A key or key combination that immediately executes a command from a menu.

accelerator text

Text that appears on the buttons of a menu to remind the user of an accelerator.


The name (such as "Arm," "Activate," or "Help") of a widget's prescribed response to an event, as defined in the widget's translations table. Actions are mapped to functions in the widget's action table.

action routine

A function that performs an action. Many action routines are supplied with Motif. X-Designer users can also write their own action routines.

action table

A table associated with a widget that maps actions to the action routines that perform them.


An applet is a small application written in Java which is embedded in a web page and runs when the page is browsed.

application class name

The name given to the Application Shell of a generated application. This name is used as a title for that Shell's window and to identify resources that belong to that application. In X-Designer, the application class name is assigned at code generation time.

Application Shell

The type of Shell widget that is used for the primary window in the application.


A constraint fixing one side of a widget to one side of a sibling widget or to one side of its parent layout widget. Attachments can be made at a fixed distance or at a percentage of the layout widget's dimension.

button box

The area reserved for buttons at the bottom of a composite widget such as a MessageBox, DialogTemplate, or FileSelectionBox.

C++ class widget

A widget in the design hierarchy that is designated as a C++ class. In the generated code, X-Designer defines a C++ class for the widget, with named descendant widgets as members of the class.


A field of a widget structure that designates a list of callback functions and a user action. When the user action occurs on that widget, the functions on the callback list are executed.

callback function

One of the functions on a callback list.

callback list

A group of functions (callback functions) associated with a callback.

candidate list

A list of character (ideograph) choices for a given typed pronunciation produced from an input method. This normally applies only to ideographic scripts.


Analyze the design of a running Motif application and create a ".xd" file containing an identical design. XD/Capture does this.


Common Gateway Interface. The CGI standard lays down the rules for running external programs in a Web HTTP server. External programs are called gateways because they open up an outside world of information to the server.

CGI Script

A program or shell script written in any language which conforms to the CGI standard for data communication.


The widgets that are managed by, and (if visible) contained within the boundaries of, a parent widget. In X-Designer, children widgets appear below their parents in the design hierarchy.

Children Only widget

A widget which X-Designer treats as a place-holder when generating code. No code is generated for the Children Only widget itself, but code is generated for any of its descendants that are designated as data structures, function structures, or C++ classes.

circular attachment

In Form layout, an attachment of Widget A to Widget B, when Widget B is attached to Widget A. Attachment of Widget A to B, B to C, and C to A, or any larger loop, is also considered circular. Circular attachments are not allowed in Motif.

class hierarchy

The abstract hierarchy of widget classes in Motif. Class hierarchy is distinguished from design hierarchy.

client data

The single parameter that can be passed to a callback function.

code prelude

Lines of code supplied in a dialog in X-Designer and inserted at specific points in the generated code.

color object

Association of a name with a color.

complex font object

Association of a name with a list of fonts grouped together by Motif into a FontList.

compound string

A Motif data structure that combines a text string with font and direction information.

config utility

Generic name for xdconfig.

constraint resources

The resources displayed on the Constraints panel. These resources can be viewed for any child of a constraint widget.

In general, any resources of a widget that control its children's sizes or positions.

constraint widget

One of the two types of widgets (the Form and PanedWindow) whose children have a Constraints panel.

construction area

The drawing area on the main X-Designer screen in which the design hierarchy is displayed.

container widget

A widget whose main purpose is to contain and organize its children.


The term used widely for interface objects by such systems as Windows and Java. A control is a basic user interface object such as a button or text field.


A function or set of functions used to convert text entries on the resource panel to numeric resource values. Needed for certain types of user-defined widgets.

Core resource panel

The special resource panel that lets you set the resources of the Core, Primitive, and Manager superclasses.

Core widget

The broad superclass from which all widget classes are derived.

creation procedure

A function generated by X-Designer that creates a Shell widget with its children.

data structure

A widget for which X-Designer generates a typedef for a data structure, and a creation procedure that sets up that type of structure and returns a pointer to it.

derived widget class

A widget class that is below another class in the class hierarchy. The derived class possesses all attributes of the classes above it, plus specialized attributes of its own.

design hierarchy

The hierarchy of individual widget instances that makes up the design for an interface. Distinguished from class hierarchy.


The last field in an event specification for a translation, normally used to specify which key must be pressed.

Dialog Shell

The type of Shell widget used for subsidiary windows. Dialog Shells cannot be iconified independently of their parent Shells.


Use various patterns of black and white pixels to achieve the effect of grey coloring.


A DTD (Document Type Definition) is a collection of declarations (entity, element, attribute, link, map, etc.) in SGML syntax that defines the components and structures available for a class (type) of documents.

dynamic display

The working version of the design that X-Designer creates dynamically as you build and edit the design hierarchy.

editing area

The drawing area on the Layout Editor screen in which an editable sketch of the layout is displayed.

editing modes

The designated behavior of mouse button 1 in the Layout Editor, as controlled by the radio buttons on the left side of the screen. The modes include "Move," "Attach," "Resize," "Self," and "Position."

enumeration resource

A resource that has a limited set of possible values. X-Designer displays enumeration resources on the "Settings" page of resource panels.


An element of user input such as a key press or button press.


A display command in X-Designer that makes the folded widget's children not appear on the screen, thus saving space.


A list of fonts grouped together so that it is possible to show different fonts in the one string. FontList is a Motif term.

font object

Association of a name with a font or a list of fonts.

Form attachment

An attachment of one side of a widget to one side of its parent Form at a fixed horizontal or vertical offset. The offset remains the same when the Form resizes.

function structure

A widget for which X-Designer produces a separate creation procedure in the generated code.


An alternative version of certain widgets derived from the Primitive class. Unlike widgets, gadgets do not require the internal creation of a window for each instance. Use of gadgets instead of widgets may or may not be advantageous, depending on your system.


Graphic Interchange Format. A file format for storing images. GIFs only store 8 bits of color information per pixel which makes them less attractive than other formats.

graying out

Fuzzy display of an icon, pushbutton, or menu option. In X-Designer, graying out denotes that the command is inactive.

hard-wired resource

A resource value that is generated into the source code, not into the X resource file. Hard-wired resource values cannot be changed without remaking the application.


Acronym for "HyperText Markup Language". HTML is a public domain format which uses only printable characters and can, therefore, be created in any text editor. It is also a standard used by many applications.


HyperText Transfer Protocol. At the beginning of every URL, you see the four letters "http". They tell the Web server how your browser intends to communicate with it. When you connect to a World Wide Web server, both systems use this protocol to transfer the document from the server to your system. For more detailed information see:


Text, graphics and other media connected through links.


Integrated Development Environment. An application comprising a set of integrated tools which help you to develop programs. IDEs normally include at least a compiler, debugger and code editor.


To possess the attributes of a superclass. Derived widget classes are said to inherit from their superclasses.

input focus

Indicates the window or component within a window that receives keyboard input. Sometimes called keyboard focus.


An individual widget data structure. Widget instances are specific examples of widget classes. To instantiate a widget means to create an instance of a widget class.


A network internal to an organization. There is usually no firewall between the computers on an intranet but there probably is one between the intranet and the internet.


Java is a programming language with libraries specifically geared for the Internet environment. Java is highly portable, object-oriented and interpreted. It is threaded, has automatic storage management and uses exceptions.


A string used to identify a key in the detail field of a translation.


Geometric arrangement of widgets in an interface.

Layout Editor

The interactive screen editor used for setting constraint resources for the Form, BulletinBoard, or DrawingArea widget.

layout widget

Any of the widgets that can be used with the Layout Editor: a Form, BulletinBoard, RowColumn, or DrawingArea.


A pre-defined callback provided by X-Designer.

link function

The function code executed by a link.

loose binding

A resource binding which can be made general to apply to groups of widgets or the whole application.

Manager widget

A broad superclass in the Motif class hierarchy, from which most container widgets are derived. The Manager widget is derived from the Core widget.

masking toggle

The unlabeled toggle next to each resource in the resource panels, used to designate which resources are generated into the X resource file and which are hard-wired into the code.


Microsoft Foundation Classes. A set of base classes for building user interfaces to run on Microsoft Windows.


Multimedia Internet Message Extension. MIME provides a way of extending the power of Web browsers to handle graphics, sound, multimedia and anything else except text. HTML handles only text--everything else is an extension. MIME is also used for binary email attachments. Browsers recognize MIME types in categories and file types, separated by a slash (such as image/gif). If you've registered a MIME type, the browser decodes the file and launches a helper application.


A single character (often the initial character) of a menu or menu selection, which initiates the selection when the menu is displayed and the character is pressed on the keyboard.

module heading

Lines of code inserted at the beginning of the generated primary module and the stubs file.

modifier list

A field in the event specification of a translation that specifies whether modifier keys (such as <Ctrl> and <Shift>) must be pressed or not to cause the event.

module prelude

1) Lines of code inserted just after the X-Designer generated header and #include directives.

2) A general term meaning either a module prelude or module heading.


When replaying and recording scripts--display the replay commands as they are recorded or replayed.

multiple selection

The selection of more than one widget from the construction area.


The fixed distance, in pixels, between two attached widgets, or between a widget and the side of the layout widget to which it is attached.


Said of an attachment. The origin of an attachment is the widget from which the attachment was made.


A term used in connection with Java code. A package is like a library in C. It provides a way to group together related object files. Each source file should be labelled with the name of the package to which it belongs. The package name is based on the directory containing the source file. Source files can "import" packages that they wish to use.

page selector

The options menu at the top of some resource panels that lets you move from one page of resources to another.


A widget that manages and determines the layout of its children. In X-Designer, parent widgets are shown above their children in the design hierarchy.


When replaying scripts--stop replaying and wait at the current point in the script.

pixmap object

Association of a name with a pixmap.

position attachment

Attachment of one side of a widget at a specified percentage of the width or height of its parent Form. This type of attachment adjusts to the current Form dimensions.

pre-create prelude

A code prelude inserted just before the given widget is created.


A piece of code inserted into the generated files. See pre-create prelude, pre-manage prelude, module prelude.

pre-manage prelude

A code prelude inserted after the given widget is created but before it is managed. Commonly used to set up client data for callbacks.

primary module

The code module generated by X-Designer that contains the creation procedures for your interface.

primary selection

In the context of the layout editor--the primary selection is the widget which was selected last. When aligning widgets, any other selected widgets will be aligned to the primary selection.

Primitive widget

In the Motif class hierarchy, a broad superclass from which all the button-type widgets and several other classes are derived. The Primitive widget is derived from the Core widget.


A proxy server is a system that caches items from other servers to speed up access. On the Web, a proxy first attempts to find data locally, and if it's not there, fetches it from the remote server where the data resides permanently.

Query String

As used in this document, a query string refers to the part of a URL which appears after a question mark (?). The query string has a standard format which is understood by applications such as search engines.

radio buttons

Toggle buttons grouped inside a RadioBox, or inside a Menu or RowColumn with the "Radio behavior" resource set to "Yes." Only one radio button in the group may be selected at a time.


A settable field in a widget data structure. Resources control many aspects of a widget's appearance and behavior. Resources can be set by the designer or the user, or both.

resource panel

An interactive screen in X-Designer that lets you specify resource values for a widget.

resource prelude

A prelude inserted at the beginning of the generated X resource file. Commonly used to add loose resource bindings for the entire application rather than for individual widgets.


When running in record mode, the replay tool creates scripts containing a description of the actions performed on an application. In replay mode, the replay tool can read scripts and perform the actions described therein. Scripts are plain text and consist of keywords and variables.

secondary selection

In the context of the layout editor--the secondary selection is any widget other than the primary selection. When aligning widgets, those which are the secondary selection will be aligned to the primary selection.

selected widget

The widget whose icon is currently highlighted in the design hierarchy. A widget must be selected before anything can be done to it in X-Designer.


The business end of a client/server setup, a server is usually a computer that provides the information, files, Web pages, and other services to the client that logs on to it. The word server is also used to describe the software and operating system designed to run server hardware. The client/server setup is analogous to a restaurant with waiters and customers.


Standard Generalized Markup Language is a data encoding that allows the information in documents to be shared--either by other document publishing systems or by applications for electronic delivery, configuration management, database management, inventory control, etc. Defined in ISO 8879:1986 Information Processing Text and Office Systems; Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML).

simple font object

Association of name with a single font.

single step

When replaying scripts--execute the next command only.

source file

One of the code files generated by X-Designer. When contrasted to the "resource file," this term refers to the primary module.

status line

(1) An area at the bottom left of the main X-Designer screen and the Layout Editor which provides information relating to the menu option, toolbar button or widget at the current cursor location.

(2) When an input method is active, an extra text line appears in the active window (usually at the bottom left). This informs the user of the current mode with respect to the input method along with any other information the input method wishes to convey.

stubs file

A generated file containing #include statements, function declarations and empty braces for callbacks.


A widget class that is derived from another class.


A widget class from which another class is derived.


Hypertext help information, consisting of a document name and a hypertext marker within the document.


Used in AppGuru to describe an example user interface to be used as the starting point of a new design.

Thin Client

A client is the "customer" side of a client/server setup. For example, to download something from an ftp site, you use ftp client software. A thin clint refers to a clint which only provides the thin layer of user interface. All of the "business" is performed in the server.

thumbnail sketch

A small pictorial representation of a dialog which appears in the XD/Capture dialog when a dialog is captured.

tight binding

A resource binding in which a widget has been forced to be included.

Top level Shell

The type of Shell widget used for primary windows in a design other than the main application window.


A mapping of an event, such as a key or button press, or a sequence of events, to an action.

translations table

The list of translations associated with a widget.

user action

A predefined set of events, such as keystrokes or button presses, that triggers a callback.

variable name

The name used to identify a widget's data structure in the generated code. This is a C variable name, so it must not be the same as the variable name of any other widget, any other variable name or function name in your application, or any C code word.


One of the predefined data structures in the Motif toolkit, or other toolkits, that are used as building blocks for graphical user interfaces.

widget attachment

An attachment of one widget to another within the Form.

widget class

A specific type of widget.

widget name

(1) The name used to distinguish a widget instance in the X resource file. This name does not have to be the same as the variable name and does not have to be unique.

(2) The name used to refer to a widget by XD/Replay. Multiple instances of the same widget name are referenced by number.

widget palette

The area on the main X-Designer screen that shows icons representing the available widget classes.

window holding area

The area at the upper right of the main X-Designer screen that displays one Shell icon for each window in the design.

work area

The central area of a composite widget such as a MessageBox, DialogTemplate, or FileSelectionBox, which can contain one child widget of any type.

X resource file

An editable file generated by X-Designer, containing some or all explicit resource values for the design.


The Motif compound string structure.