System Administration Guide: Naming and Directory Services (DNS, NIS, and LDAP)

Assigning Client Credential Levels

LDAP naming services clients authenticate to the LDAP server according to a client's credential level. LDAP clients can be assigned four possible credential levels with which to authenticate to a directory server.


If you use anonymous access, you can access only the data that is available to everyone. In anonymous mode, an LDAP BIND operation does not take place. Also, you should consider the security implications. Allowing anonymous access for certain parts of the directory implies that anyone with access to the directory has read access. If you use an anonymous credential level, you need to allow read access to all the LDAP naming entries and attributes.

Caution – Caution –

Allowing anonymous write to a directory should never be done, as anyone could change information in the DIT to which they have write access, including another user's password, or their own identity.

Note –

Sun Java System Directory Server allows you to restrict access based on IP addresses, DNS name, authentication method, and time-of-day. You might want to limit access with further restrictions. For more information, see “Managing Access Control” in the Administration Guide for the version of Sun Java System Directory Server that you are using.


The client authenticates or binds to the directory using a single proxy account. This proxy account can be any entry that is allowed to bind to the directory. This proxy account needs sufficient access to perform the naming service functions on the LDAP server. The proxy account is a shared-per-system resource. That is, each user logged in to a system using proxy access, including the root user, sees the same results as all other users on that system. You need to configure the proxyDN and proxyPassword on every client using the proxy credential level. The encrypted proxyPassword is stored locally on the client. You can set up different proxies for different groups of clients. For example, you can configure a proxy for all the sales clients to access both the company-wide-accessible and sales directories, while preventing sales clients from accessing human resource directories with payroll information. Or, in the most extreme cases, you can either assign different proxies to each client or assign just one proxy to all clients. A typical LDAP deployment would probably lie between the two extremes. Consider the choices carefully. Too few proxy agents might limit your ability to control user access to resources. However, having too many proxies complicates the setup and maintenance of the system. You need to grant the appropriate rights to the proxy user, depending on your environment. See Credential Storage for information on how to determine which authentication method makes the most sense for your configuration.

If the password changes for a proxy user, you need to update it on every client that uses that proxy user. If you use password aging on LDAP accounts, be sure to turn it off for proxy users.

Note –

Be aware that the proxy credential level applies to all users and processes on any given system. If two users need to use different naming policies, they must use different machines, or they must use the per-user authentication model.

In addition, if clients are using a proxy credential to authenticate, the proxyDN must have the same proxyPassword on all of the servers.

Proxy anonymous

Proxy anonymous is a multi-valued entry, in that more than one credential level is defined. A client assigned the proxy anonymous level will first attempt to authenticate with its proxy identity. If the client is unable to authenticate as the proxy user for whatever reason (user lockout, password expired, for example), then the client will use anonymous access. This might lead to a different level of service, depending on how the directory is configured.

Per User

Per-user (self) authentication uses the Kerberos identity (principal) to perform a lookup for each user or each system when authenticating to the directory server. With per-user authentication, the system administrator can use access control instructions (ACI's), access control lists (ACL's), roles, groups or other directory access control mechanisms to grant or deny access to specific naming service data for specific users or systems.

Note –

When configuring per-user mode, the configuration value to enable this mode is “self,” which denotes per-user mode.

To use the per-user authentication model, the Kerberos single sign-on service must be deployed. In addition, the one or more directory servers used in the deployment must support SASL and the SASL/GSSAPI authentication mechanism. Because Kerberos expects to use files and DNS for host name lookups, instead of LDAP, DNS should be deployed in this environment. Also, to use per-user authentication, nscd must be enabled. The nscd daemon is not an optional component in this configuration.

enableShadowUpdate Switch

Starting in the Solaris 10 10/09 release, if the enableShadowUpdate switch is set to true on the client, the admin credentials will be used to update the shadow data. Shadow data is stored in the shadowAccount object class on the directory server. Admin credentials are defined by the values of the adminDN and adminPassword attributes, as described in Local Client Attributes. These admin credentials are not used for any other purpose.

Admin credentials have properties similar to Proxy credentials. The exception is that for admin credentials, the user must have all privileges for the zone or have an effective UID of root to read or update the shadow data. Admin credentials can be assigned to any entry that is allowed to bind to the directory. However, do not use the same directory manager identity (cn=Directory Manager) of the LDAP server.

This entry with admin credentials must have sufficient access to read and write the shadow data in the directory. Because the entry is a shared-per-system resource, the adminDN and adminPassword attributes must be configured on every client. The encrypted adminPassword is stored locally on the client. The password uses the same authentication methods that are configured for the client. The admin credentials are used by all users and processes on a given system to read and update the shadow data.

Credential Storage

If you configure a client to use a proxy identity, the client saves its proxyDN and proxyPassword in /var/ldap/ldap_client_cred. For the sake of increased security, this file is restricted to root access only, and the value of proxyPassword is encrypted. While past LDAP implementations have stored proxy credentials in a client's profile, Solaris 9 LDAP naming services do not. Any proxy credentials set using ldapclient during initialization are stored locally. This results in improved security surrounding a proxy's DN and password information. See Chapter 12, Setting Up LDAP Clients (Tasks) for more information on setting up client profiles.

Similarly, if you configure a client to enable shadow data updates, and the client credential level is not self, the client saves its adminDN and adminPassword attributes locally in the /var/ldap/ldap_client_cred file. The value of adminPassword is also encrypted and is used only by the ldap_cachemgr daemon process.

If you configure a client to use per-user authentication, the Kerberos identity and Kerberos ticket information for each principal (each user or host) are used during authentication. In this environment the directory server maps the Kerberos principal to a DN and the Kerberos credentials are used to authenticate to that DN. The directory server can then use its access control instruction (ACI) mechanisms to allow or deny access to naming service data as necessary. In this situation, Kerberos ticket information is used to authenticate to the directory server and the system does not store authentication DNs or passwords on the system. Therefore, for this type of configuration, you do not need to specify the adminDN and adminPassword attributes when the client is initialized with the ldapclient command.