Writing Device Drivers

Exploring System Registers With kmdb

The kmdb debugger can display machine registers as a group or individually. To display all registers as a group, use $r as shown in the following example.

Example 22–11 Reading All Registers on a SPARC Processor With kmdb

[0]: $r

g0    0                                 l0      0
g1    100130a4      debug_enter         l1      edd00028
g2    10411c00      tsbmiss_area+0xe00  l2      10449c90
g3    10442000      ti_statetbl+0x1ba   l3      1b
g4    3000061a004                       l4      10474400     ecc_syndrome_tab+0x80
g5    0                                 l5      3b9aca00
g6    0                                 l6      0
g7    2a10001fd40                       l7      0
o0    0                                 i0      0
o1    c                                 i1      10449e50
o2    20                                i2      0
o3    300006b2d08                       i3      10
o4    0                                 i4      0
o5    0                                 i5      b0
sp    2a10001b451                       fp      2a10001b521
o7    1001311c      debug_enter+0x78    i7      1034bb24     zsa_xsint+0x2c4
y     0
tstate: 1604  (ccr=0x0, asi=0x0, pstate=0x16, cwp=0x4)
pstate: ag:0 ie:1 priv:1 am:0 pef:1 mm:0 tle:0 cle:0 mg:0 ig:0
winreg: cur:4 other:0 clean:7 cansave:1 canrest:5 wstate:14
tba   0x10000000
pc    edd000d8 edd000d8:        ta      %icc,%g0 + 125
npc   edd000dc edd000dc:        nop

The debugger exports each register value to a variable with the same name as the register. If you read the variable, the current value of the register is returned. If you write to the variable, the value of the associated machine register is changed. The following example changes the value of the %o0 register from 0 to 1 on an x86 machine.

Example 22–12 Reading and Writing Registers on an x86 Machine With kmdb

[0]> <eax=K
[0]> 0>eax
[0]> <eax=K
[0]>  c1e6e0f0>eax

If you need to inspect the registers of a different processor, you can use the ::cpuregs dcmd. The ID of the processor to be examined can be supplied as either the address to the dcmd or as the value of the -c option, as shown in the following example.

Example 22–13 Inspecting the Registers of a Different Processor

[0]> 0::cpuregs
   %cs = 0x0158            %eax = 0xc1e6e0f0 kmdbmod`kaif_dvec
   %ds = 0x0160            %ebx = 0x00000000

The following example switches from processor 0 to processor 3 on a SPARC machine. The %g3 register is inspected and then cleared. To confirm the new value, %g3 is read again.

Example 22–14 Retrieving the Value of an Individual Register From a Specified Processor

[0]> 3::switch
[3]> <g3=K
[3]> 0>g3
[3]> <g3