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DAC See discretionary access control.

damage A view is damaged when it is totally or partially occluded by another view.

DASD (Direct Access Storage Device) An IBM term designating a disk or drum that stores data on magnetic media. The term originates from a contrast with tape drives that access data sequentially from the media.

data block A database data storage unit at the finest level of granularity. One data block corresponds to a specific number of bytes of physical database space on disk. A data block size is specified for every ORACLE database when the database is created. A database uses and allocates free database space in ORACLE data blocks.

Data Control Language (DCL) The category of SQL statements that control access to the data and to the database. Examples are the GRANT and REVOKE statements. Occasionally DCL statements are grouped with DML statements.

Data Definition Language (DDL) The category of SQL statements that define or delete database objects such as tables or views. Examples are the CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements.

data dictionary A comprehensive set of tables and views automatically created and updated by the ORACLE Server, which contains administrative information about users, data storage, and privileges. It is installed when ORACLE is initially installed and is a central source of information for the ORACLE Server itself and for all users of ORACLE. The tables are automatically maintained by ORACLE. It is sometimes referred to as the catalog.

data files Files that contain all the database data. A data file is associated with only one database, and once created, a data file cannot change in size. The contents of logical database structures such as tables and indexes is physically stored in the data files allocated for a database. One or more data files form a logical unit of database storage called a tablespace.

data independence The property of a relational database that makes a clean separation between the logical, user view of the data and the physical storage of the data. This separation allows the physical structure of the database to change without requiring the user side (a software application) to change.

Data Interchange Format The format of a data file that is used by some computer applications. Oracle Data Browser can export data to the Data Interchange Format (.DIF) using the Export Data... option from the File menu.

data item In CASE*Method, the term "data item" is used on a data flow or in a data store to define an item of data that is not an attribute of a known entity. This will be converted to an attribute when the analysis is more complete. In some other methodologies, the definition of a logical data item is equivalent to an attribute at the business level. When used with non-ORACLE database management systems, a data item is a means of implementing an item of data within a file. The term 'data item' is sometimes used as an equivalent to column. See Attribute and Column.

data lock A temporary "hold" on data in a database acquired by database users and necessary to support concurrency. Locks are acquired explicitly using the LOCK TABLE statement or implicitly by the Server. ORACLE Server uses six modes of data locks; current locks can be seen using the MONITOR display in SQL*DBA.

Data Manipulation Language (DML) The category of SQL statements that query and update the database data. Common DML statements are SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE. Occasionally DCL statements are grouped with DML statements.

Data menu A menu that lists the set of data model objects from which users can access their settings.

data model Defines what data should be fetched from the database, what values should be computed, and how data should be ordered in a report. SQL*ReportWriter objects that define the data model are queries, groups, columns, parameters, and links.

data pump A component of an Interchange that performs bidirectional data transfer. One Interchange may have several data pumps.

data security The mechanisms that control the access and use of the database at the object level. For example, data security includes access to a specific schema object and the specific types of actions allowed for each user on the object (e.g., user SCOTT can issue SELECT and INSERT statements but not DELETE statements using the EMP table). It also includes the actions, if any, that are audited for each schema object.

data segment The storage that is allocated to the data of a table, as compared to storage allocated to the indexes on a table. The data segment is made up of one or more data extents.

data source A type of target system where data is either manipulated using a non-procedural language, such as SQL, or where the data manipulation can be mapped in a non-procedural manner.

database (1) A set of operating system files, treated as a unit, in which an ORACLE Server stores a set of data dictionary tables and user tables. A database requires three types of files: database files, redo log files, and control files. (2) The disk space corresponding to this set of files. (3) A subset of database objects necessary to support a single database application. (4) In SQL*Forms, a field attribute signifying a field that corresponds to a column in the table represented by the block.

database administrator (DBA) (1) A person responsible for the operation and maintenance of an ORACLE Server or a database application. The database administrator monitors its use in order to customize it to meet the needs of the local community of users. (2) An ORACLE username that has been given DBA privileges and can perform database administration functions. Usually the two meanings coincide. There may be more than one DBA per site.

database buffers Buffers that store the most recently used blocks of database data; these buffers can contain modified data that has not yet been permanently written to disk. By storing the most recently (often the most frequently) used data in memory, less disk I/O is necessary, thus increasing database system performance.

database client A client, usually an application or utility, running on a PC or other computer, that requests the services of a database on a remote computer (host). See client and host.

database cursor The memory that the database assigns to a SQL command. This applies to the SQL commands that are implicit to posting and querying data, and to the commands that are explicit in triggers. Contrast with screen cursor. See also context area.

database field The intersection of a column and a row.

database file A file reserved for the storage of database objects, such as the data dictionary, user tables, and indexes. One database file is required for each ORACLE database system; more can be added at any time.

database file mini disk Also called the data file, the mini disk(s) that contain(s) all data stored in the database. Must be one mini disk, but may grow to be multiple to accommodate additional data.

database format In SQL*Forms, the format of a form stored in a database. This format can be modified by SQL*Forms (Design). It is created and read by SQL*Forms (Design) and SQL*Forms (Convert).

database instance A running ORACLE system. There is always a one-to-one correspondence between an ORACLE instance and a system global area (SGA). An instance usually consists of an SGA, several background machines, several background processes, and zero or more user processes.

database link An object stored in the local database that identifies a remote database, a communication path to that database, and optionally, a username and password. Once defined, the database link is used to access the remote database. Database links are implicitly used when a reference is made to a global object name in a distributed database. Also called DBlink.

database management software (DBMS) Software that manages a large amount of data in a multi-user environment so that many users can concurrently access the same data. All this must be managed while delivering high performance to the users of the database. A good DBMS must also be secure to unauthorized access and provide efficient solutions for failure recovery.

database name (1) A unique identifier used to name a database. It is assigned in the CREATE DATABASE statement or in the INIT.ORA file. (2) A unique name assigned to a connect descriptor in a TNSNAMES.ORA file. The use of database names allows connect descriptors to be easily referenced.

database object Something created and stored in a database. Tables, views, synonyms, indexes, sequences, clusters, and columns are all examples of database objects.

database server The node or computer at which the ORACLE Server kernel runs. The database server holds the database, runs the ORACLE Server kernel, is not a MS-DOS PC or Macintosh (but could be an OS/2 PC), and runs a multitask operating system. See also server machine.

database string A string of SQL*Net parameters used to indicate the network prefix, the host system you want to connect to, and the system ID of the database on the host system.

database system A combination of an instance and a database. If the instance is started and connected to an open database, then the database system is available for access by users.

Database Writer (DBWR) process A process that writes modified blocks from the database buffer cache to the data files. Because of the way ORACLE performs logging, DBWR does not need to write blocks when a transaction commits. Instead, DBWR is optimized to minimize disk writes; in general, writes occur only when more data needs to be read into the SGA and there is too little free space in the database buffers. The least recently used data is written to the data files first.

dataflow diagram A diagram representing the use of data by business functions. See data flow, data flow diagrammer, data store, external entity, and process.

Dataflow Diagrammer A software facility, available within CASE*Designer , which enables you to interactively draw and change data flow diagrams within the context of a version of an application system. The diagrams are dynamically stored within the CASE*Dictionary repository. Function/processes, data stores and data flows may appear on more than one diagram.

dataflow In ORACLE CASE*Method, a named flow of data between business functions, data stores, and external entities. See business function, data store, and external entity.

datasource An Oracle Data Browser graphical representation of the tables and views that hold data in a database. See also alias, query view, synonym, table, view.

datasource alias A temporary, duplicate copy of a data source, which Oracle Data Browser creates and displays in the Datasource Panel when you include the same data source twice in one query. OracleData Browser assigns the data source alias a name that you can modify at your discretion. Contrast with rename data source.

datasource heading The top line of a data source pictured in the QueryWindow, containing the data source name and the icon identifying it as a table, alias, view, query, or synonym.

datasource panel That portion of the Oracle Data Browser graphical query window where you display data sources for use in a query.

datastore In ORACLE CASE*Method, a temporary or permanent storage concept for logical data items/attributes as used by specific business functions/processes.

datatype (1) A standard form of data. The ORACLE datatypes are CHAR, DATE, NUMBER, LONG, RAW, and LONG RAW; however, the ORACLE Server recognizes and converts other standard datatypes. (2) A named set of fixed attributes that can be associated with an item as a property. Data typing provides a way to define the behavior of data. (3) See gateway datatype.

date axis An axis that plots date values that begin at one date and continue until they reach another date.

DATE datatype A standard ORACLE datatype used to store date and time data. Standard date format is DD-MMM-YY, as in 01-JAN-89. A DATE column may contain a date and time between January 1, 4712 BC to December 31, 4712 AD.

date field A field whose value is a date. Sometimes applied to a field whose value is a number that represents a date; this type of date field was used in early versions of SQL*Forms that did not support true date fields, and is retained in later versions for backward compatibility.

DB2 The MVS SQL-based database management system available from IBM.

DBA privilege A set of database management functions given via the GRANT DBA statement. DBA privilege should be limited to very few users.

DBA See database administrator.

DBHIGH A synonym for a valid operating system label that is determined to be the highest level of data that can be stored in the database.

DBlink See database link.

DBLOW A synonym for a valid operating system label that is determined to be the lowest level of data that can be stored in the database.

DBMS A Database Management System normally encompassing computerized management facilities that are used to structure and manipulate data, and to ensure privacy, recovery, and integrity in a multi-user environment.

DBMS label In Trusted Oracle7, the label at which you are connected to the database. In OS MAC mode, this is always equivalent to the label of the database to which you are connected and always equivalent to your operating system label. In DBMS MAC mode, this is the label at which you are connected to the database.

DBWR process One of five background processes used by multiple-user database systems. The Database Writer (DBWR) process writes new data (modified blocks) from the database buffer cache to the data files. Because of the way ORACLE performs logging, DBWR is optimized to minimize disk writes; in general, writes occur only when more data needs to be read into the SGA and there is too little free space in the database buffers. The least recently used data is written to the data files first..

DCE (Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment) A modem.

DCL See Data Control Language.

DDCMP Stands for Digital Data Communications Message Protocol, part of the DEC Digital Network Architecture of DEC, forming the basis for DECnet communications, along with DAP (Data Access Protocol) and NSP (Network Services Protocol).

DDL See Data Definition Language.

DDL lock An exclusive dictionary lock, acquired on behalf of users who are executing DDL statements. Contrast with parse locks.

deadlock A situation in which two or more users of a database cannot complete their transactions, because each user is holding a resource that the other user requires in order to complete. The ORACLE Server automatically avoids and resolves deadlocks.

Debug mode A mode that allows a designer to execute an application while monitoring the underlying processing.

debugger (1) A programming tool used to locate, identify, and edit mistakes that impede the running of a program in development. (2) In Oracle Graphics, the PL/SQL Development Environment that simulates runtime execution of a display for testing and debugging.

declaration Generically, the definition of an SGML object such as an element or entity. See also SGML declaration and SYSTEM declaration.

declarative SQL statement A SQL statement that does not generate a call to the database and is therefore not an executable SQL statement. Examples are BEGIN DECLARE SECTION or DECLARE CURSOR. Contrast with executable SQL statement.

DECnet Digital's native network environment for VMS. Supports file transfer, remote logon, and process-to-process communications among any size VAX, from MicroVAX to VAX 9000. Typically DECnet is used over Ethernet, but can be used over an asynchronous line or X.25.

dedicated PC A workstation reserved for one use (for example, as the database server for a workgroup).

default (1) A value supplied by the system when a user does not specify a required command parameter or qualifier. (2) In SQL*Forms, a value that a form places in a field of a created record, which the user may then change. (3) A predefined value that SQL*ReportWriter uses for a given setting if you do not specify a value. (4) A SQL*ReportWriter object (such as a group, field, frame, etc.) that SQL*ReportWriter creates so that you do not need to create it yourself. (5) A value that Oracle Graphics assigns to an attribute if you do not specify one.

default button A button that is specified for selection if the user does not specify another selection.

default database (1) Before starting an application, the database to which the application is connected when no connect string is included in the logon string. (2) After starting an application, the database to which the application is already connected. See local database.

default device type The terminal that a program, such as SQL*Forms, assumes is being used unless told otherwise. The default device type is described by the CRT file DEFAULT.CRT.

default domain The client configuration parameter that determines what domain should be appended to unqualified network name requests. A name request is unqualified if it does not have a "." character within it.

default form In SQL*Forms, a form that SQL*Forms creates automatically. You may then modify it using SQL*Forms (Design). Contrast with custom form. A default form can be modified to produce exactly the same result as a custom form and is usually easier to create.

default menu A menu that is specified for use if the user does not specify another menu.

default tablespace When a user creates a table, index, or cluster and no tablespace is specified to physically contain the object, the user's default tablespace is used (this assumes that the user has the privilege to create the object and a quota in the specified default tablespace). The default tablespace feature provides ORACLE with information to direct space usage in situations where object location is not specified.

deferred rollback segment A rollback segment containing rollback entries that could not be applied to a tablespace because that tablespace was since taken off line. As soon as the tablespace is brought back online, all the entries are applied.

define To specify the properties of an object (a table, block, field, etc.). See also create.

define phase One phase of executing a SQL query, in which the program defines buffers to hold the results of a query to be executed.

defined field A column in the Results Window whose values do not exist in the underlying database, but were calculated or derived from the values of other fields using the Define... option from the fields menu in Oracle Data Browser.

definition level The level in the object hierarchy to which a trigger is attached, and all the levels below that. The definition level determines what events will cause the trigger to fire.

delegated administrative region A region hierarchically below the root administrative region.

delete (1) To remove a row from a table using the SQL statement DELETE. (2) To drop the definition of a database object using the SQL statement DROP. (3) In SQL*Forms, to remove a record from the workspace.

delimiter A character that marks the beginning or end of a string.

delta capabilities table In a user-developed gateway, a supplemental capabilities table supplied by gateway developers. To enable or disable gateway server capabilities, the delta capabilities table is merged with the capabilities table defined for an access category.

denormalization Initial database designs are often normalized such that information is recorded once and only once, and cross-related to all related data. This gives a very flexible design, which can sometimes give poor performance. Denormalization is the design process by which means there is controlled replication of information, the introduction of derived columns and, in rare cases, repeating data to enable the system to meet some performance goal.

dependent data A piece of data that depends on other data for its value. For example, an employee's years of service may have the value 10, which is dependent upon the value of the employee's name. Also called value data.

dependent parameters A subset of INIT.ORA parameters that are normally not altered because ORACLE Server automatically calculates their values. Contrast with variable parameters.

derived attribute An attribute that derives its value, by an algorithm, from the values of other attributes. For example, profit, which is the difference between income and costs. See also derived column and derived field.

derived column A value that is derived by an algorithm from the values of other columns, and is automatically updated in the database wherever the value of any of its source columns changes. The value of a derived column should not be separately updated. See also derived attribute and derived field.

derived field A value that is derived by an algorithm from the values of other columns or fields, and is only available within the scope of some program, such as a screen or report. The value is not stored in the database. See also derived attribute and derived column.

descendant An object that appears in another object's group tree at any position below that other object. Every object is a descendant of its antecedents.

describe phase One phase of executing a SQL query, in which the program gathers information about the results of the query to be executed.

descriptor See cursor descriptor.

descriptor column A relational table has a primary key that is often inappropriate for use with end users. It is useful to define a column that uniquely describes rows in a table; this is known as a descriptor column. In some cases a combination of more than one column may be needed. This is particularly useful to show the user intelligible unique identifiers for a row,, whilst using the primary key to perform relational join operations. See column and primary key.

deselect To turn off or deactivate a menu item, data source, or feature. The opposite of select.

DESFORMAT A command line argument that specifies the characteristics of the report's output device named in DESNAME.

design time The time during which an application designer is using SQL*Forms (design).

designer (1) The SQL*Forms component that allows the designer to define and modify form, menu, and library modules. Also called SQL*Forms (Design). (2) An application developer who uses SQL*Forms to create and modify applications. Contrast with operator.

Designer The Oracle Graphics executable used to design a display.

DESNAME A command line argument that specifies the name of the output device to which the report will be sent.

destination The client that is the end point of a TNS connection. The initiator of the connection requires some data or service of the destination.

DESTYPE A command line argument that specifies the type of output device to which the report will be sent.

detached process See background process.

detail block A block that is associated with a master block in a master/detail relationship. A detail block displays detail records associated with the record displayed in the master block. It is often designed as a multi-record block. Records displayed in the detail block have a many-to-one relationship with the records displayed in the master block. See also master block.

detail query When defining a master/detail report, the detail query retrieves all related records for each record retrieved by the master, or parent, query.

detailed column usage A module detailed data usage of a column, which records multiple uses of the same column by a module.

detailed summary report Report containing both individual entries from columns and the results of summary functions upon a number of entries in a column.

detailed table usage A module detailed data usage of a table, which records multiple uses of the same table by a module.

development life-cycle See business system life cycle.

device independence The ability of a computer program to perform the same way regardless of the type of device used to run or access the program. SQL*Forms achieves device independence through the use of CRT files.

device name (1) Identification of a physical device, such as a tape drive, printer, or hard disk. The format of device names is operating-system dependent. (2) On some operating systems, a logical name that is equated to a physical device name.

DIA file The standard dialogue file that facilitates communication between the client and the host. See also dialogue files and autologon facility.

dialog box A partial screen that prompts you to enter some piece(s) of information necessary to complete an operation. Dialog boxes are accessed extensively via the File menu and buttons. A dialog typically requires more information from the user than an alert. See also modal window.

dialogue files A set of files used to automate the conversion between a client and host system, including connecting to the remote host, communicating with the host computer (starting the server process), sending and receiving data via SQL*Net, and disconnecting from the server process and host computer. See also DIA file, CLI file, LGF file, LGO files, dialogue name, and autologon facility.

dialogue language The language used in the dialogue files and by the SQL*Net autologon facility to automate the communications between a client and a host system. See also dialogue files.

dialogue name Specifies the pathname and filename of the four dialogue files used by the autologon facility. The dialogue name is included in the autologon parameters of SQL*Net Asynchronous and SQL*Net 3270 connect strings. SQL*Net assumes that four dialogue files exist in the given path, with the specified filename and with the following extensions: DIA, LGO, CLI, and LGF.

dictionary cache Any one of several caches of data dictionary information contained in the SGA. Because the data dictionary information is constantly referenced, these caches improve ORACLE Server performance.

dictionary cache locks One of three types of internal locks on entries in the dictionary caches.

dictionary locks A category of locks acquired on behalf of users who are parsing statements (shared dictionary locks) or executing DDL statements (exclusive dictionary locks). Shared dictionary locks are synonymous with parse locks, and exclusive dictionary locks are synonymous with DDL locks.

DIF See Data Interchange Format.

directory On some operating systems, a named storage space for a group of files. It is actually one file that lists a set of files on a particular device.

directory file A special type of file that catalogs information about subordinate files. Use directory files to organize a hierarchical file structure.

disabled An indication that a menu item, button, or other screen element cannot be used in the current context. If an item is disabled, it usually appears lighter or "greyer" in color than the other elements in a window or menu, and does not respond to keyboard or mouse input.

DISCO An AOS/VS utility that monitors disk utilization and performance.

discrete axis An axis that plots distinct values at fixed intervals. These values are not mathematically related. Independent data is usually plotted along this axis, also called the category axis.

discretionary access control (DAC) A means of restricting access to information based on privileges. The appropriate privilege must be assigned for a user to access a named object. Appropriately privileged users can grant other users privileges at their discretion; therefore, this type of security is discretionary.

disk block An area on a disk that contains 512 bytes of data.

dismounted database A database that is not mounted by any instance, and thus cannot be opened and is not currently available for use.

dispatchers (Dnnn) Optional background processes, present only when a multi-threaded server configuration is used. At least one dispatcher process is created for every communication protocol in use (D000, . . ., Dnnn). Each dispatcher process is responsible for routing requests from connected user processes to available shared server processes and returning the responses back to the appropriate user processes.

display An Oracle Graphics document.

display device A device such as a terminal screen or a printer to which a computer can write output.

display format See format mask.

display item An item that displays database values at a particular location on the screen. The operator cannot enter or modify these values.

display width The number of characters or spaces allowed to display the values for an output field. In SQL*Forms, the width of a field displayed in a form, which may differ from the width of the associated column. See also horizontal scrolling.

distributed administration A SQL*Net network where data is delegated to multiple administrative regions.

distributed architecture A blueprint or specification that allows applications to access data on more than one CPU (and often many types of computers ranging from PCs to mainframes) within a computer system or network.

distributed database A single, logical database that is physically located on two or more computers, connected via some form of communications network. An essential feature of a true distributed database is that the user and/or program work as if they had access to the whole database locally. All processing to give this impression is carried out by the database management system. See also distributed processing.

distributed database system A system that combines the data physically located on different computers into one logical database that can be accessed by all network users in computing environments that are connected via networks. Distributed systems have the same degree of user transparency and data consistency as undistributed systems, yet receive the advantages of local database management.

distributed lock Distributed locks coordinate access to shared resources (such as database blocks, data dictionary entries, and rollback segments) for multiple instances of an ORACLE Parallel Server.

distributed lock manager An ORACLE Parallel Server uses the distributed lock manager of the shared disk system to communicate requests for distributed locks between ORACLE instances. For ORACLE on the nCUBE 2 supercomputer, the distributed lock manager is a distributed program that runs on nodes in the ORACLE subcube.

distributed processing The use of more than one processor to divide the processing for a set of related jobs. Distributed processing reduces the processing load on a single processor by allowing different processors to concentrate on a subset of related tasks, thus improving the performance and capabilities of the system as a whole. An ORACLE database system can easily take advantage of distributed processing by using its client-server architecture. In this architecture, the database system is divided into two parts: a front-end or a client portion and a back-end or a server portion. SQL*Net supports distributed processing by transparently connecting applications to remote databases. Different from, but often confused with, distributed database. See also remote database.

distributed query A query that selects data from databases on multiple nodes of a network. A distributed query may reference data on nodes other than the local node, using, for example, joins, nested queries, or views. See also distributed database.

distributed resources Data, files, printers, directories, and other network assets that are made available to client programs by multiple servers on a process-to-process network.

distribution medium A magnetic tape, cassette, or diskette distributed by Oracle Corporation which contains the software release (object code and associated files) for the ORACLE Server or other products.

DML See Data Manipulation Language (DML).

DML lock Synonym for data lock.

document Any item, printed or otherwise, that is amenable to cataloguing and indexing. This definition refers not only to written and printed material in paper or microfilm versions (e.g. books, diagrams, maps), but to non-print media (e.g. machine-readable records, films, sound recordings), and three-dimensional objects or realizations (models) used as specimens.

document abstract A synopsis of a document's content which highlights key concepts, significant data, and areas of interest in the document. Document abstracts are used as a form of document management and retrieval by providing researchers concise insights into the full document library.

document window A general-purpose window that may have vertical and horizontal scroll bars, a title, and any additional features that are normally provided for document windows by the native platform.

domain (1) A division of names guaranteed to be unique. Domains are related hierarchically in a naming model. (2) In Oracle CASE products, a set of business validation rules, format constraints, and other properties that apply to a group of attributes. For example, a list of values, a range, a qualified list or range, or any combination thereof.

domestic domains The set of domains that are managed within a given administrative region. Domains are only domestic relative to a region; they are not domestic in any absolute sense.

domination The concept of a user's label having enough clearance over an object's label to access the object. One label dominates another label if its classification is greater than or equal to that of the other label and its categories are a superset of the other's categories.

double-click Press and release a mouse button twice in rapid succession. You generally use the double-click function to select an item or operation. See also click and select.

downgrading The re-classification of information to a lower label.

drag Press and hold down a mouse button while you slide the mouse pointer to a particular location in a window.

drawing primitive A routine provided by the toolkit to draw a simple shape, such as a point, line, polygon, arc, or path.

drawn view A type of view that is drawn by the client.

driver The software that controls a peripheral device. For example, SQL*Net drivers provide a software interface between communication networks and Oracle software.

driver prefix A code that specifies which network protocol is being used.

DTD Document Type Definition. This is a text file which contains all SGML object declarations for a specific document type.

DUAL table A standard ORACLE database table named DUAL, which contains exactly one row. The DUAL table is useful for applications that require a small "dummy" table (the data is irrelevant) to guarantee a known result, such as "true."

dummy application system Elements can be shared across more than one application system, and application systems can have more than one version. While creating a new version of an application system it is necessary for CASE*Dictionary to create dummy application systems for all applications systems that own elements shared by the original. This enables shared elements to be perceived by each of the application systems and all versions in which they are used.

dump To copy information en masse onto another medium, usually for safekeeping. Also known as archiving and backing up.

DUMP command An AOS/VS CLI command that copies disk-based data from a hard disk. Also refer to DUMP_II.

dump file (1) A file created when a problem or exceptional condition is encountered while using a software program. Also called a trace file, the file contains information useful in diagnosing or locating the problem. (2) In SQL*TextRetrieval, a file used to download data from the database.

DUMPREP Executable command that removes a report definition that is stored in a database, and converts it into an ASCII file. This file can then be moved to another computer. DUMPREP is used in conjunction with the LOADREP command.

DUMP_II program A faster version of the DUMP CLI command. DUMP_II is an AOS/VS utility program that copies disk-based data from a hard disk.

duplicate An Oracle Graphics option that allows you to copy objects directly on the layout without affecting the contents of the Clipboard. See also copy.

dynamic data dictionary An online data dictionary that is an integral part of the data source and that always reflects the current definition of the data source. Data structures can be changed while the data source is being accessed. See also data dictionary, gateway data dictionary static.

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