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Oracle E-Business Suite Concepts
Release 12.1
Part Number E12841-04
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A Java program that is downloaded to a desktop client from an HTTP server, and runs within a Java-enabled web browser. Applets are restricted in their capabilities compared to servlets.
See also: servlet
application server
Server that resides in an application (middle) tier, between the desktop clients and database tier. Desktop clients send their requests to an application server, which processes the request or send it to another server, such as the database server. The desktop clients never connect directly to the database server.
See also: tier
The account used to install and upgrade Oracle E-Business Suite. This account owns the Oracle E-Business Suite product files.
APPS schema
An ORACLE schema that has access to the complete Oracle E-Business Suite data model.
audit trail
A record of every user's login, including time stamp, session ID, and transactions carried out in the session. Can be used to identify unauthorized access and activities.
A configuration management tool for an Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 environment, AutoConfig includes a number of scripts and other files that simplify the process of making updates to a system. A key file is the Applications context file.
Automatic Undo Management (AUM)
A database feature, automatic undo management is based on the use of undo tablespaces rather than rollback tablespaces and rollback segments.
See also: rollback tablespace, rollback segment, undo tablespace
background process
A noninteractive process that runs in an operating system environment and performs a specific task.
The amount of data that can be sent through a network connection in a fixed period of time, usually measured in bits per second (bps). The speed and capacity of a network depend on both bandwidth and latency.
See also: latency
base language
The language used for seed data and setup data for tables that are not structured for mulitlingual support.
An acronym for Oracle Business Components for Java, BC4J is a 100% Java-compatible, XML-based framework designed to facilitate the development and portable deployment of multi-tier database applications.
See: Web browser
See: cost-based optimizer
certificate file
Contains the identity of a trusted source that the desktop client uses to guarantee the authenticity of a JAR file. Information within the certificate file allows the desktop client to decrypt the digital signature of the JAR file. The identity must be validated successfully before the desktop client downloads and executes the JAR file.
See also: digital signature, JAR file
Acronym for Common Gateway Interface, a specification for transferring information between a Web server and a program designed to process data that conforms to the CGI specification. Such CGI programs are a very common way to enable a Web server to interact dynamically with users.
See also: Perl
character set
A set of encoded binary values that represents the letters, numerals, and punctuation marks of a language, or of a group of languages that use similar written symbols. For example, the WE8ISO8859P1 character set can be used by English and many other languages that use a Latin-based alphabet and Arabic numerals. Terminals and printers handle text data by converting these encoded values to characters. A character set may also be called a codeset.
client/server architecture
A configuration in which one or several servers perform database processing or other functions for applications that are run on clients. Software must be installed on each client before the client can interact with the servers. The client/server architecture is not used by Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12.
A copy of an Oracle E-Business Suite system, typically used for testing purposes. A clone can be created by using the Rapid Clone tool, or from Oracle Applications Manager.
A rollup patch with a name that looks like a version number. Higher codelevels include more changes, and include all fixes from lower codelevels.
See: character set
An instruction or request for the system to perform a particular action. An entire command may consist of the command name, plus one or more parameters and qualifiers.
command file
A file containing a predefined sequence of commands to be executed by the operating system.
Common Gateway Interface
See: CGI
Simultaneous access of the same data by multiple users.
concurrent manager
A process manager that coordinates the processes generated by users' requests to run various data-intensive programs. An Oracle E-Business Suite product group can have several concurrent managers.
See also: internal concurrent manager
concurrent process
A task run by a concurrent manager. A concurrent process runs simultaneously with interactive functions and other concurrent processes.
Concurrent Processing server
An Oracle E-Business Suite server that runs time-consuming, non-interactive tasks in the background.
concurrent queue
A list of concurrent requests awaiting completion. Each concurrent manager has its own queue of pending requests.
concurrent request
A request issued to the Concurrent Processing server to process a noninteractive task, such as running a report.
consolidated update
A collection of recommended patches and rollups for a particular maintenance release, consolidated into a single patch that is installed immediately following use of Rapid Install or application of a maintenance pack.
See also: maintenance pack, Rapid Install
cost-based optimizer
Oracle database server component that determines the optimum execution path for an SQL statement by considering statistical information for the tables and indexes that the SQL statement will access. The cost-based optimizer (CBO) also considers hints, which can be employed to suggest a particular access path. Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12 uses cost-based optimization exclusively.
See also: hint
Enhancements to an Oracle E-Business Suite system made to fit the needs of a specific user community.
data dictionary
A set of Oracle database tables and views that contains administrative information about users, data storage, and privileges. It is created and maintained automatically.
A collection of data, stored in tables, and objects, such as stored procedures and triggers. The term can also refer to the software used to create, store, and manage this data, such as the Oracle database server.
See also: Database server, Oracle database
database administrator (DBA)
The person who prepares the Oracle database server and Oracle tools for an installation or upgrade of Oracle E-Business Suite, and performs maintenance on them after the installation. The DBA has highly privileged access to the database via the SYSTEM and SYS accounts.
database connection tagging
A mechanism by which Oracle E-Business Suite utilizes Oracle Database session attributes to record the current use to which a database connection is being put.
database instance
The combination of background processes and memory used by an Oracle database. Often simply called an instance, and used to refer to a running Oracle database system. There is always a one-to-one correspondence between an Oracle instance and a system global area (SGA).
See also: SGA
database object
A logical entity created and stored in a database. Tables, views, synonyms, indexes, sequences, stored procedures, materialized views, and triggers are all examples of database objects.
Database server
[1] The Oracle database that constitutes the database tier of an Oracle E-Business Suite system. The database server stores the data maintained by Oracle E-Business Suite, and processes SQL and Java requests from Concurrent Processing servers, Forms services, and Web services.[2] The machine on which an Oracle database resides.
See also: Oracle database
database space
The amount of disk space used by a set of database objects.
dbc file
A configuration file that contains information required to connect to the database.
demonstration product group
A product group that includes predefined transaction data for Oracle E-Business Suite products. It is used primarily for system testing and user training.
See also: product group
dependent product
An Oracle E-Business Suite product that is not licensed, but whose files are shared in part by a fully installed Oracle E-Business Suite product. A dependent product is also known as a shared product.
desktop client
A computer that sends user requests to the Web server and handles responses such as screen updates, popup lists, graphical widgets, and cursor movements.
diagnostic patch
A special patch used to gather additional information needed by Oracle to resolve a problem.
digital signature
A means of guaranteeing the authenticity of a program or collection of data, such as a JAR file. It is typically an encrypted message that contains the identity of the code's author.
See also: certificate file, SSL
distributed concurrent processing
See: parallel concurrent processing
distributed directory structure
Oracle E-Business Suite product files installed in more than one file system, as when there is insufficient disk space in a single file system for all Oracle E-Business Suite product files.
The demilitarized zone (DMZ) is the area between outer and inner firewalls, used to protect servers from attempts at unauthorized access to a network or intranet.
See also: firewall
environment file
A command file that sets environment variables. Only servers running UNIX use environment files; Windows servers use the Windows registry instead.
See also: registry
environment setting
An operating system parameter that help specify the behavior of Oracle E-Business Suite and other programs installed on your system. Environment settings are stored as environment variables on UNIX and as registry keys or environment variables on Windows.
environment variable
A variable maintained by the UNIX shell that can be referenced by any program running within the shell. Environment variables hold values used by many Oracle programs and utilities.On Windows, a string consisting of environment information, such as a drive, path, or filename, associated with a symbolic name. You can define environment variables using the System applet in the Control Panel or from the Windows command prompt.
export utility
An Oracle database server utility used to write database data to operating system files external to the database. The corresponding import utility can subsequently be used to read the data back into the same database, or a different one.
See also: import utility
The part of a filename (suffix) after the dot, used to indicate the type or purpose of the file. For example, the extension .sql denotes a SQL*Plus script.
A specific number of contiguous data blocks that store a specific type of information. A segment is made up of a number of extents.
See also: segment
The utilization of an alternative component in a computer system to allow processing to continue after a similar component fails.
A computer that acts as an intermediary to protect a network from unauthorized access, by examining requests and countering suspicious access attempts. A firewall is often used in conjunction with a proxy server.
See also: proxy server
A related collection of fields, regions, and graphical components that appears in a single window. Data can be entered by typing information into the relevant fields.
Forms client
A Java applet that runs on a desktop client and provides the user interface and interaction with Forms.
Forms server
See: forms services
Forms services
An application component that hosts the Oracle Forms engine. Traditionally referred to as Forms server, a term that does not accurately reflect the architecture used in Release 12. Forms services mediate between the desktop client and the database, providing input screens for the Forms-based products on the desktop client and creating or changing database records based on user actions. Release 12 uses the Forms Listener Servlet by default.
Generic Service Management (GSM)
A fault-tolerant framework for generic service processes. GSM utilizes a central management console built into Oracle Applications Manager.
See also: Oracle Applications Manager
Gigabyte (GB)
A unit of memory or disk space equal to 1,073,741,824 bytes. One Gigabyte is equal to 1,024 Megabytes. Often rounded to 1,000,000,000 bytes, i.e. a billion bytes.
See: Generic Service Management
GUI (Graphical User Interface)
An interface used with personal computers and workstations that allows the user to access fields and regions of the screen with a pointing device, typically a mouse.
An optimization suggestion placed in a Comment of an SQL statement.
See also: cost-based optimizer
An acronym for HyperText Markup Language, a simple predefined markup language used to format documents for viewing with a Web browser.
See also: XML
An acronym for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the network protocol used for communication between an HTTP server and a Web browser, to determine the actions Web servers and browsers take in response to various commands.
See also: HTTPS
A version of HTTP that provides additional features needed for secure data transmission.
See also: HTTP
HTTP server
An server that sends out Web page content in response to HTTP requests from remote browsers. Often referred to as a Web server.
See also: Web browser
import utility
An Oracle database server utility used to read operating system files written by the export utility. Can be used to restore data into a database or transfer data to another database.
See also: export utility
A database object associated with a table, used by the Oracle database server to locate rows of that table quickly.
initialization parameters
Parameters defined in an initialization file that configure an Oracle database. The parameters affect many aspects of database activity, including performance, and should in general only have their values modified under expert supervision.
See: database instance
internal concurrent manager
A special concurrent manager process that monitors, controls, and dispenses requests to all other concurrent manager processes.
See also: concurrent manager
interoperability patch
A patch needed to enable use of Oracle E-Business Suite products with a newer version of the technology stack, for example to enable integration with Oracle Single Sign-On.
A network of computers that are internal to an organization. An organization's intranet can be set up to communicate with the globally-distributed Internet, using appropriate security measures such as firewalls and demilitarized zones (DMZs).
See also: DMZ, firewall
An acronym for Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition, J2EE is a development environment that facilitates development, deployment, and management of multi-tier enterprise level applications.
A Sun plug-in component, JRE enables use of the Oracle JVM on a desktop client, instead of the browser's own JVM. The JRE Plug-in is installed when first required, the browser prompting the user to download the installation executable.
A computer language used to produce programs that can be downloaded and run on a desktop client using a Web browser. It is also used to produce platform-independent programs that run on a server, either interactively or when invoked through a request from a Web browser.
See also: applet, servlet
JavaServer Page
See: JSP
JAR (Java ARchive) file
A collection of Java classes compressed into a file for faster download to a desktop client. There are several specialized types of JAR file.
See also: Java class
Java class
Components of a Java program that define objects and operations performed on objects. Also identifies an operating system file that contains a program or part of a program written in Java.
JDBC (Java Database Connectivity)
A Java programming interface that enables Java programs to access the Oracle database server.
A specialized type of servlet that was used for communication with the Oracle HTTP Server in earlier releases of Oracle E-Business Suite. Replaced by OC4J in Release 12.
See also: OC4J, Oracle HTTP Server, servlet
Acronym for JavaServer Page, an extension to Java servlet technology. JSPs are compiled into servlets when first requested, and can receive input from a servlet or send output to a servlet. Their dynamic scripting capability allows page logic to be separated from page display, giving greater flexibility in processing HTTP requests.
See also: servlet
JVM (Java Virtual Machine)
A runtime environment that interprets (translates) a compiled Java program, supplied in the form of bytecode, to machine code. Each operating system's JVM translates bytecode to instructions that can be executed by the CPU. Java bytecode is therefore executable by any JVM running on any machine. A Java-enabled Web browser has an internal JVM that allows it to execute applets or applications written in Java.
LAN (Local Area Network)
A limited-distance, high-speed, data communications network that allows various data processing resources to be connected and shared. A LAN is a network contained within a single physical site (one or more buildings), as opposed to a Wide Area Network (WAN).
See also: WAN
In networking, the time a packet of data takes to travel from its source to destination. A measure of the speed of a network.
See also: bandwidth
An acronym for Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, LDAP allows clients to access information from a directory server in which corporate directory entries are arranged in a hierarchical structure that can be used to reflect geographical or other organizational boundaries.
See also: Oracle Internet Directory
ledger currency
The currency used to record transactions and maintain Oracle E-Business Suite accounting data using primary and secondary ledgers.
See also: reporting currency
load balancing
The mechanism for distributing tasks to the least-busy server of the servers that are handling a particular workload.
A Windows-specific environment setting that identifies the network alias of an ORACLE instance running on the local machine or on a networked machine. This variable overrides any setting for ORACLE_SID and causes the Oracle Net software to manage the connection request.
locally managed tablespaces
Tablespaces that are not managed from the data dictionary. They offer a choice of extent management, allowing extent sizes either to be determined automatically by the system, or for all extents to be made the same size. This provides greater flexibility than the traditional dictionary-managed tablespaces.
See also: Oracle Applications Tablespace Model
log in
Perform a sequence of actions that authenticates a user and establishes communication with an operating system or application such as the Oracle database server or Oracle E-Business Suite. Logging in also sets up appropriate characteristics for the session, based on the user's particular privileges.
MAC address
A hardware address that uniquely identifies a node on a network, specifically in the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer of the Data Link layer of the OSI Reference Model. The other sub-layer of the Data Link layer is the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer.
materialized view
Schema objects that store the results of a specific query, enabling data to be summarized, precomputed, replicated, or distributed.
Megabyte (MB)
A unit of memory or disk space equal to 1,048,576 bytes (1024 x 1024). Often rounded down to 1,000,000 bytes for estimates of space needed.
See: Multiple Organization Architecture
Multiple Organization Architecture
A single installation of any Oracle E-Business Suite product that can support any number of organizations and different ledgers. The data contained in product schemas is for all organizations, and is partitioned by the ORG_ID column in tables.
Maintenance Mode
A mode of operation in which the Oracle E-Business Suite system is accessible only for patching activities. Maintenance Mode status is controlled from within Oracle Applications Manager.
See also: Restricted Mode
NLS (National Language Support)
Oracle's National Language Support (NLS) allows you to store, process, and retrieve data in the language native to your users. It ensures that database utilities and error messages, sort order, date, time, monetary, numeric, and calendar conventions automatically adapt to the native language and locale.
[1] A networked machine with its own MAC address.[2] In the context of Oracle E-Business Suite, a logical set of processes running on one hardware machine. Sometimes used as a synonym for server. Multiple nodes can be created on one machine, or nodes can be allocated their own dedicated machines. There is an increasing trend towards deploying multiple nodes on multiple machines, to increase fault tolerance and lower the cost of ownership. This is particularly true for the application tier.
See also: MAC address, server
Oracle Containers for Java (OC4J) is an Oracle Application Server component that replaces the JServ component used in earlier releases of E-Business Suite. Based on J2EE standards, OC4J allows execution of Servlets, Java Server Pages (JSP), and Enterprise Java Beans (EJB).
See also: JServ
See: Oracle Internet Directory
one-off patch
A patch that addresses a single fix or enhancement. Such standalone patches are released only to meet an immediate need for a fix or enhancement that cannot wait until an aggregate bundling is available.
operating system
The computer software that performs basic tasks such as scheduling CPU time, allocating memory, and supervising communications between different computers.
An environment setting that specifies the top-level directory for Oracle database server program files.
An environment setting that specifies the SID of an ORACLE instance. See also TWO_TASK and LOCAL.
See also: SID
Oracle Applications Manager
A sophisticated tool that enables system administrators to monitor and manage an Oracle E-Business Suite system from an HTML-based central control console.
Oracle Business Components for Java
See: BC4J
Oracle HTTP Server
Provides the foundation for the Oracle Application Server Web services. Built on Apache Web server technology, Oracle HTTP Server supports Java servlets, JavaServer Pages (JSPs), perl, PL/SQL, and CGI applications.
See also: JSP, servlet
Oracle Applications Tablespace Model (OATM)
A storage model used as standard in Oracle E-Business Suite Release 12, OATM uses locally managed tablespaces to provide more flexible storage options then the dictionary-managed tablespaces used in the traditional tablespace model.
See also: locally managed tablespaces
Oracle Database
The database management system used by Oracle E-Business Suite. An Oracle database is made up of various different types of file.
See also: instance
Oracle Database Vault
An optional Oracle database feature that can be used to help address security issues such as insider threats, regulatory compliance requirements, and enforced separation of duties.
Oracle Discoverer
A component of Oracle Application Server that enables Oracle E-Business Suite end users to perform ad hoc queries and analyze the resulting query results, without knowing how the data is structured. Discoverer can also be used in a more sophisticated way by specialized users such as business analysts.
Oracle Internet Directory
Oracle Internet Directory (OID) is a general purpose directory service for retrieval of information about users and resources, which utilizes LDAP in conjunction with the high performance, scalability, robustness, and availability of the Oracle database.
See also: LDAP
Oracle Net
The Oracle software that enables network connectivity between a client machine and the Oracle database server. Oracle Net manages communication sessions between these machines by opening and closing sessions, and by packaging and sending SQL statements and the corresponding database responses.
Oracle Portal
Part of the Oracle Application Server product, Oracle Portal is a tool for building customized corporate pages to provide a personalized view of selected applications and data (called a portal). Oracle Portal provides a customizable, easy to use HTML-based interface. Support tools for performance monitoring and security management are also included.
ORACLE schema
See: schema
Oracle Single Sign-On
An Oracle product that authenticates the username and password of a user attempting to access an application, and passes the users's identity to various applications as required.
See also: single sign-on
A user name employed to access an ORACLE instance. Used in conjunction with a password.
Oracle Workflow
A product that facilitates automation of business processes, internally or externally routing information of any type according to easily-changed business rules.
Oracle XML Publisher
An Oracle E-Business Suite product that uses standard technologies and tools to facilitate the rapid and easy development of reports in the end-user's preferred format.
See also: XML
parallel concurrent processing
Distribution of concurrent processes amongst multiple Concurrent Processing servers. Also called distributed concurrent processing.
An identification word, associated with a username, that must be supplied to access an ORACLE instance or an Oracle E-Business Suite system.
An acronym for Practical Extraction and Report Language, Perl is an interpretive programming language that is particularly useful for processing text. As such, it has become one of the most popular languages for writing CGI scripts.
See also: CGI
The type of computer system (hardware and operating system), on which application programs run. Some Oracle E-Business Suite functionality is platform-specific, meaning its availability and behavior may vary between different platforms.
A procedural extension of the SQL programming language that provides programming constructs such as blocks, conditionals, and functions.
See: Oracle Portal
A reusable component that provides access to an information source, possibly summarizing the content. Portlets are the fundamental building blocks of an Oracle Portal page.
See also: Oracle Portal
primary ledger
A financial reporting entity in which business is conducted. The primary ledger acts as the main record-keeping ledger, and uses a specific chart of accounts, accounting calendar, currency, and subledger accounting method.
See also: reporting currency
An Oracle precompiler product that allows developers to embed standard database calls to an ORACLE database in C and C++ programs.
product group
A set of Oracle E-Business Suite product schemas linked together by a single Oracle Application Object Library schema.
product family release update pack
An aggregation of patches created for a specific product family after the initial release, and designated by the release number followed by the product short name and a letter.
See also: release update pack
The transfer of user attributes from one repository (such as Oracle E-Business Suite) to another (such as Oracle Internet Directory). Provisioning is controlled by provisioning profiles.
proxy server
A secure means of allowing users behind a firewall to access external Internet resources. All requests from intranet users go via the proxy server rather than directly to the destination server. The proxy server then passes the returned information on to the client. All Internet traffic for a site thereby passes through a single, secure point.
Oracle RAC
See: Oracle Real Application Clusters
Rapid Install
The installer for Oracle E-Business Suite. Normally, a new version is released to accompany a maintenance pack. Using Rapid Install provides the same Oracle E-Business Suite code as could be obtained by applying the associated maintenance pack to an earlier release level. It also provides the latest certified technology stack. In contrast, applying a maintenance pack provides Oracle E-Business Suite code only.
See also: maintenance pack
Oracle Real Application Clusters
Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) is a database clustering technology whose shared storage capabilities allow multiple machines to work in parallel on the same data, reducing processing time significantly. Oracle RAC also offers resilience, allowing processing to continue in the event of one or more machines being unavailable because of planned or unplanned downtime.
On a Windows machine, a central repository that holds configuration information. During installation, Oracle E-Business Suite writes data to the registry. You can also edit the registry directly with the Registry editor (regedt32.exe or regedit.exe), though this should only be undertaken by an expert user.
See also: registry key, registry subkey
registry key
A folder that appears in the left pane of the Registry editor window. A key can contain registry subkeys and value entries.
See also: registry, registry subkey
registry subkey
A key within a registry key; analogous to a subdirectory in a file system. Subkeys are provided to carry out product-specific functions. Oracle E-Business Suite stores information about a product group in a registry subkey.
See also: registry, registry key
release update pack
A cumulative aggregation of product family release update packs created across Oracle E-Business Suite since the initial (base) release.
See also: product family release update pack
remote procedure call
A remote procedure call (RPC) is a protocol that enables a client to execute a program on a server. The client sends a message to the server with appropriate arguments, and the server returns a message containing the program's results.
A user-organized display of Oracle E-Business Suite information. A report can be viewed online or sent to a printer. The content of a report can range from a summary to a complete listing of values.
Report Review Agent
A tool used by Oracle E-Business Suite to view concurrent processing files online.
Reporting Currencies
An Oracle E-Business Suite feature that allows you to create, maintain, and report on accounting data in multiple currencies at one of the following levels: Subledger, Journal, and Balance.
reporting currency
A currency, other than your ledger currency, for which you need to report. The reporting currency shares the same chart of accounts and accounting calendar as the source ledger (either the primary ledger or secondary ledger), but typically uses a different currency. The reporting currency allows you to report in a different currency than that of your primary or secondary ledger.
See also: ledger currency
reserved word
A word that has a special meaning to a computer program, for example END. Custom-built programs that integrate with Oracle E-Business Suite must not use reserved words.
A collection of functions within Oracle E-Business Suite. Each user is assigned one or more responsibilities to allow access to the appropriate functions and data.
Restricted Mode
A mode of operation that allows Oracle E-Business Suite administrators to carry out privileged tasks such as viewing the progress of a patching session.
See also: Maintenance Mode
rollback segment
Historically, an Oracle database object used to undo (roll back) changes to the database in the event of media recovery or request for transaction rollback. Superseded by undo segment in Oracle9i and later database server releases.
See also: undo tablespace
rollback tablespace
Historically, a tablespace created for rollback segments. Superseded by undo tablespace in Oracle9i and later database server releases.
See also: undo tablespace
rollup patch
An aggregation of patches at either a functional level (such as flexfields), or at a specific product or family release level (such as Oracle Marketing).
See: Remote procedure call
An ORACLE account or ORACLE ID.
secondary ledger
An optional, additional ledger that is associated with the primary ledger. A secondary ledger can be used to represent the primary ledger's data in another accounting representation, which differs from the primary in one or more of the following: chart of accounts, accounting calendar/period type combination, currency, and subledger accounting method.
A set of extents that contains all the data for a specific logical storage structure in a tablespace. Examples include the data segment for a table and index segment for an index.
See also: extent
[1} A process that provides a particular functionality. For example, the HTTP server responds to HTTP requests. In Release 12, server is, where applicable, being replaced by services, to reflect the architectural trend away from implementation via a single process.[2} A computer dedicated to a particular role. For example, a database server.
[2] On Windows, a process that provides a particular operating system or application functionality, such as the telnet remote logon service. Used by Oracle E-Business Suite to support concurrent processing, for example.
A small Java program that runs on an HTTP server, rather than being downloaded to a desktop client and run as an applet in a Web browser environment. Servlets have greater capabilities and fewer restrictions than applets.
See also: applet, JSP
setup data
Company-specific configuration data, such as locations, freight terms, and payment terms. You create this data when initially configuring an Oracle E-Business Suite product.
SGA (System Global Area)
An Oracle-reserved section of memory that provides communication between database users and the ORACLE background processes.
shared product
See: dependent product
short name
An abbreviation for an Oracle E-Business Suite product (such as po for Purchasing).
An acronym for System Identifier. The SID is used to distinguish between different Oracle instances that may be running on a system.
See also: ORACLE_SID
single sign-on
The infrastructure whereby a user need only be authenticated explicitly once, with subsequent connections to other applications being authenticated transparently to the user. SSO allows a user to access multiple accounts and applications with a single username and password.
See also: Oracle Single Sign-On
sizing factor
An integer that determines the growth rate, as a percentage of their defaults, for the database objects of an Oracle E-Business Suite product.
SQL (Structured Query Language)
An internationally standardized language that is used to access data in a relational database.
SQL script
A file containing SQL statements that you can run with a tool such as SQL*Plus to query or update ORACLE data.
An acronym for Secure Sockets Layer, SSL is a standard for the secure transmission of documents over the Internet using HTTPS. SSL uses digital signatures to check that transmitted data has not been tampered with.
See also: digital signature, HTTPS
A directory that is contained within another directory.
Support Cart
A component of Oracle Applications Manager. Support Cart is used to gather diagnostic information for use by Oracle Support.
See also: Oracle Applications Manager
An alias for a table, view, sequence, or program unit that masks the real name and owner of the object, provides public access to the object, and simplifies the writing of SQL access statements for the object.
The rules by which commands, qualifiers, and parameters are organized to form valid instructions to an operating system or application program.
SYS username
One of two standard DBA usernames automatically created with each database (the other is SYSTEM). SYS owns the base data dictionary tables and views.
See also: SYSTEM username
SYS.DUAL table
Owned by the SYS user, the DUAL table contains exactly one row. It is used as a "dummy" table in a SQL statement to return values that are not stored in tables, including constant values, evaluations of arithmetic expressions, or system values such as the current date.
system administrator
The person who manages administrative tasks in Oracle E-Business Suite, such as registering new users and defining system printers, using the System Administrator responsibility.
System Identifier
SYSTEM schema
See: SYSTEM username
SYSTEM tablespace
Holds data dictionary tables owned by the SYS account. It is created when you install the database.
SYSTEM username
One of two standard usernames automatically created with each database (the other is SYS). The SYSTEM username is the preferred username to use when performing database maintenance.
See also: SYS username
The basic unit of storage in a relational database management system. A table represents entities and relationships, and consists of one or more units of information (rows), each of which contains the same types of values (columns).
An Oracle database storage unit that groups related logical structures together. Traditionally, one tablespace was needed for each Oracle E-Business Suite product's database tables, and another for its indexes. Release 12 uses the Oracle Applications Tablespace Model, which uses far fewer tablespaces.
See also: Oracle Applications Tablespace Model
Acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, an industry-standard networking protocol used for communication between computers and related devices.
temporary tablespace
A tablespace used when a SQL statement requires the creation of temporary segments (for example, creation of an index).
three-tier architecture
A computing architecture where the components are separated into three layers, or tiers: the desktop (or client) tier, the application tier, and the database tier.
Transparent Data Encryption
An optional Oracle database feature that can be used to encrypt selected columns of database files.
Under UNIX, an environment setting that identifies the network alias of an ORACLE instance running on the local machine or on a networked machine. This variable overrides any setting for ORACLE_SID and invokes the Oracle Net software to manage the connection request.
undo tablespace
Tablespace used to store undo records, which maintain read-consistency in the database during normal operation, and also play a key role in database recovery.
See also: rollback tablespace
An acronym for Uniform Resource Locator, a URL is a text representation of the location of a resource available via an intranet or the Internet.
user ID
See: username
A name that identifies a user requesting access to a secure environment or program, such as an Oracle database or Oracle E-Business Suite system. Every username is associated with a password. In Oracle E-Business Suite, a username is normally associated with a responsibility.
See also: responsibility
A tailored presentation of data in one or more tables. A view can be thought of as a stored query.
WAN (Wide Area Network)
A communications network that connects geographically separated areas.
See also: LAN
Web browser
A program that runs on a desktop client, sending HTTP requests to a Web server to retrieve HTML pages and Java applets.
See also: HTML, HTTP, HTTP server
Web server
See: HTTP server
eXtensible Markup Language, a metalanguage that allows specialized markup languages to be designed to suit different types of document. XML differs from HTML in not being based on a predefined format.
See also: HTML, Oracle XML Publisher