Traditional Chinese Solaris User's Guide

Appendix A Open Windows Information

This appendix contains information specific to the OpenWindows environment.

Introduction to OpenWindows

Traditional Chinese Solaris Software Design

This Traditional Chinese localization of Sun's internationalized OpenWindows environment includes enhancements for handling appropriate linguistic and cultural conventions, which it provides to two broad working environments:

Expanded Workspace Properties Worksheet

The Localization category in the Workspace Properties worksheet lets you set the locale in which applications will start. With this page you can set the Basic Setting, Display Language, Input Language, Numeric Format, and Time Format for new application windows from inside the Traditional Chinese OpenWindows environment.

These settings take effect each time a local application is started. Application windows are displayed in the locale that is currently set. If you change the locale, new application windows are displayed in the new locale, but existing application windows continue to be displayed in the original locale.

Traditional Chinese OPEN LOOK DeskSet

The following DeskSet tools are provided in this Solaris release. Each tool can handle Traditional Chinese language input and output. A man page is provided for each.

Audio Tool - Tool for recording, playing, editing, and controlling workstation audio parameters.

Binder - Tool for defining which actions are associated with which file types. This association can be set graphically.

Calculator - Visual calculator for use with the mouse or keyboard.

Calendar Manager - Manages business and social appointments; can use electronic mail to send automatic reminders.

Clock - Displays time in analog or digital format.

Command Tool - Standard OPEN LOOK scrolling window terminal emulator.

File Manager - Graphical tool for accessing files and directories. Represents file types with various colors and icons. Navigates through the file system with the mouse.

Font Editor - Visual tool for editing font appearance and creating new characters and fonts.

Icon Editor - Visual tool for editing icon appearance and creating new icons.

Image Tool - Interactive image viewer. Image Tool can be used to view the contents of file types such as GIF, TIFF, JPEG, PostScript, and others.

Mail Tool - Tool for handling electronic mail.

Performance Meter - Real-time system performance meter that can display a variety of data.

Print Tool - Graphical front-end to the print command. It supports OPEN LOOK drag-and-drop file transfer operations.

Shell Tool - Standard OPEN LOOK non-scrolling window terminal emulator. The window behaves like an ASCII character terminal for entry of UNIX commands at a system shell prompt and other terminal operations.

Snapshot - Tool to snap or capture a picture of a window or region of a screen in bitmap (raster file) format. Used for capturing screen image displays in this user's guide.

Tape Tool - Graphical tool for controlling the tape driver.

Text Editor - Visual text editor used in OpenWindows tools such as the Mail Tool composition window.

Starting OpenWindows

Checking Your User Environment

Before you log in, your system administrator should set your required user environment variables and corresponding entries in the .cshrc file in your home directory. These system environment variables are essential to using Traditional Chinese features.

.cshrc File

System environment variables need to be set by your system administrator in your .cshrc file. Therefore, the first time you log in, before you start OpenWindows for the first time, check to make sure there are lines such as the following in the .cshrc file in your home directory:

setenv LANG zh_TW
setenv OPENWINHOME /usr/openwin

set path=( /usr/SUNWale/bin $OPENWINHOME/bin $path )


if ($?USER != 0 && $?prompt != 0) then
   /bin/stty cs8 -istrip defeucw

Make sure the LANG variable is set to C (ASCII) or zh_TW (Chinese) before the if...endif statement and that no prompt is set before the if...endif.

If these lines are not present or are different, contact your system administrator. If you are your own system administrator or an advanced user, refer to Traditional Chinese Solaris System Administrator's Guide for further information on setting up your system.

.openwin-init File

If you have a .openwin-init file in your home directory and might use the Traditional Chinese character input facilities, make sure this file contains an htt command, as described in "How and When htt Is Started" on page 15.

.xinitrc File

If your system has a .xinitrc file in your home directory, make sure it contains at least the lines provided in Traditional Chinese Solaris $OPENWINHOME/lib/Xinitrc file.

Starting the Traditional Chinese OpenWindows Environment

After verifying that your system administrator has set your user environment correctly for Traditional Chinese language operation, you are ready to start your Chinese OpenWindows environment as follows:

system% openwin 

Changing the Language Setting on the Workspace Properties Worksheet

The Traditional Chinese OpenWindows Workspace Properties worksheet contains a localization field. To change the language setting for the next OpenWindows tools you start:

  1. Choose Properties... on the main window Workspace menu.

  2. Choose the Locale category on the Category pull down menu.

    The following screenshots show the English and Traditional Chinese versions of the Workspace Properties worksheet:


    You can set the display and input mechanisms of the Traditional Chinese OpenWindows environment by using the Locale field in the Workspace Properties worksheet. You can switch between the U.S. and the Chinese setting.

    The Locale setting determines which characters (ASCII, Traditional Chinese) appear in new tool windows when they are started. Changing the locale does not affect the appearance or operation of tool windows that were started up before the change.

Changing Your System Locale Setting

To change the Locale setting on the Workspace Properties worksheet (and in the .OWdefaults file as explained in Traditional Chinese Solaris System Administrator's Guide):

  1. Access the Workspace Properties Locale worksheet.

  2. Change the Locale setting by choosing U.S.A. or Chinese on the Basic Locale menu.

    The English version of the menu is on the left and the Traditional Chinese equivalent is on the right. (In this example the Chinese locale is selected).

  3. Click the Apply button to set the locale on the system.


    Clicking Apply applies these settings and overwrites your current .OWdefaults file. OpenWindows uses the information in this file to start your applications. For a description of the contents and functions of the .OWdefaults file, refer to Traditional Chinese Solaris System Administrator's Guide.

OpenWindows and htt

OpenWindows uses the .openwin-init file in the user's home directory if the file exists. If the .openwin-init file lacks a line to start htt, htt will not start when the OpenWindows environment is started.

For the Traditional Chinese input functions in applications to operate as intended, the .openwin-init script must start htt before the script starts an application that uses htt for Traditional Chinese character input. If htt is started after the application, only a root-window style input method server window can be used.

Verifying Changes to the .openwin-init File

The OpenWindows WorkspaceUtilitiesSave Workspace command writes or rewrites a user's .openwin-init file when it saves the current configuration of the workspace screen. Therefore, each time you use the Save Workspace pull-down menu selection, or edit .openwin-init, check your .openwin-init file and make sure the htt command precedes any line that starts an application that takes Traditional Chinese character input.

Placing the htt command this way ensures correct connection to htt if the OpenWindows system is restarted later. Manual edits to .openwin-init will be overwritten the next time you use the Save Workspace command. You can save and use your edits by exiting and then restarting the OpenWindows environment.

Printing in OpenWindows

You can use the Workspace Properties menu to set up the xetops print filter.

Customizing Your OpenWindows Workspace

Using Fonts

The localized language functions of Traditional Chinese Solaris applications use font sets, or groups of fonts, including both ASCII character fonts and non-ASCII Traditional Chinese character fonts. These font sets are required for Traditional Chinese display. They can be used, as font names are, in customizing your workspace as described in Traditional Chinese Solaris User's Guide.

Traditional Chinese (zh_TW) Font Lists

A Traditional Chinese (zh_TW) font list is composed of one English font, representing ASCII characters in CNS11643-0 or ISO8859-1, and a number of Traditional Chinese fonts representing characters such as CNS11643-1, CNS1643-1, CNS11643-2, and CNS11643-3.

Traditional Chinese Solaris provides some default font lists defined in application defaults files in /usr/dt/app-defaults/zh_TW/*. The following is an excerpt from one of these files, Dtwm:

Dtwm*icon*fontList: \ 	
-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*:

This portion of the file refers to a font list that contains the following fonts, which are defined in /usr/openwin/lib/locale/zh_TW/X11/fonts/75dpi/fonts.alias:

"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-70-cns11643-0"
"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-140-cns11643-1"
"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-140-cns11643-2"
"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-140-cns11643-3"

The first is the English font for codeset 0 (ASCII) character font display. The rest are Traditional Chinese fonts for codeset 1 (CNS11643) plane 1 character font display, and codeset 2 (CNS11643) plane 2 and plane 3 character font display.

Traditional Chinese (zh_TW.BIG5) Font Lists

A Traditional Chinese zh_TW.BIG5 font list is composed of one English font, representing ASCII characters, and one Traditional Chinese font representing Chinese characters in Big 5.

Traditional Chinese Solaris provides some default font lists defined in an application defaults file in /usr/dt/app-defaults/zh_TW.BIG5/*. Below is a part of one of the files, Dtwm:

Dtwm*icon*fontList: \
-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*

This font list contains the following fonts, defined in /usr/openwin/lib/locale/zh_TW.BIG5/X11/fonts/75dpi/fonts.alias:

"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-70-big5-0" 	
"-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s serif-16-140-75-75-p-140-big5-1"

The first is an English font for ASCII character font display. The second is a Traditional Chinese Big 5 font.

Starting Applications With a Specific Traditional Chinese Font List

When you start an Asian Solaris tool at the command line, you can also specify its fonts. Below is an example of a command line argument used to start a new Traditional Chinese Windows terminal with a specified font list:

system% dtterm -fn  "-dt-interface system-medium-r-normal-s \
serif-16-140-75-75-p-70-cns11643-0; \  	-dt-interface
system-medium-r-normal-s \  	serif-16-140-75-75-p-140-cns11643-1:"

Note the two delimiters used in the font list. The ; delimiter is used to separate the font names except for the last font name, which ends with the ; delimiter. (In the example above, ; follows the English font name, and the : delimiter follows the Traditional Chinese font name.) Since there are spaces in the long font names, the font list is enclosed in quotation marks.

Specifying a Font at the Command Line

You can specify which font a Traditional Chinese OpenWindows application will use on a command line. When the current locale is zh_TW or zh_TW.BIG5, the command uses one of the defined font-set aliases instead (explained in the following section), for example:

system% cmdtool -font fontset_name & 

However, when the current locale is C, the command uses a font name and cannot use a font-set alias. The following shows a command using the long name of an ASCII character font:

system% cmdtool -font 
-misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--9-80-100-100-c-60-iso8859-1 & 

Font Set Names

The Traditional Chinese OpenWindows environment provides several font sets that combine two or more fonts so that both English and Chinese characters can be used together in one window. Five of the font sets each comprise one Roman font (ASCII characters) in the ISO8859 standard plus a Chinese font specified in CNS 11643-92. A few examples are:

Each of these font sets is made up of several font files. The $OPENWINHOME/lib/locale/zh_TW/OW_FONT_SETS/OpenWindows.fs file defines the full Chinese Solaris font set.

In addition, the Traditional Chinese Solaris operating environment provides TrueType scalable fonts in the following type faces:

These fonts are located in $OPENWINHOME/lib/locale/zh_TW/X11/fonts/TrueType

Scaling Applications Windows and Fonts

The $OPENWINHOME/lib/locale/zh_TW/OW_FONT_SETS/OpenWindows.fs file also sets the following font size definitions for use in command lines:

For example, the following command line shows how to start a Command Tool window that uses 16-point type and is scaled proportionally larger than the default:

system% cmdtool -scale large &