The XmNlayoutDirection resource sets a default rendering direction for any compound string (XmString) that does not have a component specifying the direction of that string. Therefore, to set the layout direction, you need to set the appropriate value for the XmNlayoutDirection resource. You do not need to create compound strings with specific direction components. When the application renders an XmString, the application should check whether the string was created with an explicit direction (XmStringDirection). If the string does not provide a direction component, the application should check the value of the XmNlayoutDirection resource for the current widget and use that value as the default rendering direction for the XmString.