What's New in GeoRaster?

This section describes new and changed features of Oracle Spatial GeoRaster for Oracle Database Release 11.

Release 11.2 Changes

The following are new and changed features for Oracle Database 11g Release 2 (11.2).

Java API

GeoRaster now includes a Java API, which consists of interfaces and classes that support features available with the GeoRaster feature of Oracle Spatial. For more information, see Section 1.13.

Ground Control Point (GCP) Support

You can use ground control points (GCPs) to georeference GeoRaster objects. The support for this feature includes several new data types and PL/SQL subprograms, as well as enhancements to some existing types and subprograms. For information, see the following:

Reprojection of GeoRaster Objects

You can reproject a GeoRaster object to a different Oracle Spatial coordinate system by using the new SDO_GEOR.reproject, which is documented in Chapter 4.

Optimized Blocking to Reduce Padding Space

For raster data that is blocked, you can specify the new OPTIMALPADDING keyword to cause any user-specified blockSize value for storage parameters to be adjusted automatically to an optimal value to reduce padding space. For more information, see the descriptions on the blocking and blockSize keywords in Table 1-1, "storageParam Keywords for Raster Data" in Section 1.4.1.

You can also use the new SDO_GEOR_UTL.calcOptimizedBlockSize procedure (documented in Chapter 6) to calculate an optimal blockSize value that will use less padding space in the GeoRaster object storage, and you can apply the result in any subprogram that has the storageParam parameter.

Grid Interpolations

The new SDO_GEOR.evaluateDouble function (documented in Chapter 4) evaluates a direct location based on neighboring cell values by using a specified interpolation method, and returns the raster values (double precision numbers) for the specified bands or layers for that location.

Polygon-Based Clipping in Queries

The SDO_GEOR.getRasterSubset and SDO_GEOR.subset procedures (documented in Chapter 4) are enhanced. In previous releases, only the MBR (rectangle) of the query polygon was used. Now, you can also clip the query result along the (irregular) polygon boundary.

setModelCoordLocation Procedure

The new SDO_GEOR.setModelCoordLocation procedure (documented in Chapter 4) enables you to change the cell coordinate system from CENTER to UPPERLEFT or from UPPERLEFT to CENTER. It applies only to georeferenced GeoRaster objects, and it automatically adjusts the functional fitting coefficients of the GeoRaster SRS accordingly to reflect the change (to ensure that the relationship between cell coordinates and model coordinates does not change).

getCellValue Function Allows Multiple Bands or Layers

The SDO_GEOR.getCellValue function (documented in Chapter 4) is enhanced to return cell values of multiple layers or bands for a specified location. In previous releases, it returned only a single cell value of a specified layer or band.

getGeoreferenceType Function Return Values

The SDO_GEOR.getGeoreferenceType function (documented in Chapter 4) can return the following values for georeference type in addition to those documented in the previous release of this manual: 5 for cubic polynomial, 6 for quadratic rational polynomial, or 7 for quadratic polynomial.

Release 11.1 Changes

The following are new and changed features for Oracle Database 11g Release 1 (11.1).

Enhanced Ease of Use, Reliability, and Manageability

For the current release, GeoRaster automates certain tasks that previously needed to be performed manually, and it provides new administrative tools for users who need to perform specialized tasks.

  • When you create a GeoRaster table, you no longer need to create the GeoRaster DML triggers for the table. These DML triggers are created automatically, and their automatic creation and operation provides greater reliability.

  • When you import GeoRaster data using the Data Pump Import utility, you no longer need to create GeoRaster DML triggers for the imported tables or GeoRaster system data entries for the imported GeoRaster objects. These triggers and entries are now created automatically.

  • Internal enhancements that monitor DDL events on raster tables and activities on GeoRaster system data improve the manageability, reliability, robustness, and usability of GeoRaster.

  • The new SDO_GEOR_ADMIN PL/SQL package contains subprograms to retrieve information that may be useful and to help you manage and maintain GeoRaster databases, including performing migration and upgrade operations. The SDO_GEOR_ADMIN subprograms are documented in Chapter 5.

  • Raster data versioning with Oracle Workspace Manager is supported, as explained in Section 3.18.

  • Raster data row-level security with Oracle Label Security is supported, as explained in Section 3.18.

For more information about GeoRaster and database management, see Section 1.11.

New Metadata and Raster Support

The current release provides support for new GeoRaster metadata and raster types:

  • A generic and complex functional fitting georeferencing model is supported for georeferencing rectified and unrectified airborne photos and satellite images. The affine transformation, DLT, RPC, and other models are supported as special cases of this generic model. For more information, see Section 1.6.

  • Bitmap masks (special one-bit deep rectangular raster grids with each pixel having either the value of 0 or 1) can be stored for GeoRaster objects and individual bands or layers. These masks are stored inside the GeoRaster objects. Pyramids of masks can also be created and stored inside the GeoRaster objects. For more information about bitmap masks, see Section 1.8.

  • Multiple NODATA values and multiple NODATA value ranges are supported for GeoRaster objects and their individual bands or layers. For more information, see Section 1.9.

  • GeoRaster objects can have empty raster blocks to save storage space and improve processing speed. For more information, see Section 1.4.4.

  • Random blocking size is supported. Although each block must still have the same size, the raster blocking sizes can be randomly different numbers along row and column dimensions, not necessarily a power of 2.

New Functions, Procedures, and Other Features

The current release provides many new subprograms and other enhancements related to the GeoRaster PL/SQL API and other features, including the following:

  • Update, query, and other DML operations on the new georeferencing models, bitmap masks, and multiple NODATA values and value ranges are supported.

  • Existing subprograms are enhanced to support empty raster blocks, random blocking sizes, and the new metadata.

  • Mosaic support allows for gaps, overlaps, and missing source GeoRaster objects. For information about mosaic support, see the description of the SDO_GEOR.mosaic procedure in Chapter 4.

  • The union or merging of GeoRaster objects and layers is supported. For information, see the description of the SDO_GEOR.mergeLayers procedure in Chapter 4.

  • Partial edit and update on a window of raster data and its pyramids using another image or gridded data is supported. For information, see the description of the SDO_GEOR.updateRaster procedure in Chapter 4.

  • New GeoRaster template functions are provided to facilitate third-party software integration. For more information, see Section 3.17.

  • Statistical analysis and histogram generation are supported. For information, see the description of the SDO_GEOR.generateStatistics procedure in Chapter 4.

  • Sub-cell or sub-pixel addressing (floating row and column numbers) is supported in the GeoRaster cell spaces, as explained in Section 1.3.

  • A new constructor is added to the SDO_GEOR_SRS object type, as explained in Section 2.3.5.

  • Calculation of the actual and nominal storage sizes of a GeoRaster object is supported. (The nominal size does not consider compression and sparse data.) For more information, see the sections about the SDO_GEOR_UTL.calcRasterStorageSize and SDO_GEOR_UTL.calcRasterNominalSize functions in Chapter 6.

  • GeoRaster validation is enhanced to require that each valid GeoRaster object must be registered (with an entry in the ALL_SDO_GEOR_SYSDATA view), the raster data table name attribute of the GeoRaster object must not contain spaces, period separators, or mixed-case letters in a quoted string, and all the alphanumeric characters must be uppercase. For information about validating GeoRaster objects, see Section 3.4, which also refers to specific functions for performing validation.

  • GeoRaster supports the use of SecureFile LOBs (SecureFiles) which were introduced in Release 11.1 to supplement the original BasicFile LOBs. For more information, see Section 3.1.2.

  • GeoTiff, JPEG 2000, and Digital Globe RPC file formats are supported for loading and exporting GeoRaster objects. JPEG files can be loaded without decompression. For more information about the GeoRaster loader and exporter tools, see Section 1.14.

  • The GeoRaster viewer is enhanced to display masks, generic georeferencing models, empty raster blocks, and other features. For more information about the GeoRaster viewer tool, see Section 1.14.

The following table lists the new PL/SQL subprograms for this release. (It does not include existing subprograms that were significantly enhanced for this release.)