MySQL 5.6 Reference Manual Including MySQL NDB Cluster 7.3-7.4 Reference Guide LDML Syntax Supported in MySQL

This section describes the LDML syntax that MySQL recognizes. This is a subset of the syntax described in the LDML specification available at, which should be consulted for further information. MySQL recognizes a large enough subset of the syntax that, in many cases, it is possible to download a collation definition from the Unicode Common Locale Data Repository and paste the relevant part (that is, the part between the <rules> and </rules> tags) into the MySQL Index.xml file. The rules described here are all supported except that character sorting occurs only at the primary level. Rules that specify differences at secondary or higher sort levels are recognized (and thus can be included in collation definitions) but are treated as equality at the primary level.

The MySQL server generates diagnostics when it finds problems while parsing the Index.xml file. See Section, “Diagnostics During Index.xml Parsing”.

Character Representation

Characters named in LDML rules can be written literally or in \unnnn format, where nnnn is the hexadecimal Unicode code point value. For example, A and á can be written literally or as \u0041 and \u00E1. Within hexadecimal values, the digits A through F are not case-sensitive; \u00E1 and \u00e1 are equivalent. For UCA 4.0.0 collations, hexadecimal notation can be used only for characters in the Basic Multilingual Plane, not for characters outside the BMP range of 0000 to FFFF. For UCA 5.2.0 collations, hexadecimal notation can be used for any character.

The Index.xml file itself should be written using UTF-8 encoding.

Syntax Rules

LDML has reset rules and shift rules to specify character ordering. Orderings are given as a set of rules that begin with a reset rule that establishes an anchor point, followed by shift rules that indicate how characters sort relative to the anchor point.

MySQL-Specific LDML Extensions

An extension to LDML rules permits the <collation> element to include an optional version attribute in <collation> tags to indicate the UCA version on which the collation is based. If the version attribute is omitted, its default value is 4.0.0. For example, this specification indicates a collation that is based on UCA 5.2.0:

<collation id="nnn" name="utf8_xxx_ci" version="5.2.0">