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EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) character set A convention for representing alphanumeric information using digital data. The collation sequence used by IBM and IBM-compatible computers. Contrast with ASCII character set.

edge The boundary of an object.

Edge/Fill/Text Display A display box on the Tool palette that shows the current settings for the edge, fill, and text patterns and colors.

Edit menu A menu that lists a set of operations to perform on objects in a painter.

edit mode A SQL*Forms (Runform) mode that operators enter when they press [Edit] while in a text item. In Edit mode, keystrokes are processed as editing, and no triggers fire.

edit text A facility to edit free format text in either character or long data fields.

editor (1) A program that creates or modifies files. (2) In Oracle Graphics, a work area in which you perform a specific set of tasks, such as designing a display or a chart template.

element A thing of significance about which system engineers need to record information in order to define a system requirement and implementation. Elements are further described by properties and associations to other elements. For example, you may need to record information about three tables (each of which is an occurrence of an element) and two program modules (two occurrences of a different element). The association between them would be which program uses which table and how.

element type Any element held in the dictionary is classified as being of a particular type. Examples of element type are entity, attribute, program module, table, diagram, text, softbox. Occurrences or instances of these are called elements.

elementary business function In Oracle CASE*Method, the lowest level of a function hierarchy that cannot be further decomposed. If started, it must be completed successfully; or if for some reason it cannot be completed successfully, any changes it makes up to the point of failure must be undone, as though they had never happened. An elementary business function cannot exist in an intermediate stage. See also function hierarchy.

emulation A software program used to make a computer behave like a computer terminal. For example, one emulation program allows PCs to perform like IBM 3270 terminals.

enabled (1)An interface element state that means that a menu item, button, etc., can be used in the current context, that is, it responds to keyboard or cursor/mouse input. (2) In SQL*Forms (Runform), an enabled item is one that responds to keyboard or mouse input.

end user The person for whom a system is being developed; for example, an airline reservations clerk is an end user of an airline reservations system.

Enter Query mode In Enter Query mode, SQL*Forms (Runform) accepts query conditions and establishes the query SELECT statement. SQL*Forms processing while in Enter Query mode enforces special restrictions.

enterable field A field that can be used to insert, amend, and delete information on the CASE*Dictionary database. See also query field and non-enterable field.

entity (1) A person, place, or thing represented by a table. The data in a row is one occurrence of the entity that table represents. (2) A user interface component, such as a window, menu, or view. Each entity is described by a particular set of attributes. See also attribute. (3) In Oracle CASE*Method, a real or imagined thing of significance, about which information needs to be known or held.

entity relationship diagram A part of the business model produced in the strategy stage of the business system life cycle. The diagram pictorially represents entities, the vital business relationships between them and the attributes used to describe them. The process of creating this diagram is called entity modelling. The terms "entity model", "entity relationship model" and "entity/relationship model" are all synonyms for entity relationship diagram. See also entity, attribute, relationship, and entity relationship diagrammer.

entity relationship diagrammer A software facility, available within CASE*Designer , that enables you to interactively draw and change complete (or subset) entity relationship diagrams within the context of a version of an application system. The diagrams are dynamically stored within the CASE*Dictionary repository. Entities and relationships may appear on more than one diagram.

entity-relationship model A methodology used to model data and systems for use with a relational database. All elements of a system fall into one of two categories: entities or relationships.

EPS Acronym for encapsulated PostScript.

equal relationship A type of relationship where there is an equality between two or more fields in one or more data sources, such as where the employee number in the EMPLOYEE data source equals the employee number in the DEPARTMENT data source. See also non-equal relationship and self-relationship.

equi-join A type of join where the join condition is an equality, such as WHERE EMP.DEPTNO = DEPT.DEPTNO. See join condition, non-equi-join, and self-join.

error message A message from a computer program informing you of a potential problem or condition preventing program or command execution.

Ethernet A CSMA/CD network system that is fully specified as IEEE 802.3. It is among the most popular LANs today. See also CSMA/CD.

Ethernet address The unique alphanumeric identifier given to each node on an Ethernet LAN.

event (1) In Oracle CASE*Method there are four types of event, all of which may act as triggers to one or more business functions: a significant happening within the control of the business (system event), the arrival of a significant point in time (real-time event), a change in status of something (change event), or the occurrence of something external that causes the business to react (external event). (2) A point during a SQL*Forms process at which the operator or the designer can influence the processing behavior. Every module and object may have processing events with which the designer can associate PL/SQL code. This associated PL/SQL code is called a trigger. (3) An event is a message generated by the toolkit to inform the client that something has occurred in the user interface.

event handler An event handler is a client-provided routine that contains the code necessary to respond to events generated by the toolkit.

event loop An event loop is the portion of an application in which all activity is initiated by the delivery of events.

event record An event record is a data structure generated by the toolkit for some types of events. It is used to pass information about the event to the client.

exchange block The single construct in the SQL*Net dialogue language, interpreted by the autologon facility. Each block consists of a send string and response string.

exclusive arc In an ORACLE CASE*Method diagram, a symbol indicating that two or more relationships are mutually exclusive.

exclusive lock A lock that gives the owner of the lock sole use of the locked resource. Other users may only query the locked data; they may not change it until the exclusive lock is released. Contrast with share lock.

exclusive mode An ORACLE instance running in exclusive mode has sole access to the database; no other instances can mount or open the database files. A distributed lock that an instance holds in exclusive mode gives the instance sole access to the data or other resource covered by that lock.

executable Any command, function, or command file that contains one or more complete instructions for a computer to perform.

executable argument An argument you can pass to the Oracle Graphics Designer, Runtime, or Batch executables, such as `OPENFILE=my_disp' and `PRINT=YES'. These arguments usually are specified when the executable is invoked from a command line.

executable SQL statement A SQL statement that generates a call to the database. Includes all queries, DML, DDL, and DCL statements. Contrast with declarative SQL statement.

execute To submit an Oracle Data Browser query to the database. During the execute phase, Oracle Data Browser searches for the information specified in your query, and when it is retrieved, supplies any breaks, sorts, or formatting you have specified, then displays the result in groups in the results window. Contrast with retrieve all rows. See also run.

execute icon An icon displayed in the upper-left corner of the results window indicating that the data request has been modified since the last time the query was executed. Re-executing a query causes the execute icon to disappear.

execute phase A phase of SQL statement execution, after all the information necessary for execution is obtained, and the statement is executed.

explicit locking Locking that occurs because a user has used the SQL statement LOCK TABLE in order to specify the exact type of lock to be obtained. Contrast with implicit locking.

export (noun) The files comprising an export, or the act of performing an export.

export (verb) (1) To write database data to files for the purpose of archiving, or moving data between operating systems or ORACLE databases. (2) To store a copy of a module to a file or database.

Export utility An ORACLE utility used to write database data to operating system files external to the database. These files can then be used with the Import utility.

expression A formula, such as SALARY + COMMISSION, used to calculate a new value from existing values. An expression can be made up of column names, functions, operators, and constants. Formulas are found in commands or SQL statements.

extended memory Memory above the 640K line under DOS.

extended text table A table that accompanies a text table and that is used to hold document fragments. This mechanism enables SQL*TextRetrieval Version 2.0 and above to support unlimited document sizes.

extension On some operating systems, the second part of the full file specification. Several standard file extensions are used to indicate the type or purpose of the file, as in file extensions of SQL, LOG, LIS, EXE, BAT, and DIR. Called file type on some operating systems.

extension path A character string consisting of one or more node names optionally separated by periods. Used to identify a node in a resource tree.

extent A specific number of contiguous data blocks, obtained in a single allocation, used to store a specific type of information. An extent can be allocated when the table or index is created or when the table or index requires additional space. See also segment.

external business function In Oracle CASE*Method, a business function, outside the scope of the application system, which acts as a source or recipient of data flows into or out of the system.

external entity In ORACLE CASE*Method, a thing of significance, outside the scope of the application system, which acts as a source or recipient of data flows into or out of the application system. An external entity might be a person, a business unit, another application system, or any other thing that might provide or receive information from a function within the application system.

external event In ORACLE CASE*Method, any point in the life of an enterprise when, under specified conditions, data is created or changed in such a manner as to act as a trigger for some business function(s). It may occur when an entity is created or deleted, the value of an attribute is changed, or a relationship is connected or disconnected.

external identifier map file Used by the Oracle Book SGML Designer, this file contains a listing of all external identifiers (SYSTEM or PUBLIC) and the location where the content of each entity can be found.

external PL/SQL library A PL/SQL library that can be referenced within the same report multiple times, by any number of reports, and by other Oracle products. A module.

external query ANSI-standard SQL SELECT statement that can be referenced within the same report multiple times, by any number of reports, and by other Oracle products. A module.

external text Text held in files outside ORACLE tables, but pointed to by data held in ORACLE tables.

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