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I/O node An nCUBE 2 node that controls input to and output from the host computer, networks, disks, tape drives, and other peripheral devices.

IAC The command used to invoke SQL*Forms (Convert) in V2.3. In V3.0, the term is obsolete and the module SQL*Forms (Convert) is invoked using the command CONVERT.

IAD The command used to invoke SQL*Forms (Design) in V2.3. In V3.0, the term is obsolete and the module SQL*Forms (Design) is invoked using the command DESIGN.

IAG Stands for Interactive Application Generator, a SQL*Forms program that converts forms from INP format to FRM format. IAG is invoked automatically after you create or modify a form, or you may run it as a separate program.

IAP Stands for Interactive Application Processor, a SQL*Forms program that runs a form. You can invoke IAP through the Run a Form option of the SQL*Forms main menu, or as a separate program. Same as RUNFORM.

icon A graphic representation of an object, attribute, program, window, or tool An icon is generally a small rectangle, containing a unique design that identifies the object it represents.

icon bar A section of the Oracle Data Browser Query Window that contains operators that enable you to do comparisons and calculations, and icons that enable you to manipulate data sources.

identification The process that enables recognition by the system such as providing a username.

ILC Intelligent LAN Controller

image A bitmapped object that can be stored and loaded into an application. The client cannot modify an image.

image item An item that displays an image from a database, a file, or the clipboard.

implicit locking Locking that is performed automatically by the ORACLE Server on behalf of the user. Contrast with explicit locking.

import To read a module from the file system or database, and incorporate it into a display.

Import utility An ORACLE utility used to read operating system files that contain database data and were written by Export, in order to restore the data to an ORACLE database.

incremental development A technique for producing all or part of a production system from an outline definition of the need. The technique involves iterations of a cycle of build/refine/review so that the correct solution gradually emerges. Also called "quick build" and "iterative development."

independent data A piece of data that does not depend on other data for its value. For example, an employee's name may have the value Jones, which is independent of the values of other employee's names or associated data. Also called category data.

index (1) An optional structure associated with a table, used by ORACLE Server to locate rows of that table quickly; can be used to guarantee that every row is unique. Database users create and drop indexes with SQL statements. (2) An alphabetical or systematic listing of subjects that refers to the position of each subject in a document or collection of documents. See also text indexes.

indexing The process whereby the text index for a text table is created. The text index specifies the documents that contain occurrences of any given indexed word.

indexing modes The way in which the SQL*TextRetrieval indexing utilities use and/or enter words in the word list. (1) PASS mode indexing - In this mode, only words already present in the word list and flagged as PASS words are indexed. (2) STOP mode indexing - In this mode, only words already present in the word list and flagged as STOP words are not indexed.

indexing term The representation of a concept in the form of either a term derived from natural language, preferably a noun or a noun phrase, or a classification symbol.

indicative text Text that identifies and points to documents held elsewhere; for example, library catalogues, bibliographies, and abstracts.

individual lock A distributed lock that covers one database block while it is in the buffer cache of the SGA. When the block leaves the SGA, the individual lock is assigned to a new block entering the SGA. This is the default locking mechanism for ORACLE on the nCUBE 2 supercomputer; it is not available for ORACLE on other systems.

information model See entity relationship diagram.

information paths The paths that could be used by a higher level user to communicate information to a lower level user in violation of MAC policy.

information systems That part of an organization responsible for the development, operation and maintenance of computer-based systems. Also known as information technology, information systems technology or data processing.

INIT.ORA file A database system file containing a list of parameters that are read when the database system is started. The parameters identify the database and control system wide resources. By affecting the size of the SGA, they also affect the performance of the instance. In UNIX, the init.ora file.

Initial Program Load (IPL) The initialization procedure starting operation of an operating system.

initiator The client that starts a TNS connection by sending a connection request. The initiator of the connection requires some data or service of the destination.

INITORA The MPM startup parameter dataset containing the parameters and startup information for a particular ORACLE subsystem.

inner bounding box The virtual rectangle that constitutes an object's ideal shape and connects its four control points, regardless of edge thickness or other attribute settings. See also outer bounding box.

INP file A portable file used to represent a SQL*Forms form. It can be generated to produce an FRM file, or loaded into the database.

input allowed A characteristic of a SQL*Forms field that allows a user to enter a value in that field. Same as fill-in item. Contrast with fixed field.

input file File containing data to be transferred into the computer.

insert mode A data entry mode in which each new character you enter is inserted at the terminal's display cursor, pushing the following characters to the right. The opposite of replace mode.

instance The background processes and memory areas required to access an ORACLE database. A database system requires one instance and one database. Every ORACLE instance has a single system global area (SGA); a multiple-user instance also requires several background processes. See also type and instance.

instance failure Failure that occurs when a problem arises that prevents a database instance (SGA and background processes) from continuing work. Instance failure may result from a hardware problem such as a outage, or a software problem such as an operating system crash. When an instance failure occurs, the data in the buffers of the SGA is not written to the data files.

instance identifier A name or ID used to distinguish one instance from another when multiple instances exist on one CPU. The identifier is specified in a operating-system specific manner.

instance recovery Recovery of an instance in the event of software or hardware failure, so that the database is again available to users. If the instance terminates abnormally, then instance recovery automatically occurs at the next instance startup. See also media recovery.

INTCHG.ORA file A file maintained for each Interchange that defines the start-up parameters of an Interchange.

integrating server An Oracle7 Server that interacts with a target system via one or more gateway servers. An Oracle7 server becomes an integrating server when a connection is established to a gateway server via a database link.

integrity (data) The accuracy, consistency, and security of database data, as maintained by ORACLE Server throughout all user access.

integrity constraint A business rule applying to one or more columns in a table that defines the valid values for those columns. For example, a column value cannot be null, or it must have one of a predefined set of values (as in state or area codes), or it must be in a certain numeric range, or it must exist in another table (as in foreign key). Integrity constraints are defined for a column when the table is created or altered. There are six possible types (CHECK, UNIQUE, PRIMARY, FOREIGN, DEFAULT, and NULL).

integrity rules The laws that govern what operations are allowed and not allowed on the data and structures of a database. Integrity rules protect the data and the structures of a database.

Interchange Control Utility (INTCTL) A utility included with the MultiProtocol Interchange to control various functions, such as to start, stop, and gather statistics from the Interchange.

interface call In a user-developed gateway, a function in the intermediate layer. An interface call is intended to complete a specific action when interacting with the target system. Gateway developers must supply this functionality for all interface calls that need to be implemented. Prototypes, structures, and valid return values for interface calls are included in the appropriate Oracle gateway developer's kit. See also context handle, server sublayer, service call, session sublayer, target sublayer, transaction sublayer.

intermediate layer The part of a user-developed gateway that directly interacts with the target system. An intermediate layer contains interface calls, which are conceptually grouped into the server sublayer, session sublayer, transaction sublayer, and target sublayer. The call flows in an intermediate layer cannot be changed by gateway developers. See also context handle, service layer.

INTERNAL A username that the DBA can use to connect to a V6 database in rare situations, such as database creation. Requires special operating system privileges.

internal character masking See wild card.

internal entity A thing of significance, within the scope of the application system. See also entity.

internal locks General category of locks on internal database structures and physical files. Internal locks include dictionary cache locks, file and log management locks, and tablespace and rollback segment locks.

internet A network made up of two or more subnets.

Internet address In TCP/IP, a number that identifies the address for a node on the network.

interoperability The ability of programs on different, multi-vendor computers to share data. Interoperability requires process-to-process networks that follow the same communication protocols at all levels, from client/server programs to the wire.

intersection table A table that often has foreign keys to two or more (rarely more) tables. It is typically used to implement a many-to-many relationship between two entities. Normally used when it is important to record that there is some relationship between one thing and another without further qualification; for example, a distribution list.

intraoperability The ability of a pair of network software modules in the same computer to cooperate in the processing of network data. Two modules will intraoperate if the lower layer features an interface that the layer above can use.

inverted index An index created from an inversion of all the words contained in all of the documents in a text database. See also text index.

IP (Internet protocol) A part of the TCP/IP protocol, commonly used over Ethernet. See also TCP.

IRMA A 3270 emulation board and program marketed by Digital Communications Associates. Allows microcomputers to emulate 3270 terminals.

ISO (International Standards Organization) An organization that specifies new networking standards. Not to be confused with OSI, which is the Open Systems Interconnect model put forth by the organization.

item An interface object that can represent a column in the database and can be used to perform data manipulation, to initiate actions, or to indicate conditions within the application.

iterative development See incremental development.

IUCV (Inter-User Communication Vehicle) An interface facilitating the transfer of messages between virtual machines, or between CP and a virtual machine.

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