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iPlanet Web Server, Enterprise Edition Administrator's Guide


About This Guide
What's In This Guide?
How This Guide Is Organized
Part I: Server Basics
Part II: Using the Administration Server
Part III: Configuring, Monitoring, and Performance Tuning
Part IV: Managing Virtual Servers and Services
Part V: Appendixes
Conventions Used In This Guide
Using the iPlanet Web Server Documentation
Further Reading
Contacting Technical Support

Part 1 Server Basics

Chapter 1 Introduction to iPlanet Web Server

iPlanet Web Server
iPlanet Web Server Features
Administering and Managing iPlanet Web Servers
iPlanet Web Server Architecture
Content Engines
Server Extensions
Runtime Environments
Application Services
iPlanet Web Server Configuration
iPlanet Web Server Component Options
iPlanet Web Server Configuration Files
Dynamic Reconfiguration
Single-Server Configuration
All Platforms
Unix and Linux Platforms
Virtual Server Configuration
Multiple-Server Configuration
Administration Server
Server Manager
Using the Resource Picker
Wildcards Used in the Resource Picker
Class Manager
Virtual Server Manager

Chapter 2 Administering iPlanet Web Servers
Accessing the Administration Server
Unix/Linux Platforms
Windows NT Platforms
Running Multiple Servers
Virtual Servers
Installing Multiple Instances of the Server
Removing a Server
Migrating a Server From a Previous Version

Part 2 Using the Administration Server

Chapter 3 Setting Administration Preferences

Shutting Down the Administration Server
Editing Listen Socket Settings
Changing the User Account (Unix/Linux)
Changing the Superuser Settings
Allowing Multiple Administrators
Specifying Log File Options
Viewing Log Files
The Access Log File
The Error Log File
Archiving Log Files
Using Cron-based Log Rotation (Unix/Linux)
Configuring Directory Services
Restricting Server Access
Configuring JRE/JDK Paths

Chapter 4 Managing Users and Groups
Using LDAP to Manage Users and Groups
Understanding Distinguished Names (DNs)
Using LDIF
Creating Users
Guidelines for Creating User Entries
How to Create a New User Entry
Directory Server User Entries
Managing Users
Finding User Information
Building Custom Search Queries
Editing User Information
Managing a User's Password
Managing User Licenses
Renaming Users
Removing Users
Creating Groups
Static Groups
Guidelines for Creating Static Groups
To Create a Static Group
Managing Groups
Finding Group Entries
The "Find all groups whose" Field
Editing Group Attributes
Adding Group Members
Adding Groups to the Group Members List
Removing Entries from the Group Members List
Managing Owners
Managing See Alsos
Removing Groups
Renaming Groups
Creating Organizational Units
Managing Organizational Units
Finding Organizational Units
The "Find all units whose" Field
Editing Organizational Unit Attributes
Renaming Organizational Units
Deleting Organizational Units
Managing a Preferred Language List

Chapter 5 Securing Your Web Server
Requiring Authentication
Using Certificates for Authentication
Server Authentication
Client Authentication
Virtual Server Certificates
Creating a Trust Database
Creating a Trust Database
Using password.conf
Start an SSL-enabled Server Automatically
Requesting and Installing a VeriSign Certificate
Requesting a VeriSign Certificate
Installing a VeriSign Certificate
Requesting and Installing Other Server Certificates
Required CA Information
Requesting Other Server Certificates
Installing Other Server Certificates
Installing a Certificate
Migrating Certificates When You Upgrade
Migrating a Certificate
Using the Built-in Root Certificate Module
Managing Certificates
Installing and Managing CRLs and CKLs
Installing a CRL or CKL
Managing CRLs and CKLs
Setting Security Preferences
SSL and TLS Protocols
Using SSL to Communicate with LDAP
Enabling Security for Connection Groups
Turning Security On
Selecting a Server Certificate for a Connection Group
Selecting Ciphers
Configuring Security Globally
Using External Encryption Modules
Installing the PKCS#11Module
Using modutil to Install a PKCS#11 Module
Using pk12util
Selecting the Certificate Name for a Connection Group
FIPS-140 Standard
Setting Client Security Requirements
Requiring Client Authentication
To Require Client Authentication
Mapping Client Certificates to LDAP
Using the certmap.conf File
Creating Custom Properties
Sample Mappings
Setting Stronger Ciphers
Considering Additional Security Issues
Limit Physical Access
Limit Administration Access
Choosing Solid Passwords
Creating Hard-to-Crack Passwords
Changing Passwords or PINs
Changing Passwords
Limiting Other Applications on the Server
Unix and Linux
Windows NT
Preventing Clients from Caching SSL Files
Limiting Ports
Knowing Your Server's Limits
Making Additional Changes to Protect Servers
Specifying chroot for a Virtual Server Class
Specifying chroot for a Virtual Server

Chapter 6 Managing Server Clusters
About Clusters
Guidelines for Using Server Clusters
Setting Up a Cluster
Adding a Server to a Cluster
Modifying Server Information
Removing Servers from a Cluster
Controlling Server Clusters
Adding Variables

Part 3 Configuring, Monitoring, and Performance Tuning

Chapter 7 Configuring Server Preferences

Starting and Stopping the Server
Setting the Termination Timeout
Restarting the Server (Unix/Linux)
Starting SSL-enabled Servers Automatically
Restarting With Inittab (Unix/Linux)
Restarting With the System RC Scripts (Unix/Linux)
Restarting the Server Manually (Unix/Linux)
Stopping the Server Manually (Unix/Linux)
Restarting the Server (Windows NT)
Using the Automatic Restart Utility (Windows NT)
Tuning Your Server for Performance
Editing the magnus.conf File
Adding and Editing Listen Sockets
Choosing MIME Types
Restricting Access
Restoring Configuration Settings
Configuring the File Cache
Adding and Using Thread Pools
The Native Thread Pool and Generic Thread Pools (Windows NT)
Thread Pools (Unix/Linux)
Editing Thread Pools
Using Thread Pools

Chapter 8 Controlling Access to Your Server
What Is Access Control?
Setting Access Control for User-Group
Default Authentication
Basic Authentication
SSL Authentication
Digest Authentication
Other Authentication
Setting Access Control for Host-IP
Using Access Control Files
Configuring the ACL User Cache
How Access Control Works
Setting Access Control
Setting Access Control Globally
Setting Access Control for a Server Instance
Selecting Access Control Options
Setting the Action
Specifying Users and Groups
Specifying the From Host
Restricting Access to Programs
Setting Access Rights
Writing Customized Expressions
Turning Off Access Control
Responding When Access is Denied
Limiting Access to Areas of Your Server
Restricting Access to the Entire Server
Restricting Access to a Directory (Path)
Restricting Access to a URI (Path)
Restricting Access to a File Type
Restricting Access Based on Time of Day
Restricting Access Based on Security
Working with Dynamic Access Control Files
Using .htaccess Files
Enabling .htaccess from the User Interface
Enabling .htaccess from magnus.conf
Converting Existing .nsconfig Files to .htaccess Files
Using htaccess-register
Example of an .htaccess File
Supported .htaccess Directives
.htaccess Security Considerations
Controlling Access for Virtual Servers
Accessing Databases from Virtual Servers
Specifying LDAP Databases in the User Interface
Editing Access Control Lists for Virtual Servers

Chapter 9 Using Log Files
About Log Files
Viewing an Access Log File
Viewing the Error Log File
Archiving Log Files
Internal-daemon Log Rotation
Cron-based Log Rotation
Setting Log Preferences
Easy Cookie Logging
Running the Log Analyzer
Viewing Events (Windows NT)

Chapter 10 Monitoring Servers
Monitoring the Server Using Statistics
Enabling Statistics
Using Statistics
Using Quality of Service
Quality of Service Example
Setting Up Quality of Service
Required Changes to obj.conf
Known Limitations to Quality of Service
SNMP Basics
The iPlanet Web Server MIB
Setting Up SNMP
Using a Proxy SNMP Agent (Unix/Linux)
Installing the Proxy SNMP Agent
Starting the Proxy SNMP Agent
Restarting the Native SNMP Daemon
Reconfiguring the SNMP Native Agent
Installing the SNMP Master Agent
Enabling and Starting the SNMP Master Agent
Starting the Master Agent on Another Port
Manually Configuring the SNMP Master Agent
Editing the Master Agent CONFIG File
Defining sysContact and sysLocation Variables
Configuring the SNMP Subagent
Starting the SNMP Master Agent
Manually Starting the SNMP Master Agent
Starting the SNMP Master Agent Using the Administration Server
Configuring the SNMP Master Agent
Configuring the Community String
Configuring Trap Destinations
Enabling the Subagent
Understanding SNMP Messages

Chapter 11 Tuning Your Server for Performance

Chapter 12 Using Search
About Search
Configuring Text Search
Controlling Search Access
Mapping URLs
Eliminating Words from Search
Turning Search On or Off
Configuring the Search Parameters
Configuring Your Search Pattern Files
Configuring Files Manually
The Configuration Files
Adjusting the Maximum Number of Attributes
Restricting Memory for Indexing
Restricting Your Index File Size
Indexing Your Documents
About Collections
About Collection Attributes
Creating a New Collection
Configuring a Collection
Updating a Collection
Maintaining a Collection
Scheduling Regular Maintenance
Removing Scheduled Collection Maintenance
Performing a Search: The Basics
Search Home Page
A Search Query
Guided Search
Advanced Search
The Search Results
Listing Matched Documents
Sorting the Results
Displaying a Highlighted Document
Displaying Collection Contents
Using the Query Operators
Default Assumptions
Search Rules
Angle Brackets
Combining Operators
Using Query Operators as Search Words
Canceling Stemming
Modifying Operators
Determining Which Operators To Use
Using Wildcards
Non-alphanumeric Characters
Customizing the Search Interface
Dynamically Generated Headers and Footers
HTML Pattern Files
Search Function Syntax
URL Encodings
Required Search Arguments
Using Pattern Variables
User-defined Pattern Variables
Configuration File Variables
Macros and Generated Pattern Variables

Part 4 Managing Virtual Servers and Services

Chapter 13 Using Virtual Servers

Virtual Servers Overview
Multiple Server Instances
Virtual Server Classes
The obj.conf File
Virtual Servers in a Class
The Default Class
Listen Sockets
Connection Groups
Virtual Servers
Types of Virtual Servers
IP-Address-Based Virtual Servers
URL-Host-Based Virtual Servers
Default Virtual Server
Virtual Server Selection for Request Processing
Document Root
Log Files
Migrating Virtual Servers from a Previous Release
Using iPlanet Web Server Features with Virtual Servers
Using SSL with Virtual Servers
Using Access Control with Virtual Servers
Using CGIs with Virtual Servers
Using Configuration Styles with Virtual Servers
Using the Virtual Server User Interface
The Class Manager
The Virtual Server Manager
Using Variables
Dynamic Reconfiguration
Setting Up Virtual Servers
Creating a Listen Socket
Creating a Connection Group
Creating a Virtual Server Class
Editing or Deleting a Virtual Server Class
Specifying Services Associated with a Virtual Server Class
Creating a Virtual Server
Specifying Settings Associated with a Virtual Server
Allowing Users to Monitor Individual Virtual Servers
Access Control
Log Files
Deploying Virtual Servers
Example 1: Default Configuration
Example 2: Secure Server
Example 3: Intranet Hosting
Example 4: Mass Hosting

Chapter 14 Creating and Configuring Virtual Servers
Creating a Virtual Server
Editing Virtual Server Settings
Editing Using the Virtual Server Manager
Generating Reports for a Virtual Server
Editing Using the Class Manager
Editing Virtual Server Settings
Configuring Virtual Server MIME Settings
Configuring Virtual Server ACL Settings
Configuring Virtual Server Security
Configuring Virtual Server Quality of Service Settings
Configuring Virtual Server Log Settings
Configuring Virtual Server Java Web Application Settings
Deleting a Virtual Server

Chapter 15 Extending Your Server With Programs
Overview of Server-Side Programs
Types of Server-Side Applications That Run on the Server
How Server-Side Applications Are Installed on the Server
Java Servlets and JavaServer Pages (JSP)
Overview of Servlets and JavaServer Pages
What the Server Needs to Run Servlets and JSPs
Working with Web Applications
Using the web-apps.xml File
Deploying Web Applications Using wdeploy
Deploying and Editing Web Applications with the User Interface
Deploying Servlets and JSPs Not in Web Applications
Configuring JVM Attributes
Deleting Version Files
Installing CGI Programs
Overview of CGI
Specifying a CGI Directory
Configuring Unique CGI Attributes for Each Software Virtual Server
Specifying CGI as a File Type
Downloading Executable Files
Installing Windows NT CGI Programs
Overview of Windows NT CGI Programs
Specifying a Windows NT CGI Directory
Specifying Windows NT CGI as a File Type
Installing Shell CGI Programs for Windows NT
Overview of Shell CGI Programs for Windows NT
Specifying a Shell CGI Directory (Windows NT)
Specifying Shell CGI as a File Type (Windows NT)
Using the Query Handler

Chapter 16 Content Management
Setting the Primary Document Directory
Setting Additional Document Directories
Customizing User Public Information Directories (Unix/Linux)
Restricting Content Publication
Loading the Entire Password File on Startup
Using Configuration Styles
Enabling Remote File Manipulation
Configuring Document Preferences
Setting the Document Preferences
Entering an Index Filename
Selecting Directory Indexing
Specifying a Server Home Page
Specifying a Default MIME Type
Parsing the Accept Language Header
Configuring URL Forwarding
Customizing Error Responses
Changing the Character Set
Setting the Document Footer
Using htaccess
Restricting Symbolic Links (Unix/Linux)
Setting up Server-Parsed HTML
Setting Cache Control Directives
Using Stronger Ciphers

Chapter 17 Applying Configuration Styles
Creating a Configuration Style
Assigning a Configuration Style
Listing Configuration Style Assignments
Editing a Configuration Style
Removing a Configuration Style

Part 5 Appendixes

Appendix A Command Line Utilities

Formatting LDIF Entries
Modifying Database Entries Using ldapmodify
HttpServerAdmin (Virtual Server Administration)
HttpServerAdmin Syntax
control Command
create Command
Create Virtual Server Class
Create Connection Group
Create Listen Socket
Create Virtual Server
delete Command
Delete Class
Delete Connection Group
Delete Listen Socket
Delete Virtual Server
list Command

Appendix B HyperText Transfer Protocol
About HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
Request Method
Request Header
Request Data
Status Code
Response Header
Response Data

Appendix C ACL File Syntax
ACL File Syntax
Authentication Methods
Authorization Statements
Hierarchy of Authorization Statements
Attribute Expressions
Operators For Expressions
The Default ACL File
General Syntax Items
Referencing ACL Files in obj.conf

Appendix D Internationalized iPlanet Web Server
General Information
Installing the Server
Entering UTF-8 Data
File or Directory Names
LDAP Users and Groups
Using the Accept-language Header
Using Other Language Settings
Search Information
International Search
Searching in Japanese
Query Operators
Document Formats
Searching in Japanese
Servlet Internationalization
any valid encoding
Posting to JSPs

Appendix E Server Extensions for Microsoft FrontPage
Types of FrontPage Webs
Domain Names and FrontPage Webs
Security Issues
Downloading the Extensions
Space Requirements
Preliminary Tasks
Some Additional Considerations
Installing FrontPage Server Extensions
Installing FrontPage Server Extensions on Windows NT Systems
Installing FrontPage97 Server Extensions on Unix /Linux Systems
Installing FrontPage98 Server Extensions on Unix /Linux Systems
Installing FrontPage2000 Server Extensions on Unix /Linux Systems
Further Information


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Copyright © 2001 Sun Microsystems, Inc. Some preexisting portions Copyright © 2001 Netscape Communications Corp. All rights reserved.

Last Updated May 09, 2002