The rmformat utility is used to format, label, partition, and perform other miscellaneous functions on removable, rewritable media that include floppy drives, IOMEGA Zip/Jaz products, and the PCMCIA memory and ata cards. In addition, the rmformat utility should also be used with all USB mass storage devices, including USB hard drives. This utility can also be used for the verification and surface analysis and for repair of the bad sectors found during verification if the drive or the driver supports bad block management.
rmformat provides functionality to read/write protect the media with or without a password. The password protection enabling or disabling is possible only with selective rewritable media such as the IOMEGA Zip/Jaz products.
After formatting, rmformat writes the label, which covers the full capacity of the media as one slice on floppy and PCMCIA memory cards to maintain compatibility with the behavior of fdformat. On Zip/Jaz devices, the driver exports one slice covering the full capacity of the disk as default. rmformat does not write the label on Zip/Jaz media, unless explicitly requested. The partition information can be changed with the help of other options provided by rmformat.
The following options are supported:
Labels the media with a SUNOS label. A SUNOS volume label name is restricted to 8 characters. For writing a DOS Volume label, the user should use mkfs_pcfs(1M).
Corrects and repairs the given block. This correct and repair option may not be applicable to all devices supported by rmformat, as some devices may have a drive with bad block management capability and others may have this option implemented in the driver. If the drive or driver supports bad block management, a best effort is made to rectify the bad block. If the bad block still cannot be rectified, a message is displayed to indicate the failure to repair. The block number can be provided in decimal, octal, or hexadecimal format.
The normal floppy and PCMCIA memory and ata cards do not support bad block management.
Formats a 720KB (3.5 inch) double density diskette. This is the default for double density type drives. This option is needed if the drive is a high or extended-density type.
Ejects the media upon completion. This feature may not be available if the drive does not support motorized eject.
Formats the media.
The quick option starts a format without certification or format with limited certification of certain tracks on the media.
The long option starts a complete format. For some devices this might include the certification of the whole media by the drive itself.
The force option to format is provided to start a long format without user confirmation before the format is started. For drives which have a password protection mechanism, it clears the password while formatting. This feature is useful when a password is no longer available. On those media which do not have such password protection, force starts a long format.
In legacy media such as floppy drives, all options start a long format depending on the mode (Extended Density mode, High Density mode, or Double Density mode) with which the floppy drive operates by default. On PCMCIA memory cards, all options start a long format.
Formats a 1.44 MB (3.5 inch) high density diskette. This is the default for high density type drives. It is needed if the drive is the Extended Density type.
Prints the protection status of the media. This option prints information whether the media is write, read, or password protected.
Enables read/write protection with a password or disables the password read/write protection. This always works in interactive mode, as the password is requested from the user in an interactive manner to maintain security.
A password length of 32 bytes (maximum) is allowed for the IOMEGA products that support this feature. This option is applicable only for IOMEGA products. IOMEGA products do not allow read/write protection without a password. On the devices which do not have such software read/write protect facility, warnings indicating the non-availability of this feature are provided.
Enables the user to lay out the partition information in the SUNOS label.
The user should provide a file as input with information about each slice in a format providing byte offset, size required, tags, and flags, as follows:
slices: n = offset, size [, flags, tags]
where n is the slice number, offset is the byte offset at which the slice n starts, and size is the required size for slice n. Both offset and size must be a multiple of 512 bytes. These numbers can be represented as decimal, hexadecimal, or octal numbers. No floating point numbers are accepted. Details about maximum number of slices can be obtained from the System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
To specify the size or offset in kilobytes, megabytes, or gigabytes, add KB, MB, GB, respectively. A number without a suffix is assumed to be a byte offset. The flags are represented as follows:
wm = read-write, mountable wu = read-write, unmountable ru = read-only, unmountable
The tags are represented as follows: unassigned, boot, root, swap, usr, backup, stand, var, home, alternates.
The tags and flags can be omitted from the four tuple when finer control on those values is not required. It is required to omit both or include both. If the tags and flags are omitted from the four tuple for a particular slice, a default value for each is assumed. The default value for flags is wm and for tags is unassigned.
Either full tag names can be provided or an abbreviation for the tags can be used. The abbreviations can be the first two or more letters from the standard tag names. rmformat is case insensitive in handling the defined tags and flags.
Slice specifications are separated by, for example:
slices: 0 = 0, 30MB, "wm", "home" : 1 = 30MB, 51MB : 2 = 0, 100MB, "wm", "backup" : 6 = 81MB, 19MB
rmformat does the necessary checking to detect any overlapping partitions or illegal requests to addresses beyond the capacity of the media under consideration. There can be only one slice information entry for each slice n. If multiple slice information entries for the same slice n are provided, an appropriate error message is displayed. The slice 2 is the backup slice covering the whole disk capacity. The pound sign character, #, can be used to describe a line of comments in the input file. If the line starts with #, then rmformat ignores all the characters following # until the end of the line.
Partitioning some of the media with very small capacity is permitted, but be cautious in using this option on such devices.
Performs umount on any file systems and then formats. See mount(1M). This option unmounts all the mounted slices and issues a long format on the device requested.
Verifies each block of media after format. The write verification is a destructive mechanism. The user is queried for confirmation before the verification is started. The output of this option is a list of block numbers, which are identified as bad.
The read verification only verifies the blocks and report the blocks which are prone to errors.
The list of block numbers displayed can be used with the -c option for repairing.
Enables or disables the write protection on media. On devices that do not have a software write protect facility, a message indicating non-availability of this feature is displayed.
Enables or disables write protection with password. This option always works in interactive mode, as a password is requested from the user to maintain security.
A maximum password length of 32 bytes is allowed for IOMEGA products that support this feature. On devices that do not have the write protection with password, the software displays appropriate messages indicating the non-availability of such features.
The following operand is supported:
devname can be provided as absolute device pathname or relative pathname for the device from the current working directory or the nickname as exported by the System Volume manager. See vold(1M).
For floppy devices, to access the first drive use /dev/rdiskette0 (for systems without volume management) or floppy0 (for systems with volume management). Specify /dev/rdiskette1 (for systems without volume management) or floppy1 (for systems with volume management) to use the second drive.
For systems without volume management running, the user can also provide the absolute device pathname as /dev/rdsk/c?t?d?s? or the appropriate relative device pathname from the current working directory.
example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette Formatting will erase all the data on disk. Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
example$ rmformat -F quick /vol/dev/aliases/zip0 Formatting will erase all the data on disk. Do you want to continue? (y/n)y
The following example formats a diskette and creates a UFS file system:
example$ rmformat -F quick /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0 Formatting will erase all the data on disk. Do you want to continue? (y/n)y example$ su # /usr/sbin/newfs /vol/dev/aliases/floppy0 newfs: construct a new file system /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y /dev/rdiskette: 2880 sectors in 80 cylinders of 2 tracks, 18 sectors 1.4MB in 5 cyl groups (16 c/g, 0.28MB/g, 128 i/g) super-block backups (for fsck -F ufs -o b=#) at: 32, 640, 1184, 1792, 2336, #
The following example shows how to create an alternate fdisk partition:
example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c Formatting will erase all the data on disk. Do you want to continue? (y/n)y example$ su # fdisk /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c # mkfs -F pcfs /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdsk/c0t4d0s2:c: (y/n)? y #
The following example describes how to create a PCFS file system without an fdisk partition:
example$ rmformat -F quick /dev/rdiskette Formatting will erase all the data on disk. Do you want to continue? (y/n)y example$ su # mkfs -F pcfs -o nofdisk,size=2 /dev/rdiskette Construct a new FAT file system on /dev/rdiskette: (y/n)? y #
The following example shows how to enable write protection and set a password on a Zip drive:
example$ rmformat -W enable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0 Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx Please reenter password: xxx
The following example shows how to disable write protection and remove the password on a Zip drive:
example$ rmformat -W disable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0 Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx
The following example shows how to enable read protection and set a password on a Zip drive:
example$ rmformat -R enable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0 Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx Please reenter password: xxx
The following example shows how to disable read protection and remove the password on a Zip drive:
example$ rmformat -R disable /vol/dev/aliases/zip0 Please enter password (32 chars maximum): xxx
Directory providing block device access for the media in floppy drive 0.
Directory providing character device access for the media in floppy drive 0.
Directory providing symbolic links to the character devices for the different media under the control of volume management using appropriate alias.
Symbolic link to the character device for the media in floppy drive 0.
Symbolic link to the character device for the media in Zip drive 0.
Symbolic link to the character device for the media in Jaz drive 0.
Symbolic link providing character device access for the media in the primary floppy drive, usually drive 0.
Directory providing block device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and removable media devices.
Directory providing character device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and removable media devices.
Symbolic link to the character device for the PCMCIA memory card in socket S, where S represents a PCMCIA socket number.
Symbolic link to the generic removable media device that is not a Zip, Jaz, CD-ROM, floppy, DVD-ROM, PCMCIA memory card, and so forth.
Directory providing character device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and other removable devices.
Directory providing block device access for the PCMCIA memory and ata cards and other removable media devices.
See attributes(5) for descriptions of the following attributes:
|ATTRIBUTE TYPE||ATTRIBUTE VALUE|
cpio(1), eject(1), fdformat(1), tar(1), volcancel(1), volcheck(1), volmissing(1), volrmmount(1), format(1M), mkfs_pcfs(1M), mount(1M), newfs(1M), prtvtoc(1M), rmmount(1M), rpc.smserved(1M), vold(1M), rmmount.conf(4), vold.conf(4), attributes(5), scsa2usb(7D), sd(7D), pcfs(7FS), udfs(7FS)
A rewritable media or PCMCIA memory card or PCMCIA ata card containing a ufs file system created on a SPARC-based system (using newfs(1M)) is not identical to a rewritable media or PCMCIA memory card containing a ufs file system created on an x86 based system. Do not interchange any removable media containing ufs between these platforms; use cpio(1) or tar(1) to transfer files on diskettes or memory cards between them. For interchangeable filesystems refer to pcfs(7FS) and udfs(7FS).
Currently, bad sector mapping is not supported on floppy diskettes or PCMCIA memory cards. Therefore, a diskette or memory card is unusable if rmformat finds an error (bad sector).