5 Configuring the Compute Nodes for an Enterprise Deployment

This chapter describes how to prepare the servers for an enterprise deployment.

It contains the following sections:

5.1 Overview of Preparing the Compute Nodes

Before you deploy Oracle Fusion Middleware on new hardware, you must set up the compute nodes you plan to use so that the Oracle Software can work in an optimum fashion. Specifically, you must ensure that:

  • The compute nodes are running a certified operating system with the required software patches installed.

  • You have configured the UNIX Kernel correctly.

  • You have created Users and Groups to own the Oracle software.

The settings described in this chapter are only a guide. After using your Oracle software, you should use operating system utilities to tune the configuration to ensure that you are maximizing the potential of your servers.

5.2 Meeting Operating System Requirements

Before starting your operating provisioning you must install a certified operating system.


Be sure to verify you have obtained all required patches. For more info, see Section 2.5.3, "Applying Patches and Workarounds."

5.2.1 Meeting UNIX and Linux Requirements

This section includes the following topics: Configure Kernel Parameters

The kernel parameter and shell limit values shown below are recommended values only. For production database systems, Oracle recommends that you tune these values to optimize the performance of the system. See your operating system documentation for more information about tuning kernel parameters.

Kernel parameters must be set to a minimum of those below on all nodes in the cluster.

The values in Table 5–1 are the current UNIX recommendations. For the latest recommendations for UNIX and other operating systems, see the Oracle Fusion Middleware System Requirements and Specifications at the following URL:


Table 5-1 UNIX Kernel Parameters

Parameter Value


256 32000 100 142



To set these parameters:

  1. Log in as root and add or amend the entries in the file /etc/sysctl.conf.

  2. Save the file.

  3. Activate the changes by issuing the command:

    /sbin/sysctl -p Setting the Open File Limit

On all UNIX operating systems, the minimum Open File Limit should be 4096.


The following examples are for Linux operating systems. Consult your operating system documentation to determine the commands to be used on your system.

You can see how many files are open with the following command:

/usr/sbin/lsof | wc -l

To check your open file limits, use the commands below.

C shell:

limit descriptors


ulimit -n Setting Shell Limits

To change the shell limits, login as root and edit the /etc/security/limits.conf file.

Add the following lines:

* soft  nofile  4096
* hard  nofile  65536
* soft  nproc   2047
* hard  nproc   16384

After editing the file, reboot the machine. Configuring Local Hosts File

Before you begin the installation of the Oracle software, ensure that all your local /etc/hosts file is formatted like the following: oimhost1vhn.mycompany.com oimhost1vhn oimhost2vhn.mycompany.com oimhost2vhn soahost1vhn.mycompany.com soahost1vhn soahost2vhn.mycompany.com soahost2vhn oudinternal.mycompany.com oudinternal idminternal.mycompany.com idminternal idmhost1vhn.mycompany.com idmhost1vhn idmhost2vhn.mycompany.com idmhost2vhn webhost1vhn.mycompany.com webhost1vhn webhost2vhn.mycompany.com webhost2vhn


If oudinternal.mycompany.com and idminternal.mycompany.com have DNS entries, you do not need to add to the /etc/hosts. Increase Huge Page Allocation

By default huge pages are enabled in Exalogic compute nodes, verify the existing allocation by running.

grep Huge /proc/meminfo

Set the recommended Huge Page allocation to 25000.

To set the Huge Page allocation, run the following command as root in the compute node:

# echo 25000  > /proc/sys/vm/nr_hugepages

5.3 Enabling Unicode Support

Your operating system configuration can influence the behavior of characters supported by Oracle Fusion Middleware products.

On UNIX operating systems, Oracle highly recommends that you enable Unicode support by setting the LANG and LC_ALL environment variables to a locale with the UTF-8 character set. This enables the operating system to process any character in Unicode. Oracle SOA Suite technologies, for example, are based on Unicode.

If the operating system is configured to use a non-UTF-8 encoding, Oracle SOA Suite components may function in an unexpected way. For example, a non-ASCII file name might make the file inaccessible and cause an error. Oracle does not support problems caused by operating system constraints.

5.4 Configuring an NIS/YP Server

If you are using NFS Version 4, configure a directory service or an NIS (Network Information Server). If your organization does not have one already, use the built-in one on the ZFS storage appliance. See Configuring NFS Version 4 (NFSv4) on Exalogic in the Oracle Fusion Middleware Exalogic Machine Owner's Guide for more information.

Once you have configured your NIS server, configure each compute node to use it. If you are using the built-in NIS server on the Exalogic ZFS appliance, use the following steps:

  1. Determine the name of the NIS server by logging into the storage BUI using the following URL:

  2. Click Configuration, Services, and then NIS.

  3. Make a note of one of the listed NIS servers.

  4. Login to the compute node as root.

  5. Edit the /etc/idmapd.conf configuration file:

    vi /etc/idmapd.conf

    Set the domain value, as in the following example:

    Domain = us.myexample.com
  6. Restart the rpcidmapd service:

    service rpcidmapd restart
  7. Update the /etc/yp.conf configuration file, and set the correct domain value, as in the following example:

    vi /etc/yp.conf

    Add the following line:

    domain us.myexample.com server NIS_Server_hostname_or_IP

    Where us.myexample.com is the example domain and NIS_Server_hostname_or_IP is the host name or IP address of the NIS server. You must replace these sample values with values appropriate for your environment.

  8. Set NIS domain name on the command line:

    domainname NIS_DOMAIN_NAME

    For example:

    domainname nisdomain.example.com
  9. Edit the /etc/nsswitch.conf configuration file:

    vi /etc/nsswitch.conf

    Change the following entries:

     passwd:     files nis
     shadow:     files nis
     group:      files nis
     automount:  files nis nisplus
     aliases:    files nis nisplus
  10. Restart the rpcidmapd service:

    service rpcidmapd restart
  11. Restart the ypbind service by running the following command:

    service ypbind restart
  12. Check the yp service by running this command:

  13. Verify if you can access Oracle user accounts:

    ypcat passwd
  14. Add ypbind to your boot sequence, so that it starts automatically after rebooting.

    chkconfig ypbind on

5.5 Configuring Users and Groups

Create the following users and groups either locally or in your NIS or LDAP server. This user is the Oracle Software Owner.

The instructions below are for creating the users locally. Refer to your NIS documentation for information about creating these users/groups in your NIS server.


You must create the following groups on each node.

  • oinstall

  • dba

To create the groups, use the following command as root:

groupadd groupname

For example

groupadd -g 500 oinstall
groupadd -g 501 dba


You must create the following users on each node.

  • oracle–The owner of the Oracle software. You may use a different name. The primary group for this account must be oinstall. The account must also be in the dba group.


  • The group oinstall must have write privileges to all the file systems on shared and local storage that are used by the Oracle software.

  • Each group must have the same Group ID on every node.

  • Each user must have the same User ID on every node.

  • The user and group should exists at the NIS server due to the NFSv4 mount requirement.

To create users use the following command as root:

useradd -g primary group -G optional groups -u userid username

For example:

useradd -g oinstall -G dba -u 500 oracle

5.6 Mounting Shares onto the Hosts

Mount the shared storage to the hosts according to the details in Table 5-2.

Table 5-2 Mapping the Shares on the Appliance to Mount Points on Each Compute Node

Volume Mounted Mounted on Host Mounted Point Exclusive


































Each host must have the appropriate privileges set within the SAN.

Mounting the Shares

You must create and mount shared storage locations so that each application tier host can see the same location for the binary installation.

To mount a file system on an Exalogic machine:

  1. Create a directory for the mount point for example:

    mkdir -p /u01/oracle/products
  2. Change the ownership of the directory to the installation user. For example:

    chown oracle:oinstall /u01/oracle/products
  3. Mount the shared storage onto the host using the following command:

     mount -t nfs4 -o mount options zfshost:volume_mount_point

    For example

    mount -t nfs4 -o rw,bg,hard,nointr,rsize=131072,wsize=131072,proto=tcp zfshost:/export/IDM/products /u01/oracle/products
  4. Repeat steps 1 - 3 for each entry in Table 5-2.


    Mounting storage in this way is not persistent. That is the mount will not survive a machine reboot. It is recommended to make the mount persistent that an entry is placed into the file /etc/fstab

    For example:

    zfshost:/export/IDM/products /u01/oracle/products nfs4 auto,rw,bg,hard,nointr,proto=tcp,vers=3,time

Validating the Shared Storage Configuration

Ensure that you can read and write files to the newly mounted directories by creating a test file in the shared storage location you just configured.

For example:

$ cd newly mounted directory
$ touch testfile

Verify that the owner and permissions are correct:

$ ls -l testfile

Then remove the file:

$ rm testfile