This section discusses the following restrictions and performance optimizations that pertain to developing message-driven beans:
The message-driven bean pool is also a pool of threads, with each message-driven bean instance in the pool associating with a server session, and each server session associating with a thread. Therefore, a large pool size also means a high number of threads, which impacts performance and server resources.
When configuring message-driven bean pool properties, make sure to consider factors such as message arrival rate and pattern, onMessage method processing time, overall server resources (threads, memory, and so on), and any concurrency requirements and limitations from other resources that the message-driven bean accesses.
When tuning performance and resource usage, make sure to consider potential JMS provider properties for the connection factory used by the container (the mdb-connection-factory element in the sun-ejb-jar.xml file). For example, you can tune the Sun Java System Message Queue flow control related properties for connection factory in situations where the message incoming rate is much higher than max-pool-size can handle.
Refer to Chapter 16, Monitoring Components and Services, in Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 9 Administration Guide for information on how to get message-driven bean pool statistics.
Message-driven beans, like other well-behaved MessageListeners, should not, in general, throw runtime exceptions. If a message-driven bean’s onMessage method encounters a system-level exception or error that does not allow the method to successfully complete, the Enterprise JavaBeans Specification, v3.0 provides the following guidelines:
If the bean method encounters a runtime exception or error, it should simply propagate the error from the bean method to the container.
If the bean method performs an operation that results in a checked exception that the bean method cannot recover, the bean method should throw the javax.ejb.EJBException that wraps the original exception.
Any other unexpected error conditions should be reported using javax.ejb.EJBException (javax.ejb.EJBException is a subclass of java.lang.RuntimeException).
Under container-managed transaction demarcation, upon receiving a runtime exception from a message-driven bean’s onMessage method, the container rolls back the container-started transaction and the message is redelivered. This is because the message delivery itself is part of the container-started transaction. By default, the Application Server container closes the container’s connection to the JMS provider when the first runtime exception is received from a message-driven bean instance’s onMessage method. This avoids potential message redelivery looping and protects server resources if the message-driven bean’s onMessage method continues misbehaving. To change this default container behavior, use the cmt-max-runtime-exceptions property of the mdb-container element in the domain.xml file.
The cmt-max-runtime-exceptions property specifies the maximum number of runtime exceptions allowed from a message-driven bean’s onMessage method before the container starts to close the container’s connection to the message source. By default this value is 1; -1 disables this container protection.
A message-driven bean’s onMessage method can use the javax.jms.Message getJMSRedelivered method to check whether a received message is a redelivered message.
The cmt-max-runtime-exceptions property might be deprecated in the future.