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Oracle® Database Net Services Administrator's Guide
10g Release 1 (10.1)

Part Number B10775-01
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Documentation Accessibility

What's New in Oracle Net Services?

Oracle Database 10g 10g Release 1 (10.1) New Features in Oracle Net Services
Oracle9i Release 2 (9.2) New Features in Oracle Net Services
Oracle9i Release 1 (9.0.1) New Features in Oracle Net Services
Oracle8i New Features in Oracle Net Services

Part I Getting Started with Oracle Net Services

1 Networking Challenges in the Internet Age

What Is the Big Picture for Networking?
Oracle's Solution to Networking Issues
Client/Server Application Connections
Web Client Application Connections
Web Client Connections Without an Application Web Server
Location Transparency
Centralized Configuration and Management
Quick Installation and Configuration
Internet and Intranet Scalability
Shared Server
Connection Pooling
Performance Between the Middle Tier and Oracle Database
Network Security
Firewall Access Control
Protocol Access Control
A Suite of Networking Components
Oracle Net
Oracle Net Foundation Layer
Oracle Protocol Support
Oracle Net Listener
Oracle Connection Manager
Networking Tools
Oracle Advanced Security

2 Connectivity Concepts

Database Service and Database Instance Identification
Database Services
Database Instances
Service Accessibility
Enhanced Service Accessibility with Multiple Listeners
Connect-Time Failover
Transparent Application Failover
Client Load Balancing
Connection Load Balancing
Service Handlers
Dedicated Server Processes

3 Configuration Management Concepts

Configuration Models
Localized Configuration File Support
Directory Server Support
Directory Naming Overview
Naming Configuration Storage in a Directory Server
Net Service Alias Entries
Directory Entries
Adding or Modifying Entries in the Directory Server
Client Connections Using Directory Naming
Using the Entry's Relative Name
Using the Entry's Absolute Name
Oracle Net Configuration and Directory Server Design
Limitations of Directory Naming Support with Microsoft Active Directory

4 Architecture of Oracle Net Services

Oracle Net Stack Communication Architecture
Stack Communication for Client/Server Application Connections
Stack Communication for Java Application Connections
Stack Communication for Web Client Connections
Listener Architecture
Database Server Process Architecture
Shared Server Processes
Dedicated Server Processes
Oracle Connection Manager Architecture
A Complete Architecture

5 Configuration and Administration Tools Overview

User Interface Tools
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Oracle Net Manager
Selecting When to Use Oracle Enterprise Manager and Oracle Net Manager
Oracle Net Configuration Assistant
Oracle Net Control Utilities
Listener Control Utility
Oracle Connection Manager Control Utility
Duties of a Network Administrator

6 Quick Start to Oracle Net Connections

Prerequisites to Establishing Connectivity
Task 1: Confirm Network Availability
Task 2: Start the Listener and the Database Server
Task 3: Configure the Client for Connection to a Database
Task 4: Connect to the Database

Part II Configuration and Administration of Oracle Net Services

7 Planning the Network

Deploying a Network Inside an Organization
Shared Server
Connection Pooling
Session Multiplexing
Connect-Time Failover
Client Load Balancing
Naming Methods
JDBC Drivers
Tuning and Performance
Listener Queue Size
Session Data Unit (SDU) Size
Protocol Conversion
Deploying a Network for the Internet
Naming Methods
JDBC Drivers
Access Control
Listener and Database Server Connection Limits
Tuning and Performance
Naming Considerations
Performance Considerations
Listener Queue Size
Session Data Unit Size for Data Transfer Optimization
Persistent Buffer Flushing for TCP/IP
Planning Summary

8 Configuring Naming Methods

Naming Method Configuration Overview
About Connect Descriptors
Naming Methods
Configuring the Local Naming Method
Configuring the tnsnames.ora File During Installation
Administrator or Runtime Installation
Custom Installation
Configuring the tnsnames.ora File After Installation
Task 1: Configure Net Service Names
Task 2: Configure TNSNAMES as the First Naming Method
Task 3: Distribute Configuration
Task 4: Configure the Listener
Task 5: Connect to the Database
Configuring the Directory Naming Method
Directory Naming Method Configuration Steps
Task 1: Verify Directory Version Compatibility
Task 2: Create or Modify Net Entries
Task 3: Configure LDAP as the First Naming Method for Client Lookups
Task 4: Configure the Listener
Task 5: Connect to the Database
Administering the OracleNetAdmins Group
Exporting Local Naming Entries to a Directory Naming Server
Exporting Net Service Names from a tnsnames.ora File
Creating Multiple Default Contexts in a Directory Naming Server
Exporting Directory Naming Entries to a tnsnames.ora File
Using the Easy Connect Naming Method
Configuring External Naming Methods
Network Information Service (NIS)
Task 1: Configure NIS Servers to Support the NIS External Naming
Task 2: Configure Clients
Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Cell Directory Service (CDS)

9 Configuring Profiles

Profile Configuration Overview
Profile Configuration During Installation
Configuring Client Attributes for Names Resolution
Configuring a Default Domain for Clients
Prioritizing Naming Methods
Routing Connection Requests
Configuring Database Access Control
Configuring Advanced Profile Information
Configuring External Naming Methods
Configuring Oracle Advanced Security

10 Configuring and Administering the Listener

Listener Configuration Overview
Listener Configuration During Installation
Customizing Listener Configuration
Configuring Listening Protocol Addresses
Configuring Access to Oracle JServer
Handling Large Volumes of Concurrent Connection Requests
Configuring Static Service Information
Configuring Password Authentication for the Listener
Configuring Service Registration
Configuring Service Registration
Registering Information with the Default, Local Listener
Registering Information with a Nondefault Listener
Registering Information with a Remote Listener
Configuring a Naming Method
Listener Administration
Starting and Stopping a Listener
Determining the Current Status of a Listener
Monitoring Services of a Listener
Monitoring Listener Log Files

11 Configuring and Administering Oracle Connection Manager

Oracle Connection Manager Configuration Overview
Configuring Oracle Connection Manager
Configuring the Oracle Connection Manager Computer
Listening Endpoint (ADDRESS)
Access Control Rule List (RULE_LIST)
Parameter List (PARAMETER_LIST)
Configuring Clients for Oracle Connection Manager
Configuring the Oracle Database Server for Oracle Connection Manager
Service Registration Configuration
Session Multiplexing Configuration
Enabling Oracle Connection Manager Features
Enabling Session Multiplexing
Enabling Access Control
Migrating cman.ora from Oracle9i to Oracle Database 10g

12 Configuring Dispatchers

Configuring Dispatchers
Enabling Connection Pooling
Enabling Session Multiplexing
Grouping Services by Dispatcher
Configuring Clients for Environments Using Both Dedicated Server and Shared Server

13 Enabling Advanced Features of Oracle Net Services

Configuring Advanced Network Address and Connect Data Information
Creating a List of Listener Protocol Addresses
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Oracle Net Manager
Configuring Address List Parameters
Configuring Advanced Connect Data Parameters
Oracle Enterprise Manager
Oracle Net Manager
Configuring Connection Load Balancing
Example: Connection Load Balancing for Shared Server Configuration
Example: Connection Load Balancing for Dedicated Server Configuration
Configuring Transparent Application Failover
What TAF Restores
Client-Server Database Connections
Users' Database Sessions
Executed Commands
Open Cursors Used for Fetching
Active Transactions
Serverside Program Variables
TAF Database Configurations
TAF Implementation
Example: TAF with Connect-Time Failover and Client Load Balancing
Example: TAF Retrying a Connection
Example: TAF Pre-Establishing a Connection
TAF Verification
Specifying the Instance Role for Primary and Secondary Instance Configurations
Configuring Connections to Non-Oracle Database Services
Configuring Oracle Net Services for External Procedures
Default Configuration for External Procedures
Modifying Configuration of External Procedures for Higher Security
Configuring Oracle Net Services for Oracle Heterogeneous Services
Configuring Oracle Net Services for an Oracle Rdb Database

14 Optimizing Performance

Configuring Session Data Unit
Configuring I/O Buffer Space
Configuring SDP Protocol Support for Infiniband Network Communication to the Database Server
Configuring the Listener and the Oracle Database To Limit Resource Consumption By Unauthorized Users

Part III Testing and Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services

15 Establishing a Connection and Testing the Network

Connecting to a Database
Starting Oracle Net Services Components
Task 1: Start the Listener
Task 2: Start the Database
Task 3: Start Oracle Connection Manager
Entering a Connect String
Connect Identifier and Connect Descriptor Syntax Characteristics
Absolute Name Specification for Directory Naming
Initiating Connections
Connecting from the Operating System to Test a Client
Connecting from the Tool Logon Screen to Test a Client
Connecting from 3GL to Test a Client
Connecting Using Special Commands Within Tools
Testing the Network
Testing a Listener
Testing Oracle Connection Manager
Testing Configuration on the Database Server
Testing Network Connectivity from the Client
Oracle Net Manager

16 Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services

Diagnosing Net8 Services
Server Diagnostics
Task 1: Verify the Database Is Running
Task 2: Perform a Loopback Test
Client Diagnostics
Resolving the Most Common Error Messages for Oracle Net Services
Troubleshooting Directory Naming Errors
Troubleshooting Tips from the Field for Oracle Net Services
Questions to Ask When Troubleshooting Oracle Net Services
Troubleshooting Network Problems Using Log and Trace Files
Logging Error Information for Oracle Net Services
Oracle Net Error Stacks
Example: Error Stack
Oracle Net Services Log File Names
Setting Logging Parameters
sqlnet.ora Log Parameters
listener.ora Log Parameters
cman.ora Log Parameters
Setting Logging Parameters in Configuration Files
Setting Logging Settings During Runtime of Control Utilities
Using Log Files
Analyzing Listener Log Files
Listener Log Audit Trail Information
Listener Service Registration Event Information
Listener Direct Hand-Off Information
Analyzing Oracle Connection Manager Logs
CMADMIN Log File Example
Gateway Log File Example
Tracing Error Information for Oracle Net Services
Oracle Net Services Trace File Names
Setting Tracing Parameters
sqlnet.ora Trace Parameters
listener.ora Trace Parameters
cman.ora Trace Parameters
Setting Tracing Parameters in Configuration Files
Setting Tracing Settings During Runtime of Control Utilities
Evaluating Oracle Net Services Traces
Flow of Data Packets Between Network Nodes
Oracle Net Data Packet Formats
Pertinent Oracle Net Trace Error Output
Using the Trace Assistant to Examine Trace Files
Trace Assistant Syntax
Packet Examples
Two-Task Common Packet Examples
Connection Example
Statistics Example
Contacting Oracle Support Services