Oracle® Database

SQL Reference

10g Release 2 (10.2)


December 2005

Oracle Database SQL Reference 10g Release 2 (10.2)


Copyright © 1996, 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.

Primary Author:  Diana Lorentz

Contributor:  Special thanks to Lex de Haan, who has for over ten years been a great source of information and inspiration in the management of this book.

Contributors:  Sundeep Abraham, Drew Adams, Patrick Amor, Geeta Arora, Lance Ashdown, Hermann Baer, Vladimir Barriere, Subhransu Basu, Mark Bauer, Tammy Bednar, Eric Belden, Tolga Bozkaya, Bill Bridge, Allen Brumm, Mark Callaghan, Thomas Chang, Timothy Chien, Dinesh Das, Jay Davison, Steve Fogel, Amit Ganesh, John Haydu, Min-Hank Ho, Lilian Hobbs, Chandrasekharan Iyer, Ken Jacobs, Bob Jenkins, Ramkumar Krishnan, Muralidhar Krishnaprasad, Joydip Kundu, Paul Lane, Simon Law, Bill Lee, Geoff Lee, Jeff Levinger, Nina Lewis, Brian Lin, Peter Linsley, Zhen Liu, Bryn Llewellyn, Rich Long, Qianrong Ma, Anand Manikutty, Paul Manning, Robert McGuirk, Jim Melton, Mughees Minhas, Michael Möller, Daniel Morgan, Ari Mozes, Niloy Mukherjee, Chuck Murray, Sujatha Muthulingam, Ananth Raghavan, Kathy Rich, Antonio Romero, John Russell, Vivian Schupmann, Cathy Shea, Vikram Shukla, Bipul Sinha, Mike Stewart, Sankar Subramanian, Srividya Tata, Kathy Taylor, Barry Trute, Randy Urbano, Rama Vissapragada, Douglas Voss, Daniel Wong, Jianping Yang, Adiel Yoaz, Qin Yu, Tsae-Feng Yu, Fred Zemke, Weiran Zhang

The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent, and other intellectual and industrial property laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decompilation of the Programs, except to the extent required to obtain interoperability with other independently created software or as specified by law, is prohibited.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you find any problems in the documentation, please report them to us in writing. This document is not warranted to be error-free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, for any purpose.

If the Programs are delivered to the United States Government or anyone licensing or using the Programs on behalf of the United States Government, the following notice is applicable:

U.S. GOVERNMENT RIGHTS Programs, software, databases, and related documentation and technical data delivered to U.S. Government customers are "commercial computer software" or "commercial technical data" pursuant to the applicable Federal Acquisition Regulation and agency-specific supplemental regulations. As such, use, duplication, disclosure, modification, and adaptation of the Programs, including documentation and technical data, shall be subject to the licensing restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement, and, to the extent applicable, the additional rights set forth in FAR 52.227-19, Commercial Computer Software—Restricted Rights (June 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500 Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065

The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for such purposes, and we disclaim liability for any damages caused by such use of the Programs.

Oracle, JD Edwards, PeopleSoft, and Retek are registered trademarks of Oracle Corporation and/or its affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.

The Programs may provide links to Web sites and access to content, products, and services from third parties. Oracle is not responsible for the availability of, or any content provided on, third-party Web sites. You bear all risks associated with the use of such content. If you choose to purchase any products or services from a third party, the relationship is directly between you and the third party. Oracle is not responsible for: (a) the quality of third-party products or services; or (b) fulfilling any of the terms of the agreement with the third party, including delivery of products or services and warranty obligations related to purchased products or services. Oracle is not responsible for any loss or damage of any sort that you may incur from dealing with any third party.