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System Administration Guide: Security Services
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Part I Security Overview

1.  Security Services (Overview)

Part II System, File, and Device Security

2.  Managing Machine Security (Overview)

3.  Controlling Access to Systems (Tasks)

4.  Controlling Access to Devices (Tasks)

5.  Using the Basic Audit Reporting Tool (Tasks)

6.  Controlling Access to Files (Tasks)

7.  Using the Automated Security Enhancement Tool (Tasks)

Part III Roles, Rights Profiles, and Privileges

8.  Using Roles and Privileges (Overview)

9.  Using Role-Based Access Control (Tasks)

10.  Role-Based Access Control (Reference)

11.  Privileges (Tasks)

12.  Privileges (Reference)

Part IV Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Services

13.  Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Overview)

14.  Oracle Solaris Cryptographic Framework (Tasks)

15.  Oracle Solaris Key Management Framework

Part V Authentication Services and Secure Communication

16.  Using Authentication Services (Tasks)

17.  Using PAM

18.  Using SASL

19.  Using Solaris Secure Shell (Tasks)

20.  Solaris Secure Shell (Reference)

Part VI Kerberos Service

21.  Introduction to the Kerberos Service

22.  Planning for the Kerberos Service

23.  Configuring the Kerberos Service (Tasks)

24.  Kerberos Error Messages and Troubleshooting

25.  Administering Kerberos Principals and Policies (Tasks)

26.  Using Kerberos Applications (Tasks)

27.  The Kerberos Service (Reference)

Part VII Oracle Solaris Auditing

28.  Oracle Solaris Auditing (Overview)

29.  Planning for Oracle Solaris Auditing

Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Task Map)

Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

How to Plan Auditing in Zones

How to Plan Storage for Audit Records

How to Plan Who and What to Audit

Determining Audit Policy

Audit Policies for Asynchronous and Synchronous Events

Controlling Auditing Costs

Cost of Increased Processing Time of Audit Data

Cost of Analysis of Audit Data

Cost of Storage of Audit Data

Auditing Efficiently

30.  Managing Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

31.  Solaris Auditing (Reference)



Planning Oracle Solaris Auditing (Tasks)

You want to be selective about what kinds of activities are audited. At the same time, you want to collect useful audit information. Audit files can quickly grow to fill the available space, so you should allocate enough disk space. You also need to carefully plan who to audit and what to audit.

How to Plan Auditing in Zones

If your system has implemented zones, you have two audit configuration possibilities:

For a discussion of the trade-offs, see Auditing on a System With Zones.

How to Plan Storage for Audit Records

The audit trail requires dedicated file space. The dedicated file space for audit files must be available and secure. Each system should have several audit directories that are configured for audit files. You should decide how to configure the audit directories as one of the first tasks before you enable auditing on any systems. The following procedure covers the issues to be resolved when you plan for audit trail storage.

Before You Begin

If you are implementing non-global zones, complete How to Plan Auditing in Zones before using this procedure.

  1. Determine how much auditing your site needs.

    Balance your site's security needs against the availability of disk space for the audit trail.

    For guidance on how to reduce space requirements while still maintaining site security, as well as how to design audit storage, see Controlling Auditing Costs and Auditing Efficiently.

  2. Determine which systems are to be audited.

    On those systems, allocate space for at least one local audit directory. To specify the audit directories, see Example 30-3.

  3. Determine which systems are to store audit files.

    Decide which servers are to hold the primary and secondary audit directories. For examples of configuring disks for audit directories, see How to Create Partitions for Audit Files.

  4. Name the audit directories.

    Create a list of all the audit directories that you plan to use. For naming guidelines, see Storing the Audit Trail and auditreduce Command.

  5. Determine which systems are to use which audit directories.

    Create a map that shows which system should use which audit directory. The map helps you to balance the auditing activity. For an illustration, see Figure 31-1 and Figure 31-2.

How to Plan Who and What to Audit

Before You Begin

If you are implementing non-global zones, complete How to Plan Auditing in Zones before using this procedure.

  1. Determine if you want a single-system image audit trail.

    Systems within a single administrative domain can create a single-system image audit trail. If your systems use different naming services, start with the next step. You should complete the rest of the planning steps for every system.

    A single-system image audit trail treats the systems that are being audited as one machine. To create a single-system image audit trail for a site, every system in the installation should be configured as follows:

    • Use the same naming service.

      To interpret the audit records, two commands are used, auditreduce and praudit. For correct interpretation of the audit records, the passwd, hosts, and audit_user files must be consistent.

    • Use the same audit_warn, audit_event, audit_class, and audit_startup files as every other system.

    • Use the same audit_user database. The database can be in a naming service such as NIS or LDAP.

    • Have identical flags, naflags, and plugin entries in the audit_control file.

  2. Determine the audit policy.

    Use the auditconfig -lspolicy command to see a short description of available policy options. By default, only the cnt policy is turned on. For a fuller discussion, see Step 8.

    For the effects of the policy options, see Determining Audit Policy. To set audit policy, see How to Configure Audit Policy.

  3. Determine if you want to modify event-to-class mappings.

    In many situations, the default mapping is sufficient. However, if you add new classes, change class definitions, or determine that a record of a specific system call is not useful, you might also need to move an event to a different class.

    For an example, see How to Change an Audit Event's Class Membership.

  4. Determine which audit classes to preselect.

    The best time to add audit classes or to change the default classes is before you start the audit service.

    The audit class values of the flags, naflags, and plugin entries in the audit_control file apply to all users and processes. The preselected classes determine whether an audit class is audited for success, for failure, or for both.

    To preselect audit classes, see How to Modify the audit_control File.

  5. Determine user exceptions to the system-wide preselected audit classes.

    If you decide that some users should be audited differently from the system-wide preselected audit classes, modify the individual users' entries in the audit_user database.

    For an example, see How to Change a User's Audit Characteristics.

  6. Determine the minimum free disk space.

    When disk space on an audit file system drops below the minfree percentage, the auditd daemon switches to the next available audit directory. The daemon then sends a warning that the soft limit has been exceeded.

    To set the minimum free disk space, see Example 30-4.

  7. Decide how to manage the audit_warn email alias.

    The audit_warn script is run whenever the audit system needs to notify you of a situation that requires administrative attention. By default, the audit_warn script sends email to an audit_warn alias and sends a message to the console.

    To set up the alias, see How to Configure the audit_warn Email Alias.

  8. Decide what action to take when all the audit directories are full.

    By default, when the audit trail overflows, the system continues to work. The system counts the audit records that are dropped, but does not record the events. For greater security, you can disable the cnt policy, and enable the ahlt policy. The ahlt policy stops the system when an asynchronous event cannot be placed in the audit queue.

    For a discussion of these policy options, see Audit Policies for Asynchronous and Synchronous Events. To configure these policy options, see Example 30-16.

  9. Decide whether to collect audit records in binary format, in syslog format, or in both formats.

    For overview information, see Audit Logs.

    For an example, see How to Configure syslog Audit Logs.