The lists in the following sections provide a functional summary of SQL statements and are divided into these categories:
Data definition language (DDL) statements let you to perform these tasks:
Create, alter, and drop schema objects
Grant and revoke privileges and roles
Analyze information on a table, index, or cluster
Establish auditing options
Add comments to the data dictionary
COMMENT commands do not require exclusive access to the specified object. For example, you can analyze a table while other users are updating the table.
Many DDL statements may cause Oracle Database to recompile or reauthorize schema objects. For information on how Oracle Database recompiles and reauthorizes schema objects and the circumstances under which a DDL statement would cause this, see Oracle Database Concepts.
See Also:PL/SQL Packages and Types Reference
The DDL statements are:
ALTER... (All statements beginning with
CREATE... (All statements beginning with
DROP... (All statements beginning with
FLASHBACK... (All statements beginning with
Data manipulation language (DML) statements access and manipulate data in existing schema objects. These statements do not implicitly commit the current transaction. The data manipulation language statements are:
SELECT statement is a limited form of DML statement in that it can only access data in the database. It cannot manipulate data in the database, although it can operate on the accessed data before returning the results of the query.
Transaction control statements manage changes made by DML statements. The transaction control statements are:
The single system control statement,
SYSTEM, dynamically manages the properties of an Oracle Database instance. This statement does not implicitly commit the current transaction and is not supported in PL/SQL.
Embedded SQL statements place DDL, DML, and transaction control statements within a procedural language program. Embedded SQL is supported by the Oracle precompilers and is documented in the following books: