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Description of the illustration upper.gif


UPPER returns char, with all letters uppercase. char can be any of the datatypes CHAR, VARCHAR2, NCHAR, NVARCHAR2, CLOB, or NCLOB. The return value is the same datatype as char. The database sets the case of the characters based on the binary mapping defined for the underlying character set. For linguistic-sensitive uppercase, please refer to NLS_UPPER.


The following example returns each employee's last name in uppercase:

SELECT UPPER(last_name) "Uppercase"
   FROM employees;