This chapter covers the following topics:
A Global Trade Item Number (GTIN) is a unique number assigned to a product within the EAN/UCC framework for standard product identification. The product can be a physical item or different packaging configurations for an item. You can retrieve pre-defined information for an item such as item description, manufacturer, etc. at any point in the supply chain using the GTIN.
A GTIN is a 14-digit number that accommodates different structures within the EAN/UCC system for standard product identification. GTIN accommodates the following EAN/UCC standard data structures:
14- digits (EAN/UCC-14)
These data structures provide unique identification when right justified and zero padded in the GTIN 14-digit reference field.
The following paragraphs contain the advantages of using Global Trade Item Numbers.
Wide adoption of EAN/UCC standards have resulted in most products and their packaging configurations having one of the existing EAN/UCC standard data structures such as 12-digits (the U.P.C.), 14- digits (SCC-14), 13-digits (EAN-13) or 8-digits (EAN-8) in a bar coded form. Usually one of these data structures are applied the item at the point of manufacture such as UPC Barcode on loose items sold through retail outlets or EAN/UCC-14 barcode on corrugated cartons.
Warehouse management allows transactions to be carried out by scanning one of the constituent data structures of GTIN. Therefore if the product already has a UPC, EAN-8, EAN-13 or EAN/UCC-14 barcode assigned either by the manufacturer or by another entity in the supply chain, there is no need to re-label an item with a bar code for the internal SKU number. Scanning one of the above barcodes is enough to identify the item for mobile transactions in WMS.
Because GTIN is unique and widely accepted, the need for maintaining internal cross-references to vendor or customer item is substantially reduced. Data entry and maintenance is also simplified.
: Support for EAN/UCC-14 implies that each packaging configuration of the item can be assigned a new 14-digit number. This implies that a carton of a particular product will have a distinct 14-digit number from a standard pallet of the same item. Warehouse operations are vastly simplified as the warehouse operator can transact based on standard pack quantities (i.e. Pick 2 Cases, 3 Pallets, etc.) rather than transacting in primary UoM (e.g. 20 EA in 2 Case)
Adherence to EAN/UCC standards ensures a globally unique 14-digit GTIN. The global uniqueness ensures you can identify a given item and trace it to the manufacturer. All members of the supply-chain can use the same number to reference the item. Because GTIN is based on widely adopted EAN/UCC standards, it is understood and accepted worldwide. Compliance to GTIN standards is also a key requirement for UCCNet integration.
Oracle mobile application recognition of GTIN facilitates bar code scanning and use of auto-identification techniques such as application identifiers (AI). This results in substantially higher data accuracy during transactions.
UCC-12 (North America)
EAN-13 (Pacific Rim and Europe)
EAN/UCC (worldwide, includes packaging level)
You can use four numbering structures to construct a GTIN that depends on the exact application and the bar code symbology to be used. However, in a database all GTINs are unique and unambiguous when right justified in a 14-digit field padded by leading zeros. The 14th digit in all GTIN data structures is a check digit. This check digit is calculated by using modulo-10 check digit algorithm.
|EAN / UCC-14||N1||N2||N3||N4||N5||N6||N7||N8||N9||N10||N11||N12||N13||N14|
An EAN-8 barcode is a 2- or 3-digit number system code followed by a 4- or 5-digit product code. The numbering authority directly assigns EAN-8 product codes. Any company can request an EAN-8 code regardless of its EAN-13 manufacturer or product code. You must store EAN-8 codes in each database separately because you cannot translate an EAN-8 code to an EAN-13 equivalent.
UCC-12 is a 12-digit number that identifies trade items, commonly known as UPC. UCC-12 number consists of a one-digit UCC Prefix, a Company Number, an Item Reference, and a Check Digit. The UCC-12 number is represented using UPC-A (12 Digit) or UPC-E (8 digit) Bar Code Symbol. The UPC-A barcode shows all the 12 digits of the EAN/UCC-12 whereas the UPC-E bar code symbol carries only eight digits of a UCC-12 number and suppresses the zeros using a zero suppression technique.
EAN-13 is a superset of UPC-A. The only difference between EAN-13 and UPC-A is the number system code. UPC-A is a single digit from 0 through 9 whereas an EAN-13 number system code consists of two digits ranging from 00 through 99, which is essentially a country code. Each country has a numbering authority that assigns manufacturer codes to companies within its jurisdiction. The manufacturer code is five digits long, as is the product code, and the check digit is calculated in exactly the same way.
You use EAN/UCC-14 when packaging identical consumer units into standard quantities of intermediate packs or shipping containers. EAN/UCC-14 is the new term used by EAN/UCC for Shipping Container Code or SCC-14. EAN/UCC-14 is commonly used in a non-retail environment, particularly in distribution centers dealing with packaged goods. The General EAN/UCC standards specify that you assign different packing configurations a new, 14 digit number. Thus cartons containing ten units would be assigned a different 14-digit number than cartons containing twenty units of the same product.
As per EAN/UCC specification, prefixing 2-digit of package level information to the base UPC number and recalculating the check digit generates EAN/UCC-14. This 14-digit code identifies intermediate packs and shipping containers holding standard configurations of consumer units.
GTIN functionality in Oracle relies on item code-GTIN relationship. This relationship can be established using the cross-reference types functionality. In order to use GTIN functionality, item-GTIN cross-reference relationship must be defined. This can be done by in one of the following ways:
Option 1 One Item to Many GTINS
This approach associates a distinct UoM (e.g. Case, Pallet, etc.) for every packaging configuration of an inventory item. This offers execution flexibility for warehouse operations. Since the underlying inventory transaction always occur in primary UoM this option allows demand for an item to be fulfilled in any UoM e.g. a customer may place an order for an item in pallets but net inventory across all packaging configurations will be considered for allocation and eventually the order may be fulfilled using cases. The drawback of this approach is visibility of inventory in terms of packaging configurations. If an item with a primary UoM of Each is also stocked as Case and Pallet, the available inventory is always visible in Eaches. It’s not possible to view inventory in terms of Eaches, Cases and Pallets. It’s also not possible to honor customer constraints related to packaging i.e. its not possible address the requirements of a customer who wants to buy a finished good packaged only as pallets.
Option 2 One Item to One GTIN
This approach associates a distinct Inventory item for every packaging configuration of an inventory item. This option allows the user to view inventory across GTINs i.e. it is possible to view stock of Cases, Pallets, Eaches, etc. as they are defined as different inventory items. However this option does not allow demand for an item to be fulfilled in a different packaging e.g. if a customer places an order in pallets his order will be backordered when no pallet stock exists even though sufficient inventory is available in cases.
Either of these two options can be modeled in Oracle Applications. Considering the flexibility of execution in WMS, Option 1: One item to many GTINs is the recommended approach. Subsequent examples in this document will assume this approach for modeling GTINs. In future releases, Oracle WMS will address many of these drawbacks associated with this option particularly the visibility of packaging levels in on-hand inventory.
The following table summarizes the two options for modeling GTIN.
|Parameters||One Item to Many GTIN||One Item to One GTIN|
|Execution, Flexibility||High execution flexibility. Possible to fulfill orders using material at any level in the packaging hierarchy||Low execution flexibility. Not possible to fulfill orders using material at any level in the packaging hierarchy|
|Inventory Visibility||GTIN visibility in Inventory is not possible. Inventory is assumed to exsit in primary UOM||GTIN visibility in Inventory is possible. Separate Inventory records are maintained for GTIN.|
|Data Maintenance||Low: Since only one invnetory item is required for multiple packaging levels.||High: Since one inventory item is required for each packaging level|
GTIN functionality assumes that each standard pack configuration is modeled as a Unit of Measure and the quantity of item in the standard packaging configuration is specified in the UoM conversion setup. The Item cross-reference relationship has been enhanced for EAN/UCC-14 to include an item, revision and packaging configuration (i.e. UoM). The revision and UoM are optional fields. If item is not revision controlled, revision field may be left blank in the cross-reference table. Similarly UoM is not required for UCC-12, EAN-8 or EAN-13 data structures.
As per EAN/UCC guidelines, a unique EAN/UCC-14 is assigned for each packaging configurations of the item i.e. pallet, inner pack, master cases, etc. Therefore a separate entry in the cross-reference table would be needed for each packaging configuration. In this case cross-reference codes corresponding to the EAN/UCC-14 would be associated with the same item and different packaging configurations for the item.
GTIN allows Oracle Mobile transactions to be carried out by scanning one of its constituent data structures in bar coded format. Whenever a GTIN data structure (i.e. UCC-12, EAN-8, EAN-13 or EAN/UCC-14) is scanned in the item field, Oracle mobile application converts it into GTIN by right justifying and zero padding into a 14-digit field. This 14-digit number is used to lookup for the item, revision and its packaging configuration in the GTIN cross-reference relationship table. If a match exists for the GTIN, the referenced item is substituted in the item field and revision if any is populated. If a EAN.UCC-14 is scanned the transaction Unit of measure is also substituted with the UoM from the cross-reference table. In case of pick tasks, the suggested pick quantity is recomputed in terms of the transaction unit of measure.
Example: Item NA100AX (UPC: 012345678905) comes in two standard pack configurations, a master case (EAN.UCC-14: 20012345678909) containing 10 EA and a pallet (EAN.UCC-14: 50012345678900) containing 100 EA. The GTIN cross reference setup for this item will be as follows:
|00012345678905||NA100AX||EA (Each)||UPC Code for Item NA110AX|
|20012345678909||NA100AX||CAS (Case)||Master case of item NA100AX containing 10 EA|
|50012345678900||NA100AX||PLT (Pallet)||Pallet of item NA100AX containing 100 EA|
The UoM conversion for Item NA100AX is defined as 1 PLT=100EA and 1 CAS = 10 EA When GTIN is scanned in a WMS mobile transaction form, the cross-referenced item and packaging configuration (UoM) is populated automatically. The warehouse operator now enters the transaction quantity in terms of the specific packaging configuration.
Example: Warehouse operator performs a miscellaneous receipt of 2 pallets of item NA100AX. He scans the EAN.UCC-14 bar code (50012345678900) on one of the pallet in the item field. The item is defaulted to NA100AX and UoM is defaulted to PLT. He enters the quantity of the cases received (2) in the quantity field. In the background a receipt transaction of 200 EA is posted.
When performing pick load, the suggested quantity is shown in terms of the specific packaging configuration.
Example: Warehouse operator performs a pick load of 40 EA of item NA100AX. He scans the EAN.UCC-14 bar code (20012345678905) appearing on the master case in the item field. The item is defaulted to NA100AX and UoM is defaulted to CAS. The operator is suggested to pick 4 master cases. He enters the quantity of the cases picked (2) in the quantity field. In the background a pick load of 20 EA is posted.
GTIN and GTIN description have been enabled for the following label types:
In addition, if GTIN cross-reference an Item and UOM, the copies of material label that get printed on transactions is equal to the transaction quantity. The following table illustrates this point using transaction quantities:
Do GTINS place the UPC?
No. Since UPC is one of the data structures included in GTIN, replacing UPC with GTIN is not required. GTIN is just a new term and it does not replace the UPC. Companies that place a UCC-12 (UPC) on products now should continue to do so.
The warehouse stores an item in a different packaging configutation i.e. Pallet, Box, etc?
Yes. The GTIN standards dictate that there should be a unique 14-digit number identifying the single unit, an inner or multi-pack, a case, a pallet, etc.
What is 2005 Sunrise?
This is an initiative underway in USA and Canada with two objectives. First, retailers must upgrade Point of Sale (POS) systems to scan and store EAN-13 symbols in addition to U.P.C. symbols. This needs to be completed by 1/1/2005. Second, all supply chain participants are encouraged to expand the GTIN field in their databases to 14-digits to enable all forms of the GTIN. GTIN framework within Oracle WMS satisfies this requirement by storing the entire 14-digit number in a single cross-reference entity
Is GTIN functionality available only in warehouse management?
Yes. This functionality is available in only WMS transactions and Inventory transactions in MSCA. This functionality is not enabled for Manufacturing or Quality transactions in MSCA.
Is it necessary to have an additional barcode for an internal item ID?
Additional bar code for internal item id is not required if the vendor or manufacturer of the product already has one of the GTIN data structures (i.e. UPC, EAN-8, EAN-13 or EAN/UCC-14) in bar code form on the product. Oracle mobile application transactions can be carried out by scanning the GTIN bar code.
How do you generate a label with a bar code for GTIN data strucutres?
Currently this is not supported, as GTIN data structures are not included in the standards label fields for material or LPN label. EAN-8, EAN-13 and UCC-12 can be stored as item attributes and printed easily. For EAN/UCC-14, work around maybe explored by defining base UPC as an item attribute and defining a UoM that includes packaging indicator. The packaging indicator along with base UPC number can be used to compute check digit in 3rd party label printing software and print GTIN.
Is it possible to default the transaction UOM based on EAN/UCC-14?
This is not a supported feature in DMF PS ‘I’ (This is a candidate for a future release). However if customization is an option, customizable bar code scanning feature in PS ‘I’, can be used to default the transaction unit of measure when a EAN/UCC-14 barcode is scanned. The task quantity is automatically recomputed in terms of the transaction unit of measure.
Can Scanners distinguish the GTIN from other symbols?
Yes. However the scanners must be configured to distinguish between different symbology. One of the great strengths of the EAN/UCC standards is the use of a unique symbology for the number structure that identifies a product/service (e.g., a UPC. or EAN symbol is only used to identify product).
Can I derive the supplier ID from the GTIN?
No. The EAN/UCC company prefix is not a company identifier. The company prefix in GTIN ensures globally unique product identification. The objective is not to determine the vendor or manufacturer identifier. Parsing of company prefix from GTIN to identify manufacturer is not recommended by EAN/UCC. The resulting vendor or manufacturer maybe inaccurate as companies have multiple EAN/UCC company prefixes due to mergers and acquisitions. In addition, different divisions of a company may have distinct UCC company prefixes.