The Oracle Database installation process consists of the following phases:
Read the release notes: Read Oracle Database Release Notes for HP-UX before you begin the installation. The release notes are available with the platform-specific documentation. The latest version of the release notes is available on Oracle Technology Network at:
Review the licensing information: Although the installation media in the media pack contain many Oracle components, you are permitted to use only those components for which you have purchased licenses.
Oracle Support Services does not provide support for components for which licenses have not been purchased.
See Also:Oracle Database Licensing Information for more details
Plan the installation: This chapter describes the Oracle products that you can install and issues that you must consider before starting the installation.
You can also refer to Appendix H, which covers frequently asked questions about installing Oracle Database components, such as how to install Oracle Database if the site uses Oracle applications or if you need multiple Oracle Database connections.
Complete preinstallation tasks: Chapter 2 describes preinstallation tasks that you must complete before installing the product.
Install the software: Use the following sections to install Oracle Database:
Chapter 3 describes how to use Oracle Universal Installer to install Oracle Database and Automatic Storage Management.
Appendix A provides information on performing noninteractive (silent) installations, which you may want to use if you must perform multiple installations of Oracle Database.
Appendix B provides information on cloning Oracle home.
Appendix F describes globalization support information.
Appendix G provides troubleshooting advice in case you encounter problems with the installation.
Chapter 6 describes how to remove Oracle Database.
Complete postinstallation tasks: Chapter 4 describes recommended and required postinstallation tasks.
Get started using Oracle Database: Use the following sections to get started with Oracle Database:
Chapter 5 describes how to check the contents of the installed Oracle Database, how to start various tools, and how to locate various files.
Appendix C describes the network attached storage devices, which you can use to store Oracle database files and Oracle software.
Appendix D describes the Optimal Flexible Architecture, which is a set of guidelines that ensures reliable Oracle installations that requires little maintenance.
Appendix E explains the method to manage Oracle Database port numbers.
The following products are installed by default when installing Oracle Database 11g Release 1:
Oracle Application Express is a tool for development and deployment of Web applications for an Oracle database. It improves the productivity, security, reliability, and performance of Oracle database. With little programming or scripting and only a Web browser, you can build reporting and data entry applications on existing tables, views, or data imported from spreadsheets.
Oracle Warehouse Builder is the only enterprise business intelligence integration design tool that manages the full life-cycle of data and metadata for the Oracle Database. It provides an easy to use graphical environment to rapidly design, deploy, and manage business intelligence systems.
With the Standard and Enterprise Editions of Oracle Database, you can use Oracle Warehouse Builder that enables you to integrate and transform data into high quality information. When you install the Standard Edition or Enterprise Edition of Oracle Database, the installation provides you with components necessary for Oracle Warehouse Builder, including an unpopulated schema,
OWB_SYS. Unlock the
OWB_SYS schema and install the Oracle Warehouse Builder software on a client computer, as described in Oracle Warehouse Builder Installation and Administration Guide.
Oracle Configuration Manager is a utility that can be optionally configured when installing the Oracle Database. Oracle Configuration Manager is used to collect and upload the configuration information to the Oracle configuration repository.
The following are some of the benefits of Oracle Configuration Manager:
Reduces time for resolution of support issues
Provides pro-active problem avoidance
Improves access to best practices and the Oracle knowledge base
Improves understanding of customer's business needs and provides consistent responses and services
Oracle Configuration Manager can now be installed in two modes:
Connected Mode: This mode is recommended if your server has direct connection to the Internet or connection through a proxy server. In this mode, configuration data is automatically collected and uploaded to the Oracle system. Updates to Oracle Configuration Manager occur automatically.
Disconnected Mode: This mode is recommended if your server does not have a connection to Internet. In this mode, you can collect configuration data manually by using the emCCR collect command. When you run this command, the collected configuration data is stored in the
$ORACLE_HOME/ccr/state/upload/ocmconfig.jar file. You can then upload this file to the Oracle server.
Oracle Database Vault enables you to secure business data in ways that were not possible before. Database Vault uses a multifactored and multilayered approach to implementing database security. Before you plan the upgrade process, become familiar with the features of Oracle Database Vault. The Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide discusses the basic features of Oracle Database Vault.
This section contains information that you should consider before deciding how to install this product. It contains the following sections:
The platform-specific hardware and software requirements included in this guide were current when this guide was published. However, because new platforms and operating system software versions might be certified after this guide is published, review the certification matrix on the My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetalink) Web site for the most up-to-date list of certified hardware platforms and operating system versions. The My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink) Web site is available at the following URL:
You must register online before using My Oracle Support (formerly OracleMetaLink). After logging in, click Certify on the top right-hand side of the screen. The Certifications page appears. You can choose the certification either by product or by platform.
Other options include Oracle's Certification Matrices, Desupport Notices, and Product Availability.
This product supports multiple Oracle homes. This means that you can install this release or earlier releases of the software more than once on the same system, in different Oracle home directories.
You must install this product into a new Oracle home directory. You cannot install products from one release of Oracle Database into an Oracle home directory of a different release. For example, you cannot install Oracle Database 11g Release 1 software into an existing Oracle9i Oracle home directory. If you attempt to install this release into an Oracle home directory that contains software from an earlier Oracle release, then the installation fails.
You can install this release more than once on the same system if each installation is installed in a separate Oracle home directory.
The first time you install Oracle Database 11g and choose Automatic Storage Management as the storage option on a system, the installation configures and starts a single-node version of the Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services (CSS) daemon. The CSS daemon is required to enable synchronization between an Automatic Storage Management instance and the database instances that rely on it for database file storage. By default, Oracle Universal Installer does not configure CSS. Oracle Universal Installer configures these services only if you choose Automatic Storage Management as a storage or recovery option. Because the daemon must be running before any Automatic Storage Management instance or database instance starts, it is configured to start automatically when the system boots.
For Oracle RAC installations, the CSS daemon is installed with Oracle Clusterware in a separate Oracle home directory (also called the Clusterware home directory). For single-node installations, the CSS daemon is installed in and runs from the same Oracle Database home that runs Automatic Storage Management.
If you have installed CSS from the same Oracle home as Oracle Database, then use caution when removing Oracle Database software from the system. Before you remove an Oracle home directory that contains Oracle Database 11g, you must either delete the CSS daemon configuration, or if necessary, reconfigure the CSS daemon to run from another Oracle home directory.
Note:If you plan to have more than one Oracle Database 11g installation on a single system and you want to use Automatic Storage Management for database file storage, then Oracle recommends that you run the CSS daemon and the Automatic Storage Management instance from the same Oracle home directory and use different Oracle home directories for the database instances.
Oracle Database 11g must be able to verify that writes to a disk are completed successfully. NFS file systems, including file systems on NAS devices, may not be able to guarantee that writes to a disk are completed successfully, and this may lead to possible data file corruption. Oracle recommends that you do not store files on NFS mounted file systems unless the storage vendor and storage device are listed in the Oracle Storage Compatibility Program list.
If a storage device is supported, then you can use it to store Oracle software files, Oracle database files, or both.
See Also:Appendix C for guidelines about using NFS and NAS devices for Oracle software or database files
Oracle Database Vault installs a baseline database auditing policy. This policy covers the access control configuration information stored in Database Vault database tables, information stored in Oracle Catalog (rollback segments, tablespaces, and so on), the use of system privileges, and Oracle Label Security configuration. When you install Oracle Database Vault, the security specific database initialization parameters are initialized with default values.
See Also:Oracle Database Vault Administrator's Guide for more information on the database audit policy
You can choose different installation methods to install Oracle Database, as follows:
When you use the interactive method to install Oracle Database, Oracle Universal Installer displays a series of screens that enable you to specify all of the required information to install the Oracle Database software and optionally create a database.
With Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) on , Oracle Universal Installer provides two interactive methods that you can use to install Oracle Database:
Basic: Select this installation method if you want to quickly install Oracle Database. This installation method requires minimal user input. It installs the software and optionally creates a general-purpose database using the information that you specify on the screen. It is the default installation method.
Advanced: Select this installation method if you want to complete any of the following tasks:
Upgrade an existing database
Select a database character set or different product languages
Create the EXAMPLE tablespace during the installation
Create a database on a different file system from the software
Configure Automatic Storage Management for database storage
Specify different passwords for administrative schemas
Configure automated backups or Oracle Enterprise Manager notifications
Configure Oracle Configuration Manager
Perform a custom software installation, or choose a different database configuration
The Available Product Components installation screen automatically selects the components most customers need in their Oracle Database installation. It also lists several components that are not selected by default, but which you may want to include. To find the listing of available components, select Advanced, and then in the Installation Type screen, select Custom.
See Also:"Reviewing Installation Guidelines" for additional information on Oracle database installation
By creating a response file and specifying this file when you start Oracle Universal Installer, you can automate some or all of the Oracle Database installation. These automated installation methods are useful if you must perform multiple installations on similarly configured systems or if the system where you want to install the software does not have X Window system software installed.
When you use a response file, you can run Oracle Universal Installer in the following modes, depending on whether you specify all of the required information or not:
Silent Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in silent mode if you use a response file that specifies all required information. None of the Oracle Universal Installer screens are displayed.
Suppressed Mode: Oracle Universal Installer runs in suppressed mode if you do not specify all required information in the response file. Oracle Universal Installer displays only the screens that prompt for the information that you did not specify.
For more information about these modes and about how to complete an installation using response files, refer to Appendix A.
You can choose to install the Oracle Client separately. You cannot install Oracle Database Client during an Oracle Database Installation.
Note:If you perform a Custom installation, then ensure that you install only the components covered by your license. You cannot install Standard Edition using Custom installation.
You can choose one of the following installation types when installing Oracle Database 11g:
Enterprise Edition: Installs licensable Oracle Database options and database configuration and management tools in addition to all of the products that are installed during a Standard Edition installation. It also installs products most commonly used for data warehousing and transaction processing.
Oracle Database Client Installation Guide for HP-UX for Oracle Database Client installation instructions
Oracle Database Licensing Information for more information about the features available with each Oracle Database edition and for information about licensing
Note:The installation process is the same for all the installation types. Ensure that you install the licensed editions.
During the installation, you can choose whether you want to create an Oracle database as part of the installation. If you choose to create an Oracle database, then Oracle Universal Installer uses Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create it. You can choose to create one of the preconfigured database types, which are designed for a variety of different applications, modify one of the preconfigured database types, or create a customized database to suit the requirements.
This section describes the following database configuration options:
Oracle provides the following preconfigured database types that you can create or customize during the installation:
General Purpose/Transaction Processing
Refer to the online help provided by either Oracle Universal Installer or Oracle Database Configuration Assistant for a description of these preconfigured database types.
Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in one of two modes, depending on the choices that you make during the installation:
If you choose either the Enterprise Edition or Standard Edition installation type, then choose to create a preconfigured database type. Oracle Universal Installer prompts you for the minimum amount of information required to create a database of the type you choose. It then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in noninteractive mode to create the database after it installs the software.
Note:Oracle recommends that you use this method to create a database if you have not previously created one.
If you choose the Custom installation type or choose the Advanced database configuration option, then Oracle Universal Installer does not prompt you for database information. Instead, it installs the software and then runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode. Using the screens in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can either modify one of the preconfigured database types or create a custom database and specify precisely how you want to configure it.
Note:If you choose this method to create a database, then click Help on any of the Oracle Database Configuration Assistant screens for a description of the information that you must specify on that screen.
If you decide not to create a database during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create one after you have installed the software. For more information about using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant to create a database after installation, refer to the Oracle Database 2 Day DBA manual.
If you choose to create a database during the installation, you can specify one of the following storage options for database files:
If you choose the file system option, then Oracle Database Configuration Assistant creates the database files in a directory on a file system mounted on the computer. Oracle recommends that the file system you choose be separate from the file systems used by the operating system or the Oracle software. The file system that you choose can be any of the following:
A file system on a disk that is physically attached to the system
If you are creating a database on basic disks that are not logical volumes or RAID devices, then Oracle recommends that you follow the Optimal Flexible Architecture (OFA) recommendations described in Appendix D and distribute the database files over more than one disk.
A file system on a logical volume manager (LVM) volume or a RAID device
If you are using multiple disks in an LVM or RAID configuration, then Oracle recommends that you use the stripe and mirror everything (SAME) methodology to increase performance and reliability. Using this methodology, you do not need to specify more than one file system mount point for database storage.
A network file system (NFS) mounted from a certified network attached storage (NAS) device
If the NAS device is certified by Oracle, then you can store the database files on them.
See Also:The "Using Network Attached Storage or NFS File Systems " section for more information about certified NAS and NFS devices
If you choose the Custom installation type or the Advanced database creation option, then you can also choose to use the Oracle-managed files feature with the new database. If you use this feature, then you must specify only the database object name instead of file names when creating or deleting database files.
See Also:Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information about Oracle-managed files
Automatic Storage Management is a high-performance storage management solution for Oracle Database files. It simplifies the management of a dynamic database environment, such as creating and laying out databases and managing disk space.
Automatic Storage Management can be used with single database installations, multiple database installations, and in Oracle RAC environments. It can be used with databases created in Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1.0.3 or later). However, Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1) databases can use Automatic Storage Management from Oracle Database 10g Release 1 (10.1). If a site has multiple single-instance databases, then you can use Oracle Clusterware to consolidate multiple databases into a single clustered pool of storage managed by Automatic Storage Management. Automatic Storage Management manages the storage of all database files, such as redo logs, control files, and data pump export files. However, it does not manage Oracle Database executable binary files.
At a high level, implementing Automatic Storage Management involves allocating partitioned disks for Oracle Database with preferences for striping and mirroring. Automatic Storage Management manages the disk space for you. This helps avoid the need for traditional disk management tools, such as Logical Volume Managers (LVM), file systems, and the numerous commands necessary to manage both. The synchronization between Automatic Storage Management and the database instance is handled by CSS.
The following are components of an Automatic Storage Management installation:
A disk group is a set of disk devices that Automatic Storage Management manages as a single unit. Each disk device can be an individual physical disk, a multiple disk device, such as a RAID storage array or logical volume, or even a partition on a physical disk. However, mostly, disk groups consist of one or more individual physical disks. To enable Automatic Storage Management to balance input-output operation and storage efficiently within the disk group, you must ensure that all devices in the disk group have similar, if not identical, storage capacity and performance.
You can set the redundancy and striping attributes of individual file types within a disk group by using Automatic Storage Management disk group templates. When you create a disk group, Automatic Storage Management creates a set of default templates for that disk group. Default template settings depend on the disk group type. For example, the default template for control files for a normal redundancy disk group sets three-way mirroring. All other file templates are two-way mirrored. For a high redundancy disk group, the default mirroring cannot be changed, which implies that all files are always three-way mirrored in a high redundancy disk group. You can modify the default templates to suit your site's needs. Refer to Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for more information.
Automatic Storage Management spreads data evenly across all the devices in the disk group to optimize performance and utilization. You can add or remove disk devices from a disk group without shutting down the database. When you add or remove disks, Automatic Storage Management rebalances the files across the disk group. You can create multiple disk groups to handle specific tasks, such as backup and recovery operations, in addition to regular file storage activities.
When you add a device to a disk group, you can specify a failure group for that device. Failure groups identify disk devices that have common failure characteristics, for example, devices that are attached to the same controller. If the controller fails, then all devices attached to it become unavailable. By default, each device also belongs to its own failure group. By using the failure groups you specify, Automatic Storage Management can distribute data among the devices in the disk group to minimize the risk of data loss caused by component failures.
The Automatic Storage Management instance manages Automatic Storage Management disk groups. This instance must be running before you can start a database instance that uses Automatic Storage Management. When you choose Automatic Storage Management as a database storage mechanism, this instance is created and started, if necessary. For a single-instance Oracle Database installation, you only need one Automatic Storage Management instance, regardless of the number of database instances on the system. The Automatic Storage Management instance on any node in a single cluster can handle any combination of disk group types.
To install Automatic Storage Management, you use Oracle Universal Installer. This installation guide provides the following general steps for installing Automatic Storage Management:
"Oracle Cluster Synchronization Services" for information regarding configuration of CSS daemon on a single node.
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for a general overview, from a non-platform perspective, of Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database New Features Guide for information about new features in this release of Automatic Storage Management
Oracle Database Administrator's Guide for a more detailed description of Automatic Storage Management
The Oracle Technology Network Web site, for additional information on Automatic Storage Management, which you can visit at
Determine the disk requirements of the site and, if necessary, create one or more disk partitions for Automatic Storage Management.
"Preparing Disk Groups for an Automatic Storage Management Installation" provides guidelines on how to determine the disk requirements of the site.
Run Oracle Universal Installer to install and create an Automatic Storage Management instance and to create Automatic Storage Management disk groups.
"Step 1: Reviewing Automatic Storage Management Installation Considerations" provides guidelines on where to install Automatic Storage Management and other installation considerations.
"Step 2: Installing the Automatic Storage Management Instance and configuring Disk Groups" describes how to create an Automatic Storage Management instance and disk groups.
After you create an Automatic Storage Management instance and its associated disk groups, subsequent databases that you create can use Automatic Storage Management for file storage management. If you have databases that were created before you installed Automatic Storage Management, then you can migrate them to Automatic Storage Management by using the Enterprise Manager Migrate Database Wizard. This wizard is available in Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control or Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. Alternatively, you can use Oracle Database Recovery Manager (RMAN) to perform the migration.
To create an Oracle Database with Automatic Storage Management refer "Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management"
Test the Automatic Storage Management installation.
"Step 3: Installing Oracle Database to Use Automatic Storage Management" provides a simple test you can try to check that the Automatic Storage Management installation was successful. "Managing Automatic Storage Management" explains how to start and access Automatic Storage Management and which Oracle Database tools you can use to manage it.
Raw devices are disk partitions or logical volumes that have not been formatted with a file system. Raw devices are not available as a storage option when creating a database as a part of a new Oracle Database 11g installation. However, upgrading the existing version of raw devices are supported. Raw device is available as a storage option when you run Oracle Database Configuration Assistant from the following location:
When you use raw devices for database file storage, Oracle writes data directly to the partition or volume, bypassing the operating system file system layer. However, since raw devices can be difficult to create and administer, and because the performance gains over modern file systems are minimal, Oracle recommends that you choose Automatic Storage Management or file system storage in preference to raw devices.
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g centrally in the environment
To deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager centrally, you must install at least one Oracle Management Repository and one Oracle Management Service within the environment, then install an Oracle Enterprise Management Agent on every computer that you want to manage. You can then use a single HTML interface to manage and monitor software and hardware targets on all of those systems. Targets can include Oracle databases, application servers, Net listeners, and third-party software. This single interface is called Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control (or simply Grid Control).
Note:Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g is available separately on the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control installation media.
Deploy Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control locally on the database system
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control software is installed by default with every Oracle Database installation except Custom. During a Custom installation, you can choose not to install Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. However, Oracle recommends that you do install it. This local installation provides a Web-based interface called Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control. The Database Control is similar in function to the Grid Control, but it can manage only a single database. If you want to administer more than one database on this system, then you must either configure a separate Database Control for each database, or install Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g Grid Control.
Note:Refer to the Oracle Enterprise Manager Concepts manual and the Oracle Enterprise Manager Grid Control Installation and Basic Configuration manual for more information Oracle Enterprise Manager 10g.
This section contains the following topics:
When you choose to create a preconfigured database during the installation, you must select the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the database. The following options are available:
Use Grid Control for central database management
This option is available only if an Oracle Management Agent is installed on the system. When Oracle Universal Installer detects an Oracle Management Agent on the system, you can choose this option and specify the Oracle Management Service that you want to use to manage the database.
If an Oracle Management Agent is not installed, then you must use Database Control to manage the database. However, if Oracle Management Agent is installed after Oracle Database, then you can use Grid Control to manage this database.
Use Database Control for local database management
This option is selected by default if an Oracle Management Agent is not installed on the system. However, even if a Management Agent is installed, you can still choose to configure Database Control to manage the database.
If you choose the Advanced database configuration option or choose to create a database during a Custom installation, then Oracle Universal Installer runs Oracle Database Configuration Assistant in interactive mode. Using a screen in Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, you can specify the Oracle Enterprise Manager interface that you want to use to manage the database. Alternatively, you can also choose not to configure the database with Enterprise Manager.
Oracle recommends that you configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during installation. However, if you choose not to configure the database to use Enterprise Manager during the installation, then you can use Oracle Database Configuration Assistant after the installation to configure the database to use it.
Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control provides a Web-based user interface that enables you to monitor, administer, and maintain an Oracle database. You can use it to perform all of the database administration tasks. You can also use it to determine information about the database, such as:
Instance name, database version, Oracle home location, media recovery options, and other instance data
Current instance availability
Database alert information
Session and SQL-related performance information
Space usage matrix
In addition, it provides you with automatic notification of security alerts and it provides the ability to download and apply patches for the software.
If you choose to use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, then you can optionally enable automated database backups that use the Oracle-suggested default backup strategy. You do not have to enable automated backups during the installation. If you prefer, you can use Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control or Grid Control to configure automated backups after you install the software and create a database.
This section contains the following topics:
Oracle Database 2 Day DBA for information about using Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control to configure or customize automated backups or to recover a backed up database
Oracle Database Backup and Recovery User's Guide for more detailed information about defining a backup strategy and backing up and recovering Oracle databases
If you enable automated backups, then Oracle Enterprise Manager schedules a daily backup job that uses Oracle Recovery Manager (RMAN) to back up all of the database files to an on disk storage area called the flash recovery area. The first time the backup job runs, it creates a full backup of the database. Subsequent backup jobs perform incremental backups, which enable you to recover the database to its state at any point during the preceding 24 hours.
To enable automated backup jobs during installation, you must specify the following information:
The location of the flash recovery area
You can choose to use either a file system directory or an Automatic Storage Management disk group for the flash recovery area. To set the default values for flash recovery area and data file location, use Oracle base as the starting point.
Default Flash recovery area:
Default data file location:
The default disk quota configured for the flash recovery area is 2 GB. For Automatic Storage Management disk groups, the required disk space depends on the redundancy level of the disk group that you choose. Chapter 2 describes how to choose the location of the flash recovery area and identifies its disk space requirements.
An operating system user name and password for the backup job
Oracle Enterprise Manager uses the operating system credentials that you specify when running the backup job. The user name that you specify must belong to the UNIX group that identifies database administrators (the
ORA_DBA group). This user also must have Logon As A Batch Job privilege.
If you enable automated backups after choosing one of the preconfigured databases during the installation, then automated backup is configured with the following default settings:
The backup job is scheduled to run nightly at 2 a.m.
The disk quota for the flash recovery area is 2 GB.
If you enable automated backups by using Oracle Database Configuration Assistant, either during or after the installation, then you can specify a different start time for the backup job and a different disk quota for the flash recovery area.
If you choose to use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control during the installation, then you can configure Enterprise Manager to send e-mail when specific events occur. These events can include occurrences such as disk space reaching a critical limit (a threshold), or a database shutting down unexpectedly.
If you choose to enable e-mail notifications, then you must specify the following information:
The host name of a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) server
The e-mail address that should receive the alerts
The e-mail address that you specify could belong to an individual or it could be a shared e-mail account or a distribution list.
For information about upgrading a earlier release of Oracle Database to Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1), refer to Oracle Database Upgrade Guide. The following sections provide additional platform-specific upgrade information that you should review before upgrading an existing database:
Note:The information in this section does not apply to an upgrade of a eelease 1 (9.0.1) or later release of Oracle Database.
Before you upgrade an existing database that uses the AL24UTFFSS character set, you must upgrade the database character set to UTF8. Oracle recommends that you use the Character Set Scanner (
csscan) utility for data analysis before attempting to upgrade the existing database character set.
The Character Set Scanner utility checks all character data in the database and tests for the effects of, and problems with, changing the character set encoding. Before running the Character Set Scanner utility, set the shared library path environment variable for the platform to include the
$ORACLE_HOME/lib directory. The shared library path environment path that you must set is
Note:AL32UTF8 is the Oracle Database character set that is appropriate for XMLType data. It is equivalent to the IANA registered standard UTF-8 encoding, which supports all valid XML characters.
Do not confuse Oracle Database database character set UTF8 (no hyphen) with database character set AL32UTF8 or with character encoding UTF-8. Database character set UTF8 has been superseded by AL32UTF8. Do not use UTF8 for XML data. UTF8 supports only Unicode version 3.0 and earlier; it does not support all valid XML characters. AL32UTF8 has no such limitation.
Using database character set UTF8 for XML data could potentially cause a irrecoverable error or affect security negatively. If a character that is not supported by the database character set appears in an input-document element name, then a replacement character (usually "?") is substituted for it. This will terminate parsing and raise an exception.
See Also:Oracle Database Globalization Support Guide for more information about Character Set Support