This manual provides reference information for Oracle Text. Use it as a reference for creating Oracle Text indexes, for issuing Oracle Text queries, for presenting documents, and for using the Oracle Text PL/SQL packages.

This preface contains these topics:


Oracle Text Reference is intended for an Oracle Text application developer or a system administrator responsible for maintaining the Oracle Text system.

To use this document, you need experience with the Oracle relational database management system, SQL, SQL*Plus, and PL/SQL. See the documentation provided with your hardware and software for additional information.

If you are unfamiliar with the Oracle RDBMS and related tools, see the Oracle Database Concepts, which is a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and terminology used throughout Oracle documentation.

Documentation Accessibility

Our goal is to make Oracle products, services, and supporting documentation accessible, with good usability, to the disabled community. To that end, our documentation includes features that make information available to users of assistive technology. This documentation is available in HTML format, and contains markup to facilitate access by the disabled community. Accessibility standards will continue to evolve over time, and Oracle is actively engaged with other market-leading technology vendors to address technical obstacles so that our documentation can be accessible to all of our customers. For more information, visit the Oracle Accessibility Program Web site at

Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation

Screen readers may not always correctly read the code examples in this document. The conventions for writing code require that closing braces should appear on an otherwise empty line; however, some screen readers may not always read a line of text that consists solely of a bracket or brace.

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This document contains:

Chapter 1, "Oracle Text SQL Statements and Operators"

This chapter describes the SQL statements and operators you can use with Oracle Text.

Chapter 2, " Oracle Text Indexing Elements"

This chapter describes the indexing types you can use to create an Oracle Text index.

Chapter 3, "Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators"

This chapter describes the operators you can use in CONTAINS queries.

Chapter 4, " Special Characters in Oracle Text Queries"

This chapter describes the special characters you can use in CONTAINS queries.

Chapter 5, "CTX_ADM Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_ADM PL/SQL package.

Chapter 6, "CTX_CLS Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_CLS PL/SQL package.

Chapter 7, "CTX_DDL Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_DDL PL/SQL package. Use this package for maintaining your index.

Chapter 8, " CTX_DOC Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_DOC PL/SQL package. Use this package for document services such as document presentation.

Chapter 9, "CTX_OUTPUT Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_OUTPUT PL/SQL package. Use this package to manage your index error log files.

Chapter 10, "CTX_QUERY Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_QUERY PL/SQL package. Use this package to manage queries such as to count hits and to generate query explain plan information.

Chapter 11, "CTX_REPORT"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_REPORT PL/SQL package. Use this package to create various index reports.

Chapter 12, "CTX_THES Package"

This chapter describes the procedures in the CTX_THES PL/SQL package. Use this package to manage your thesaurus.

Chapter 13, "CTX_ULEXER Package"

This chapter describes the data types in the CTX_ULEXER PL/SQL package. Use this package with the user defined lexer.

Chapter 14, "Oracle Text Executables"

This chapter describes the supplied executables for Oracle Text including ctxload, the thesaurus loading program, and ctxkbtc, the knowledge base compiler.

Chapter 15, "Oracle Text Alternative Spelling"

This chapter describes how to handle terms that have multiple spellings, and it lists the alternate spelling conventions used for German, Danish, and Swedish.

Appendix A, "Oracle Text Result Tables"

This appendix describes the result tables for some of the procedures in CTX_DOC, CTX_QUERY, and CTX_THES packages.

Appendix B, "Oracle Text Supported Document Formats"

This appendix describes the supported document formats that can be filtered with the AUTO_FILTER filter for indexing.

Appendix C, "Text Loading Examples for Oracle Text"

This appendix provides some basic examples for populating a text table.

Chapter D, "Oracle Text Multilingual Features"

This appendix describes the multilingual features of Oracle Text.

Appendix E, "Oracle Text Supplied Stoplists"

This appendix describes the supplied stoplist for each supported language.

Appendix F, " The Oracle Text Scoring Algorithm"

This appendix describes the scoring algorithm used for word queries.

Appendix G, "Oracle Text Views"

This appendix describes the Oracle Text views.

Appendix H, " Stopword Transformations in Oracle Text"

This appendix describes stopword transformations.

Related Documentation

For more information, see these Oracle resources:

For more information about Oracle Text, see:

For more information about Oracle Database, see:

For more information about PL/SQL, see:

You can obtain Oracle Text technical information, collateral, code samples, training slides and other material at:

Many books in the documentation set use the sample schemas of the seed database, which is installed by default when you install Oracle Database. Refer to Oracle Database Sample Schemas for information on how these schemas were created and how you can use them yourself.

Printed documentation is available for sale in the Oracle Store at

To download free release notes, installation documentation, white papers, or other collateral, please visit the Oracle Technology Network (OTN). You must register online before using OTN; registration is free and can be done at

If you already have a username and password for OTN, then you can go directly to the documentation section of the OTN Web site at


This section describes the conventions used in the text and code examples of this documentation set. It describes:

Conventions in Text

We use various conventions in text to help you more quickly identify special terms. The following table describes those conventions and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Bold Bold typeface indicates terms that are defined in the text or terms that appear in a glossary, or both. When you specify this clause, you create an index-organized table.
Italics Italic typeface indicates book titles or emphasis. Oracle Database Concepts

Ensure that the recovery catalog and target database do not reside on the same disk.

UPPERCASE monospace (fixed-width) font Uppercase monospace typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. Such elements include parameters, privileges, datatypes, RMAN keywords, SQL keywords, SQL*Plus or utility commands, packages and methods, as well as system-supplied column names, database objects and structures, usernames, and roles. You can specify this clause only for a NUMBER column.

You can back up the database by using the BACKUP command.

Query the TABLE_NAME column in the USER_TABLES data dictionary view.


lowercase monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase monospace typeface indicates executable programs, filenames, directory names, and sample user-supplied elements. Such elements include computer and database names, net service names and connect identifiers, user-supplied database objects and structures, column names, packages and classes, usernames and roles, program units, and parameter values.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

Enter sqlplus to start SQL*Plus.

The password is specified in the orapwd file.

Back up the datafiles and control files in the /disk1/oracle/dbs directory.

The department_id, department_name, and location_id columns are in the hr.departments table.

Set the QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED initialization parameter to true.

Connect as oe user.

The JRepUtil class implements these methods.

lowercase italic monospace (fixed-width) font Lowercase italic monospace font represents placeholders or variables. You can specify the parallel_clause.

Run old_release.SQL where old_release refers to the release you installed prior to upgrading.

Conventions in Code Examples

Code examples illustrate SQL, PL/SQL, SQL*Plus, or other command-line statements. They are displayed in a monospace (fixed-width) font and separated from normal text as shown in this example:

SELECT username FROM dba_users WHERE username = 'MIGRATE';

The following table describes typographic conventions used in code examples and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
[ ]
Anything enclosed in brackets is optional.
DECIMAL (digits [ , precision ])
{ }
Braces are used for grouping items.
A vertical bar represents a choice of two options.
Ellipsis points mean repetition in syntax descriptions.

In addition, ellipsis points can mean an omission in code examples or text.

CREATE TABLE ... AS subquery;

SELECT col1, col2, ... , coln FROM employees;
Other symbols You must use symbols other than brackets ([ ]), braces ({ }), vertical bars (|), and ellipsis points (...) exactly as shown.
acctbal NUMBER(11,2);
acct    CONSTANT NUMBER(4) := 3;
Italicized text indicates placeholders or variables for which you must supply particular values.
CONNECT SYSTEM/system_password
DB_NAME = database_name
Uppercase typeface indicates elements supplied by the system. We show these terms in uppercase in order to distinguish them from terms you define. Unless terms appear in brackets, enter them in the order and with the spelling shown. Because these terms are not case sensitive, you can use them in either UPPERCASE or lowercase.
SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
DROP TABLE hr.employees;
Lowercase typeface indicates user-defined programmatic elements, such as names of tables, columns, or files.

Note: Some programmatic elements use a mixture of UPPERCASE and lowercase. Enter these elements as shown.

SELECT last_name, employee_id FROM employees;
sqlplus hr/hr

Conventions for Windows Operating Systems

The following table describes conventions for Windows operating systems and provides examples of their use.

Convention Meaning Example
Choose Start > menu item How to start a program. To start the Database Configuration Assistant, choose Start > Programs > Oracle - HOME_NAME > Configuration and Migration Tools > Database Configuration Assistant.
File and directory names File and directory names are not case sensitive. The following special characters are not allowed: left angle bracket (<), right angle bracket (>), colon (:), double quotation marks ("), slash (/), pipe (|), and dash (-). The special character backslash (\) is treated as an element separator, even when it appears in quotes. If the filename begins with \\, then Windows assumes it uses the Universal Naming Convention. c:\winnt"\"system32 is the same as C:\WINNT\SYSTEM32
C:\> Represents the Windows command prompt of the current hard disk drive. The escape character in a command prompt is the caret (^). Your prompt reflects the subdirectory in which you are working. Referred to as the command prompt in this manual.
Special characters The backslash (\) special character is sometimes required as an escape character for the double quotation mark (") special character at the Windows command prompt. Parentheses and the single quotation mark (') do not require an escape character. Refer to your Windows operating system documentation for more information on escape and special characters.
C:\>exp HR/HR TABLES=employees
QUERY=\"WHERE job_id='SA_REP' and
Represents the Oracle home name. The home name can be up to 16 alphanumeric characters. The only special character allowed in the home name is the underscore.
C:\> net start OracleHOME_NAMETNSListener
ORACLE_HOME and ORACLE_BASE In releases prior to Oracle8i release 8.1.3, when you installed Oracle components, all subdirectories were located under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. The default for Windows NT was C:\orant.

This release complies with Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) guidelines. All subdirectories are not under a top level ORACLE_HOME directory. There is a top level directory called ORACLE_BASE that by default is C:\oracle\product\10.1.0. If you install the latest Oracle release on a computer with no other Oracle software installed, then the default setting for the first Oracle home directory is C:\oracle\product\10.1.0\db_n, where n is the latest Oracle home number. The Oracle home directory is located directly under ORACLE_BASE.

All directory path examples in this guide follow OFA conventions.

Refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide for Microsoft Windows (32-Bit) for additional information about OFA compliances and for information about installing Oracle products in non-OFA compliant directories.

Go to the ORACLE_BASE\ORACLE_HOME\rdbms\admin directory.