See Also:Oracle Database Security Guide for a detailed description and explanation of how to use password management and protection
To create a profile, you must have the
PROFILE system privilege.
To specify resource limits for a user, you must:
Enable resource limits dynamically with the
SYSTEM statement or with the initialization parameter
RESOURCE_LIMIT. This parameter does not apply to password resources. Password resources are always enabled.
Create a profile that defines the limits using the
Assign the profile to the user using the
Specify the name of the profile to be created. Use profiles to limit the database resources available to a user for a single call or a single session.
Oracle Database enforces resource limits in the following ways:
If a user exceeds the
IDLE_TIME session resource limit, then the database rolls back the current transaction and ends the session. When the user process next issues a call, the database returns an error.
If a user attempts to perform an operation that exceeds the limit for other session resources, then the database aborts the operation, rolls back the current statement, and immediately returns an error. The user can then commit or roll back the current transaction, and must then end the session.
If a user attempts to perform an operation that exceeds the limit for a single call, then the database aborts the operation, rolls back the current statement, and returns an error, leaving the current transaction intact.
You can use fractions of days for all parameters that limit time, with days as units. For example, 1 hour is 1/24 and 1 minute is 1/1440.
You can specify resource limits for users regardless of whether the resource limits are enabled. However, Oracle Database does not enforce the limits until you enable them.
See Also:"Creating a Profile: Example"
When specified with a resource parameter,
UNLIMITED indicates that a user assigned this profile can use an unlimited amount of this resource. When specified with a password parameter,
UNLIMITED indicates that no limit has been set for the parameter.
DEFAULT if you want to omit a limit for this resource in this profile. A user assigned this profile is subject to the limit for this resource specified in the
DEFAULT profile. The
DEFAULT profile initially defines unlimited resources. You can change those limits with the
Any user who is not explicitly assigned a profile is subject to the limits defined in the
DEFAULT profile. Also, if the profile that is explicitly assigned to a user omits limits for some resources or specifies
DEFAULT for some limits, then the user is subject to the limits on those resources defined by the
PRIVATE_SGA Specify the amount of private space a session can allocate in the shared pool of the system global area (SGA). Please refer to size_clause for information on that clause.
Note:This limit applies only if you are using shared server architecture. The private space for a session in the SGA includes private SQL and PL/SQL areas, but not shared SQL and PL/SQL areas.
COMPOSITE_LIMIT Specify the total resource cost for a session, expressed in service units. Oracle Database calculates the total service units as a weighted sum of
Use the following clauses to set password parameters. Parameters that set lengths of time are interpreted in number of days. For testing purposes you can specify minutes (n/1440) or even seconds (n/86400).
PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME Specify the number of days the same password can be used for authentication. If you also set a value for
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME, the password expires if it is not changed within the grace period, and further connections are rejected. If you do not set a value for
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME, its default of
UNLIMITED will cause the database to issue a warning but let the user continue to connect indefinitely.
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME and PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX These two parameters must be set in conjunction with each other.
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME specifies the number of days before which a password cannot be reused.
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX specifies the number of password changes required before the current password can be reused. For these parameter to have any effect, you must specify an integer for both of them.
If you specify an integer for both of these parameters, then the user cannot reuse a password until the password has been changed the password the number of times specified for
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX during the number of days specified for
For example, if you specify
PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME to 30 and
PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX to 10, then the user can reuse the password after 30 days if the password has already been changed 10 times.
If you specify an integer for either of these parameters and specify
UNLIMITED for the other, then the user can never reuse a password.
If you specify
DEFAULT for either parameter, then Oracle Database uses the value defined in the
DEFAULT profile. By default, all parameters are set to
UNLIMITED in the
DEFAULT profile. If you have not changed the default setting of
UNLIMITED in the
DEFAULT profile, then the database treats the value for that parameter as
If you set both of these parameters to
UNLIMITED, then the database ignores both of them.
PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME Specify the number of days after the grace period begins during which a warning is issued and login is allowed. If the password is not changed during the grace period, the password expires.
PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION clause lets a PL/SQL password complexity verification script be passed as an argument to the
PROFILE statement. Oracle Database provides a default script, but you can create your own routine or use third-party software instead.
function, specify the name of the password complexity verification routine.
NULL to indicate that no password verification is performed.
If you specify
expr for any of the password parameters, the expression can be of any form except scalar subquery expression.
CREATE PROFILE new_profile LIMIT PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 10 PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 30;
CREATE PROFILE app_user LIMIT SESSIONS_PER_USER UNLIMITED CPU_PER_SESSION UNLIMITED CPU_PER_CALL 3000 CONNECT_TIME 45 LOGICAL_READS_PER_SESSION DEFAULT LOGICAL_READS_PER_CALL 1000 PRIVATE_SGA 15K COMPOSITE_LIMIT 5000000;
If you assign the
app_user profile to a user, the user is subject to the following limits in subsequent sessions:
The user can have any number of concurrent sessions.
In a single session, the user can consume an unlimited amount of CPU time.
A single call made by the user cannot consume more than 30 seconds of CPU time.
A single session cannot last for more than 45 minutes.
In a single session, the number of data blocks read from memory and disk is subject to the limit specified in the
A single call made by the user cannot read more than 1000 data blocks from memory and disk.
A single session cannot allocate more than 15 kilobytes of memory in the SGA.
In a single session, the total resource cost cannot exceed 5 million service units. The formula for calculating the total resource cost is specified by the
app_user profile omits a limit for
IDLE_TIME and for password limits, the user is subject to the limits on these resources specified in the
CREATE PROFILE app_user2 LIMIT FAILED_LOGIN_ATTEMPTS 5 PASSWORD_LIFE_TIME 60 PASSWORD_REUSE_TIME 60 PASSWORD_REUSE_MAX 5 PASSWORD_VERIFY_FUNCTION verify_function PASSWORD_LOCK_TIME 1/24 PASSWORD_GRACE_TIME 10;
This example uses the default Oracle Database password verification function,
verify_function. Please refer to Oracle Database Security Guide for information on using this verification function provided or designing your own verification function.