This is a text representation of ragskip.gif. This figure illustrates a regular hierarchy, a ragged hierarchy, and two skip-level hierarchies. Each hierarchy has a top level, a leaf level, and a second level between the top and the leaf levels. In the standard hierarchy, each member, except the top member, has a parent in the level above the level that the member is in. In the ragged hierarchy, a member in the second level has no children in the leaf level. In one skip-level hierarchy, one leaf-level member does not have a parent in the next highest level. The parent of the member is in the top level. In the other skip-level hierarchy, a member in the second level does not have a parent.