The mechanism by which the cluster framework ensures that a failed node cannot reboot and begin writing to shared storage is called failfast.
Nodes that are cluster members continuously enable a specific ioctl, MHIOCENFAILFAST, for the disks to which they have access, including quorum disks. This ioctl is a directive to the disk driver. The ioctl gives a node the capability to panic itself if it cannot access the disk due to the disk being reserved by some other node.
The MHIOCENFAILFAST ioctl causes the driver to check the error return from every read and write that a node issues to the disk for the Reservation_Conflict error code. The ioctl periodically, in the background, issues a test operation to the disk to check for Reservation_Conflict. Both the foreground and background control flow paths panic if Reservation_Conflict is returned.
For SCSI-2 disks, reservations are not persistent. Reservations do not survive node reboots. For SCSI-3 disks with Persistent Group Reservation (PGR), reservation information is stored on the disk and persists across node reboots. The failfast mechanism works the same, whether you have SCSI-2 disks or SCSI-3 disks.
If a node loses connectivity to other nodes in the cluster, and it is not part of a partition that can achieve quorum, it is forcibly removed from the cluster by another node. Another node that is part of the partition that can achieve quorum places reservations on the shared disks. When the node that does not have quorum attempts to access the shared disks, it receives a reservation conflict and panics as a result of the failfast mechanism.
After the panic, the node might reboot and attempt to rejoin the cluster or, if the cluster is composed of SPARC based systems, stay at the OpenBoot PROM (OBP) prompt. The action that is taken is determined by the setting of the auto-boot parameter. You can set auto-boot with eeprom, at the OpenBoot PROM ok prompt in a SPARC based cluster. See the eeprom(1M) man page. Alternatively, you can set up this parameter with the SCSI utility that you optionally run after the BIOS boots in an x86 based cluster.