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Multithreaded Programming Guide
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1.  Covering Multithreading Basics

2.  Basic Threads Programming

3.  Thread Attributes

4.  Programming with Synchronization Objects

Mutual Exclusion Lock Attributes

Initializing a Mutex Attribute Object

pthread_mutexattr_init Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_init Return Values

Destroying a Mutex Attribute Object

pthread_mutexattr_destroy Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_destroy Return Values

Setting the Scope of a Mutex

pthread_mutexattr_setpshared Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_setpshared Return Values

Getting the Scope of a Mutex

pthread_mutexattr_getpshared Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_getpshared Return Values

Setting the Mutex Type Attribute

pthread_mutexattr_settype Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_settype Return Values

Getting the Mutex Type Attribute

pthread_mutexattr_gettype Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_gettype Return Values

Setting the Mutex Attribute's Protocol

pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_setprotocol Return Values

Getting the Mutex Attribute's Protocol

pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_getprotocol Return Values

Setting the Mutex Attribute's Priority Ceiling

pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_setprioceiling Return Values

Getting the Mutex Attribute's Priority Ceiling

pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_getprioceiling Return Values

Setting the Mutex's Priority Ceiling

pthread_mutex_setprioceiling Syntax

pthread_mutex_setprioceiling Return Values

Getting the Mutex's Priority Ceiling

pthread_mutex_getprioceiling Syntax

pthread_mutex_getprioceiling Return Values

Setting the Mutex's Robust Attribute

pthread_mutexattr_setrobust_np Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_setrobust_np Return Values

Getting the Mutex's Robust Attribute

pthread_mutexattr_getrobust_np Syntax

pthread_mutexattr_getrobust_np Return Values

Using Mutual Exclusion Locks

Initializing a Mutex

pthread_mutex_init Syntax

pthread_mutex_init Return Values

Making a Mutex Consistent

pthread_mutex_consistent_np Syntax

pthread_mutex_consistent_np Return Values

Locking a Mutex

pthread_mutex_lock Syntax

pthread_mutex_lock Return Values

Unlocking a Mutex

pthread_mutex_unlock Syntax

pthread_mutex_unlock Return Values

Locking a Mutex Without Blocking

pthread_mutex_trylock Syntax

pthread_mutex_trylock Return Values

Locking a Mutex Before a Specified Absolute Time

pthread_mutex_timedlock() Syntax

pthread_mutex_timedlock() Return Values

Locking a Mutex Within a Specified Time Interval

pthread_mutex_reltimedlock_np() Syntax

pthread_mutex_reltimedlock_np() Return Values

Destroying a Mutex

pthread_mutex_destroy Syntax

pthread_mutex_destroy Return Values

Code Examples of Mutex Locking

Examples of Using Lock Hierarchies

Examples of Using Nested Locking With a Singly-Linked List

Example of Nested Locking With a Circularly-Linked List

Using Spin Locks

Initializing a Spin Lock

pthread_spin_init() Syntax

pthread_spin_init() Return Values

Acquiring a Spin Lock

pthread_spin_lock() Syntax

pthread_spin_lock() Return Values

Acquiring a Non-Blocking Spin Lock

pthread_spin_trylock() Syntax

pthread_spin_trylock() Return Values

Unlocking a Spin Lock

pthread_spin_unlock() Syntax

pthread_spin_unlock() Return Values

Destroying a Spin Lock

pthread_spin_destroy() Syntax

pthread_spin_destroy() Return Values

Condition Variable Attributes

Initializing a Condition Variable Attribute

pthread_condattr_init Syntax

pthread_condattr_init Return Values

Removing a Condition Variable Attribute

pthread_condattr_destroy Syntax

pthread_condattr_destroy Return Values

Setting the Scope of a Condition Variable

pthread_condattr_setpshared Syntax

pthread_condattr_setpshared Return Values

Getting the Scope of a Condition Variable

pthread_condattr_getpshared Syntax

pthread_condattr_getpshared Return Values

Setting the Clock Selection Condition Variable

pthread_condattr_setclock Syntax

pthread_condattr_setclock Returns

Getting the Clock Selection Condition Variable

pthread_condattr_getclock Syntax

pthread_condattr_getclock Returns

Using Condition Variables

Initializing a Condition Variable

pthread_cond_init Syntax

pthread_cond_init Return Values

Blocking on a Condition Variable

pthread_cond_wait Syntax

pthread_cond_wait Return Values

Unblocking One Thread

pthread_cond_signal Syntax

pthread_cond_signal Return Values

Blocking Until a Specified Time

pthread_cond_timedwait Syntax

pthread_cond_timedwait Return Values

Blocking For a Specified Interval

pthread_cond_reltimedwait_np Syntax

pthread_cond_reltimedwait_np Return Values

Unblocking All Threads

pthread_cond_broadcast Syntax

pthread_cond_broadcast Return Values

Destroying the Condition Variable State

pthread_cond_destroy Syntax

pthread_cond_destroy Return Values

Lost Wake-Up Problem

Producer and Consumer Problem

Synchronization With Semaphores

Named and Unnamed Semaphores

Counting Semaphores Overview

Initializing a Semaphore

sem_init Syntax

Initializing Semaphores With Intraprocess Scope

Initializing Semaphores With Interprocess Scope

sem_init Return Values

Incrementing a Semaphore

sem_post Syntax

sem_post Return Values

Blocking on a Semaphore Count

sem_wait Syntax

sem_wait Return Values

Decrementing a Semaphore Count

sem_trywait Syntax

sem_trywait Return Values

Destroying the Semaphore State

sem_destroy Syntax

sem_destroy Return Values

Producer and Consumer Problem Using Semaphores

Read-Write Lock Attributes

Initializing a Read-Write Lock Attribute

pthread_rwlockattr_init Syntax

pthread_rwlockattr_init Return Values

Destroying a Read-Write Lock Attribute

pthread_rwlockattr_destroy Syntax

pthread_rwlockattr_destroy Return Values

Setting a Read-Write Lock Attribute

pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared Syntax

pthread_rwlockattr_setpshared Return Values

Getting a Read-Write Lock Attribute

pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared Syntax

pthread_rwlockattr_getpshared Return Values

Using Read-Write Locks

Initializing a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_init Syntax

pthread_rwlock_init Return Values

Acquiring the Read Lock on Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_rdlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_rdlock Return Values

Acquiring a Read Lock on a Read-Write Lock Before a Specified Absolute Time

pthread_rwlock_timedrdlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_timedrdlock Return Values

Acquiring a Non-Blocking Read Lock on a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_tryrdlock Return Values

Acquiring the Write Lock on a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_wrlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_wrlock Return Values

Acquiring a Non-blocking Write Lock on a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_trywrlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_trywrlock Return Values

Acquiring a Write Lock on a Read-Write Lock Before a Specified Absolute Time

pthread_rwlock_timedwrlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_timedwrlock Returns

Unlocking a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_unlock Syntax

pthread_rwlock_unlock Return Values

Destroying a Read-Write Lock

pthread_rwlock_destroy Syntax

pthread_rwlock_destroy Return Values

Using Barrier Synchronization

Initializing a Synchronization Barrier

pthread_barrier_init() Syntax

pthread_barrier_init() Return Values

Waiting for Threads to Synchronize at a Barrier

pthread_barrier_wait() Syntax

pthread_barrier_wait() Return Values

Destroying a Synchronization Barrier

pthread_barrier_destroy Syntax

pthread_barrier_destroy Return Values

Initializing a Barrier Attributes Object

pthread_barrierattr_init() Syntax

pthread_barrierattr_init() Return Values

Setting a Barrier Process-Shared Attribute

pthread_barrierattr_setpshared() Syntax

pthread_barrierattr_setpshared() Return Values

Getting a Barrier Process-Shared Attribute

pthread_barrierattr_getpshared() Syntax

pthread_barrierattr_getpshared() Return Values

Destroying a Barrier Attributes Object

pthread_barrierattr_destroy() Syntax

pthread_barrierattr_destroy() Return Values

Synchronization Across Process Boundaries

Producer and Consumer Problem Example

Comparing Primitives

5.  Programming With the Solaris Software

6.  Programming With Solaris Threads

7.  Safe and Unsafe Interfaces

8.  Compiling and Debugging

9.  Programming Guidelines

A.  Extended Example: A Thread Pool Implementation


Synchronization Across Process Boundaries

Each of the synchronization primitives can be used across process boundaries. The primitives are set up by ensuring that the synchronization variable is located in a shared memory segment and by calling the appropriate init() routine. The primitive must have been initialized with its shared attribute set to interprocess.

Producer and Consumer Problem Example

Example 4-17 shows the producer and consumer problem with the producer and consumer in separate processes. The main routine maps zero-filled memory shared with its child process into its address space.

A child process is created to run the consumer. The parent runs the producer.

This example also shows the drivers for the producer and consumer. The producer_driver() reads characters from stdin and calls producer(). The consumer_driver() gets characters by calling consumer() and writes them to stdout.

The data structure for Example 4-17 is the same as the structure used for the condition variables example, shown in Example 4-4. Two semaphores represent the number of full and empty buffers. The semaphores ensure that producers wait for empty buffers and that consumers wait until the buffers are full.

Example 4-17 Synchronization Across Process Boundaries

main() {
    int zfd;
    buffer_t *buffer;
    pthread_mutexattr_t mattr;
    pthread_condattr_t cvattr_less, cvattr_more;

    zfd = open("/dev/zero", O_RDWR);
    buffer = (buffer_t *)mmap(NULL, sizeof(buffer_t),
    buffer->occupied = buffer->nextin = buffer->nextout = 0;


    pthread_mutex_init(&buffer->lock, &mattr);
    pthread_condattr_setpshared(&cvattr_less, PTHREAD_PROCESS_SHARED);
    pthread_cond_init(&buffer->less, &cvattr_less);
    pthread_cond_init(&buffer->more, &cvattr_more);

    if (fork() == 0)

void producer_driver(buffer_t *b) {
    int item;

    while (1) {
        item = getchar();
        if (item == EOF) {
            producer(b, `\0');
        } else
            producer(b, (char)item);

void consumer_driver(buffer_t *b) {
    char item;

    while (1) {
        if ((item = consumer(b)) == '\0')