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Oracle® Database SQL Reference
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10759-01
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Use the COMMIT statement to end your current transaction and make permanent all changes performed in the transaction. A transaction is a sequence of SQL statements that Oracle Database treats as a single unit. This statement also erases all savepoints in the transaction and releases transaction locks.

Oracle Database issues an implicit COMMIT before and after any data definition language (DDL) statement.

You can also use this statement to

Oracle recommends that you explicitly end every transaction in your application programs with a COMMIT or ROLLBACK statement, including the last transaction, before disconnecting from Oracle Database. If you do not explicitly commit the transaction and the program terminates abnormally, then the last uncommitted transaction is automatically rolled back.

A normal exit from most Oracle utilities and tools causes the current transaction to be committed. A normal exit from an Oracle precompiler program does not commit the transaction and relies on Oracle Database to roll back the current transaction.

See Also:


You need no privileges to commit your current transaction.

To manually commit a distributed in-doubt transaction that you originally committed, you must have FORCE TRANSACTION system privilege. To manually commit a distributed in-doubt transaction that was originally committed by another user, you must have FORCE ANY TRANSACTION system privilege.


Description of commit.gif follows
Description of the illustration commit.gif



The WORK keyword is supported for compliance with standard SQL. The statements COMMIT and COMMIT WORK are equivalent.


Specify a comment to be associated with the current transaction. The 'text' is a quoted literal of up to 255 bytes that Oracle Database stores in the data dictionary view DBA_2PC_PENDING along with the transaction ID if the transaction becomes in doubt.

See Also:

COMMENT for more information on adding comments to SQL statements

FORCE Clause

In a distributed database system, the FORCE clause lets you manually commit an in-doubt distributed transaction. The transaction is identified by the 'text' containing its local or global transaction ID. To find the IDs of such transactions, query the data dictionary view DBA_2PC_PENDING. You can use integer to specifically assign the transaction a system change number (SCN). If you omit integer, then the transaction is committed using the current SCN.


A COMMIT statement with a FORCE clause commits only the specified transaction. Such a statement does not affect your current transaction.

Restriction on FORCE

COMMIT statements using the FORCE clause are not supported in PL/SQL.

See Also:

Oracle Database Heterogeneous Connectivity Administrator's Guide for more information on these topics


Committing an Insert: Example

This statement inserts a row into the hr.regions table and commits this change:

INSERT INTO regions VALUES (5, 'Antarctica'); 


Commenting on COMMIT: Example

The following statement commits the current transaction and associates a comment with it:

    COMMENT 'In-doubt transaction Code 36, Call (415) 555-2637'; 

If a network or machine failure prevents this distributed transaction from committing properly, then Oracle Database stores the comment in the data dictionary along with the transaction ID. The comment indicates the part of the application in which the failure occurred and provides information for contacting the administrator of the database where the transaction was committed.

Forcing an In-Doubt Transaction: Example

The following statement manually commits an in-doubt distributed transaction:

COMMIT FORCE '22.57.53';