears in the SQL*DBA MONITOR display.

Technical Assistance Request (TAR) A customer's request for assistance or information on some aspect of an Oracle product, entered in the On-Line Support system.

tear-off menu A submenu that the user can remove from the main menu using a mouse or other pointing device and drag to another part of the display screen.

telecommunications protocol See communications protocol.

telnet A TCP/IP utility program used to connect to another node on a network and emulate a terminal on that node.

temporary data field A field that temporarily stores and displays data derived or calculated from other fields in the form. The data is not actually stored in or retrieved from any database table.

temporary fragment A portion of a bit string representing a group of documents. Temporary fragments are created during indexing where documents in the text table are indexed in groups.

temporary segment A segment used by ORACLE Server for a temporary work area during processing (typically sorting). Each temporary segment is created for a specific user process and disappears when the process no longer requires it. Many temporary segments can exist at any given moment.

temporary tablespace When a user executes a SQL statement that requires the creation of temporary segments (e.g., the creation of an index), the user's temporary tablespace is used. By directing all users' temporary segments to a separate tablespace, the temporary tablespace feature can reduce I/O contention among temporary segments and other types of segments.

term Entry in a thesaurus hierarchy or synonym ring.

TERM Command line argument that enables you to specify a file that describes the terminal from which you are using SQLREP or RUNREP.

terminal An interactive device that has a keyboard for input, and for display uses either a screen (as in a video display terminal) or a printer (as in a hard copy terminal).

terminal (emulation) protocol A communications protocol in which the client behaves like a terminal or PC-to-host connection. Usually run over asynchronous or 3270 coaxial communication lines.

terminal-to-host network The hardware and software that connect printers, terminals, and personal computers emulating terminals to a multi-user system. These networks use simple protocols like 3270 and asynchronous ASCII to transport keyboard input from the terminal to the host-based program and output from the program to the terminal screen.

text editor A program run by a computer's operating system used to create and edit operating system files. In ORACLE the text editor is often used to edit SQL files, output files, command files, or control files.

text field A single-line text editor.

text file A file where original text is stored (normally in original format).

text index Composed of the wordlist and the bit location table. It is used by SQL*TextRetrieval to identify the documents that contain occurrences of any given indexed word. See also Inverted Index.

text information management system See full-text retrieval.

text item In a SQL*Forms block, an interface object that can display an output value or (usually) accept an input value. The data that a text item displays can correspond to data from a column in a table. Also known as a field.

text label A label that is drawn as text.

text list box A box containing a list of selectable items that are represented by character strings.

text retrieval system See full-text retrieval.

text table A table on which documents are stored or with which external documents are linked.

Thesaurus The vocabulary of a controlled indexing language, formally organized so that the relationships between concepts (e.g. 'broader' and 'narrower') are made explicit.

theta join See non-equi-join.

thread The cross memory services connection from CICS to an ORACLE for MVS subsystem for a particular ORACLE userid.

thread pool A collection of threads that can be utilized by CICS users with certain specified characteristics.

TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) Format for reading image files.

timer (1) An entity that the client can schedule to deliver events after a specified delay. (2) A mechanism by which a designer can schedule a SQL*Forms processing event.

timestamp A unique date and time denoting a particular event, such as the saving of a file. Timestamps are used for identification purposes, especially to locate the most recent version of a file, data item, or program. In ORACLE auditing, timestamps can be stored to record the time when a row was created or most recently modified.

timing area In SQL*Plus, an internal storage area created by the TIMING command.

title In SQL*Plus, one or more lines that appear at the top or bottom of each report page. You establish and format titles using the SQL*Plus commands TTITLE and BTITLE.

title bar A horizontal area at the top of a window that displays the name of the application or interface element in that window.

title page If a report title page is used, it is the first page of the report and contains only text from the title page text object on the Text Screen. Otherwise, it is non-existent: no blank page is printed.

TM lock An abbreviation for data locks that appears in the SQL*DBA MONITOR display.

TNS See Transparent Network Substrate.

TNS address An address of a client on a TNS community, which identifies the community to which the client belongs, the protocol used by that community, and some protocol specific values. One TNS client may have multiple TNS addresses if the client resides in multiple communities.

TNS client A client node that is a member of one or more TNS communities and is running software based on TNS. A TNS client can be either a client, a server, or both.

TNS client type Applications that share the same TNS community and preferred interchanges.

TNS community See community.

TNS connection A connection between two TNS applications, initiated by a TNS client using a connect descriptor; and maintained by TNS and, optionally, a MultiProtocol Interchange.

TNS network/application network A network that consists of one or more TNS communities running TNS-based products.

TNS node An application that is a member of a TNS community.

TNS-based product Software that directly calls or uses TNS. An example is SQL*Net V2.

TNS network A network composed of one or more TNS communities. Many TNS networks have one or more MultiProtocol Interchanges to connect communities based on different network protocols.

TNS network data The data common to all administrative regions. TNS nework data includes communities, their costs, and the Interchanges between them.

TNSNAMES.ORA file A file that contains connect descriptors mapped to service names. The file may be maintained centrally or locally, for use by all or individual clients.

TNSNAV.ORA file There are two versions of this file. The TNSNAV.ORA file for a client specifies that client's preferred Connection Managers. Clients can share the file if they have identical network requirements (that is, if they are the same client type). The TNSNAV.ORA file for an Interchange lists the communities of which that Interchange is a member. Each Interchange in a network must have its own TNSNAV.ORA file.

TNSNET.ORA file A file that includes a list of every Interchange on the network and the communities they connect. The file is used by Navigators to navigate connection paths. It is maintained centrally and copied as necessary. Every Interchange must be able to access this file.

toggle A setting that can be turned either on or off. For example, you show or hide the grid in the Layout editor in Oracle Graphics.

toggle switch Switch that can be turned on or off to control the behavior of report output or the definition process. For example, you can switch between insert and overtype mode when entering data by pressing a single key.

token (1) The lowest level single unit of text. Often a word but it may, for example, be a hyphenated word or a date. (2) A unique combination of bits. When a LAN workstation receives a token, permission has been given to transmit.

token bus network A LAN that uses the token-passing access method on a bus topology. Developed by the Manufacturing Automation Protocol(MAP) committee to support manufacturing applications for the factory floor, token bus is now an accepted standard.

TokenRing The IBM network protocol that uses token passing as its access method.

tool (1) The collective group of ORACLE products and utilities. (2) An icon that appears in the SQL*ReportWriter painters and in the Oracle Graphics editors. Tools are used to create, select, and manipulate objects.

top-level operator The logical operator you choose in Oracle Data Browser to combine conditions either AND, OR, NOT, or NOR. The top-level operator determines how your conditions are combined when the query is submitted to the database. See also condition and logical operator.

top term The broadest class to which a concept belongs; used in thesaurus hierarchies.

topic definition A facility that permits concept searching by providing a structure that links words and phrases that are related in a hierarchical manner. Each node in the topic definition can be a term, compound term, Boolean search expression, a wildcard term, soundex search, a date range regarding the source, or the source itself. Topic terms can also be topics within themselves, allowing for intricate and sophisticated networked topic definitions. See also Thesaurus.

topology The physical layout of a network. See bus, ring, and star.

trace file See dump file.

tracing A facility that writes detailed information about an operation to an output file. The trace facility produces a detailed sequence of statements that describe the events of an operation as they are executed. Administrators use the trace facility for diagnosing an abnormal condition; it is not normally enabled.

trailer page A report region containing the report trailer pages, appearing once at the end of each report.

transaction A logical unit of work that comprises one or more SQL statements executed by a single user. According to the ANSI/ISO SQL standard, with which ORACLE is compatible, a transaction begins with the user's first executable SQL statement. A transaction ends when it is explicitly committed or rolled back by the user.

transaction ID A unique ID for every transaction that is created, used, and known only by the ORACLE Server.

transaction lock A lock appearing in the SQL*DBA MONITOR display that indicates that a transaction is holding row locks.

transaction sublayer In a user-developed gateway, a conceptual grouping of interface calls that perform actions at the transaction level. Potential actions include initiating a transaction at the target system, committing or rolling back the target system transaction, transaction recovery, and so on.

transactional triggers A set of inter-dependent triggers that allow the designer to completely replace the normal interaction between a SQL*Forms application and a non-ORACLE data source.

transfer mode This mode refers to the method that the toolkit uses to draw pixels when a drawing is transferred from one pixel-based surface to another.

transferable relationship A relationship between an object of type A and another object of type B is said to be transferable if there is a business rule that enables an instance of A to be disconnected from one instance of B and connected to another instance of B. Conversely, a non-transferable relationship would occur if the instance of A must always be connected to a particular instance of B.

transparent gateway A gateway that is accessed using Oracle SQL. See also mapped table, Oracle-developed gateway, procedural gateway, Transparent Gateway Developer's Kit.

Transparent Gateway Administrator utility A utility supplied with a transparent gateway product that is not SQL-based. It is used to administer gateway users, mapped tables using GDDL, and so on.

Transparent Gateway Developer's Kit An Oracle Open Gateway Technology product with which you can build transparent gateways. See also Procedural Gateway Developer's Kit.

Transparent Network Substrate (TNS) (1) A common interface to any network upon which network applications are built. (2) A foundation technology, built into SQL*Net V2 and the MultiProtocol Interchange, that works with any standard network transport protocol and supports a generic bidirectional byte stream.

tree-structured query A query using the SQL reserved words CONNECT BY and whose results are intended to show hierarchical relationships (levels) that exist in the data.

trigger (1) A PL/SQL procedure that is executed, or "fired," at runtime. (2) A stored procedure that is fired (implicitly executed) when an INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement is issued against the associated table. Database triggers can be used to customize a database management system with such features as value-based auditing and the enforcement of complex security checks and integrity rules. For example, a database trigger might be created to allow a table to be modified only during normal business hours. (3) An anonymous PL/SQL block that is executed in response to a SQL*Forms runtime event. (4) In CASE*Method, trigger is used in the sense that an event will trigger one or more functions or that a function may be triggered by the completion of another function (an implied event). See also event. (5) In ORACLE SQL*Forms, trigger is used to denote some computer processing that is carried out under certain conditions. There are, for example, triggers that may be actioned before or after the insertion of a row. These would be called pre-insert and post-insert triggers. The processing for a trigger would typically be written in SQL or PL/SQL.

trigger point A temporal place in an event with which a specific trigger is associated.

truncate To discard or lose one or more characters from the beginning or end of a value, whether intentionally or unintentionally.

truncation, forward and backward This is a search facility enabling the user to search on a part of a word; for example, the truncated form of planning would be plan. A search using the truncated form would also reveal occurrences of plan, planner, planned.

Trusted Oracle7 Oracle Corporation's multi-level secure database management system product. It is designed to provide the high level of secure data management capabilities required by organizations processing sensitive or classified information. Trusted Oracle7 is compatible with Oracle base products and applications, and supports all of the functionality of standard Oracle7. In addition, Trusted Oracle7 enforces mandatory access control, including data labeling, across a wide range of multi-level secure operating system environments.

trusted computing base (TCB) The total combination of security mechanisms within a computer system which is responsible for enforcing a security policy. This includes both hardware and software used to enforce a security policy.

trusted subject A subject (user, process, or device) who is capable of violating system security policy but is trusted not to.

TT lock An abbreviation appearing in the SQL*DBA MONITOR display that indicates a dictionary lock on a temporary segment.

TTY See asynchronous.

tuple A set of values for an attribute, synonymous with row.

twisted-pair wire A common, inexpensive LAN medium consisting of two insulated wires wrapped around each other.

two-phase commit A method used by a distributed DBMS to ensure that every local database participating in a single multi-node, transaction commits or rolls back, in order to ensure data integrity across all nodes. Each commit actually involves two phases: preparation and verification for the commit and the actual commit.

two-task architecture A software "division of labor" in which two separate tasks (processes) cooperate to accomplish a single job. In a two-task ORACLE Server architecture, the ORACLE kernel acts as the back end (server process) and an ORACLE application acts as the front end (foreground or client process). See also server and client.

type A column contains information in one of four types: character, date, number or long. The operations users can perform on the contents of a column depend on the type of information it contains. See also Format.

type and instance A type is a class of things. Each individual item in the class is an instance of that type. For example, each element is an instance of an element type.

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