Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8.2 Administration Guide

Additional Information for Specific Realms

This section covers the following topics:

Creating an ldap Realm

The ldap realm performs authentication using information from an LDAP server. User information includes user name, password, and the groups to which the user belongs. To use an LDAP realm, the users and groups must already be defined in your LDAP directory.

To create an LDAP realm, follow the steps in To create a realm for adding a new realm, and add the properties shown in the following table.

Table 9–2 Required properties for ldap realm

Property Name  




LDAP URL of the directory server. 

LDAP URL of the form ldap://hostname:portFor example, ldap://


Base Distinguished Name (DN) for the location of user data, which can be at any level above the user data, since a tree scope search is performed. The smaller the search tree, the better the performance. 

Domain for the search, for example: dc=siliconvalley, dc=BayArea, dc=sun, dc=com.


Type of login module to use for this realm. 

Must be ldapRealm.

Optional properties for the ldap realm are shown in the following table.

Table 9–3 Optional properties for ldap realm

Property Name  




Search filter to use to find the user. 

uid=%s (%s expands to the subject name).


Base DN for the location of group data. 

Same as the base-dn, but it can be tuned if necessary.


Search filter to find group memberships for the user. 

uniquemember=%d (%d expands to the user element DN).


LDAP attribute name that contains group name entries. 



Optional DN used to authenticate to the directory for performing the search-filter lookup. Only required for directories that do not allow anonymous search. 



LDAP password for the DN given in search-bind-dn.



For example, suppose an LDAP user, Joe Java, is defined in the LDAP directory as follows:

cn=Joe Java

Using the example code, when creating or editing the ldap realm, you can enter the values as shown in the following table.

Table 9–4 Example ldap realm values

Property Name  

Property Value  


LDAP URL to your server, for example: ldap://



Can be rooted higher, for example dc=acme, dc=com, but searches would traverse a larger part of the tree, reducing performance.



Creating the solaris Realm

The solaris realm gets user and group information from the underlying Solaris user database, as determined by the system’s configuration. The solaris realm invokes the underlying PAM infrastructure for authenticating. If the configured PAM modules require root privileges, the domain must run as root to use this realm. For details, see the Solaris documentation for security services.

The solaris realm has one required property, jaas-context that specifies the type of login module to use. The property value must be solarisRealm.

Note –

The solaris realm is supported only for Solaris 9 or later.

Creating a Custom Realm

In addition to the four built-in realms, you can also create custom realms that store user data in some other way, such as in a relational database. Development of a custom realm is outside the scope of this document. For more information, see the Application Server Developer's Guide chapter titled Securing Applications.

As an administrator, the main thing you need to know is that a custom realm is implemented by a class (called the LoginModule) derived from the Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) package.

ProcedureTo create a custom realm

  1. Follow the procedure outline in To create a realm, entering the name of the custom realm and the name of the LoginModule class.

    Any unique name can be used for the custom realm, for example myCustomRealm.

  2. Add the properties for a custom realm shown in the following table.

    Property Name  

    Property Value  


    LoginModule class name, for example simpleCustomRealm


    Description of the realm, for example “A simple example custom realm”. 

  3. Click OK.

  4. Edit the domain's login configuration file, domain-dir/config/login.conf, and add the fully-qualified class name of the JAAS LoginModule at the end of the file, as follows:

    realmName {
        fully-qualified-LoginModule-classname required;

    For example,

    myCustomRealm { required;
  5. Copy the LoginModule class and all dependent classes into the directory domain-dir/lib/classes.

  6. Restart the Server if Restart Required displays in the console.

  7. Make sure that the realm is properly loaded.

    Check domain-dir/logs/server.log to make sure the server loaded the realm. The server should invoke the realm’s init() method.

Editing the certificate Realm

The certificate realm supports SSL authentication. This realm sets up the user identity in the Application Server’s security context, and populates it with user data obtained from cryptographically verified client certificates in the truststore and keystore files (see About Certificate Files). Add users to these files using keytool. For more information, see The J2EE 1.4 Tutorial chapter titled Security at

With the certificate realm, J2EE containers handle authorization processing based on each user’s Distinguished Name (DN) from his or her certificate. The DN is the name of the entity whose public key the certificate identifies. This name uses the X.500 standard, so it is intended to be unique across the Internet. For more information on key stores and trust stores, refer to the keytool documentation at

The following table lists the optional properties for the certificate realm.

Table 9–5 Optional properties for certificate realm




A comma-separated list of group names. All clients who present valid certificates are assigned to these groups. For example, employee,manager, where these are the names of user groups.


Type of login module to use for this realm. For the certificate realm, the value must be certificateRealm.

Editing the file and admin-realm Realms

The server maintains all user, group, and password information in a file named keyfile for the file realm and admin-keyfile for the admin-realm. For both, the file property specifies the location of the keyfile. The following table shows required properties for a file realm.

Table 9–6 Required properties for file realms

Property name  


Default Value  


Full path and name of the keyfile. 



Type of login module to use for this realm. 

fileRealm is the only valid value

The keyfile is initially empty, so users must be added before the file realm is used. For instructions, see Managing file Realm Users.

The admin-keyfile initially contains the admin user name, the admin password in an encrypted format, and the group to which this user belongs, which is asadmin by default. For more information on adding users to the admin-realm, read To grant access to administration tools.

Note –

Users in the group asadmin in the admin-realm are authorized to use the Admin Console and asadmin tools. Add only users to this group that have server administrative privileges.

Managing Users with Network Security Services (NSS)

In the Enterprise Edition only, you can manage users using the Admin Console as discussed in Managing file Realm Users or you can manage users using NSS tools. Network Security Services (NSS) is a set of libraries designed to support cross-platform development of security-enabled client and server applications. Applications built with NSS can support SSL v2 and v3, TLS, PKCS #5, PKCS #7, PKCS #11, PKCS #12, S/MIME, X.509 v3 certificates, and other security standards. For detailed information, link to the following URLs:

Managing file Realm Users

Manage file realm users with the Admin Console. Users and groups in the file realm are listed in the keyfile, whose location is specified by the file property.

Note –

It is also possible to use these steps to add users to any file realm, including the admin-realm. Simply substitute the name of the target realm in place of the file realm referenced in this section.

A user in the file realm can belong to a J2EE group, a category of users classified by common traits. For example, customers of an e-commerce application might belong to the CUSTOMER group, but the big spenders would belong to the PREFERRED group. Categorizing users into groups makes it easier to control the access of large numbers of users.

Initially after installation of the Application Server, the only user is the administrator entered during installation. By default, this user belongs to the group asadmin, in the realm admin-realm, which gives rights to modify the Application Server. Any users assigned to this group will have administrator privileges, that is, they will have access to the asadmin tool and the Admin Console.

To manage file realm users, perform these tasks:

ProcedureTo access the File Users page

  1. In the Admin Console tree component, expand the Configuration node.

  2. Expand the Security node.

  3. Expand the Realms node.

  4. Select the file node.

  5. Click the Manage Users button from the Edit Realm page.

    The File Users page displays. In this page, perform the following tasks:

ProcedureTo add a user

  1. Click New to add a new user to the file realm.

  2. Enter the following information on the File Users page:

    • User ID (required) - The name of the user.

    • Password (required) - The user password.

    • Confirm Password (required) - The user password again, for verification.

    • Group List (optional) - A comma-separated list of the groups to which the user belongs. These groups do not need to be defined elsewhere.

  3. Click OK to add this user to the list of users in the file realm. Click Cancel to quit without saving.

Equivalent asadmin command


ProcedureTo edit user information

  1. In the User ID column, click the name of the user to be modified.

    The Edit File Realm User page displays.

  2. Change the user password by entering a new password in the Password and Confirm Password fields.

  3. Change the groups to which the user belongs by adding or deleting groups in the Group List field.

    Separate group names with commas. Groups need not be previously defined.

  4. Click Save to save this user to the list of users in the file realm.

    Click Close to quit without saving.

ProcedureTo delete a user

  1. Select the checkbox to the left of the name of the user(s) to be deleted.

  2. Click Delete.

  3. Click Close to return to the Edit Realm page.

Equivalent asadmin command


Configuring Mutual Authentication

In mutual authentication, both server and client-side authentication are enabled. To test mutual authentication, a client with a valid certificate must exist. For information on mutual authentication, see the Security chapter of The J2EE 1.4 Tutorial at

Enabling Mutual SSL Authentication in an Application

To enable mutual authentication for a specific application, use deploytool to set the method of authentication to Client-Certificate. For more information about using deploytool, refer to the Security chapter of The J2EE 1.4 Tutorial at

ProcedureTo enable mutual authentication for all the applications

The Application Server uses the certificate realm for HTTPS authentication.

  1. In the Admin Console tree component, expand the Configuration node.

  2. Expand the Security node.

  3. Expand the Realms node.

  4. Select the certificate realm.

  5. Click the Add Property button.

    1. In the Name field, enter clientAuth.

    2. In the Value field, enter true.

  6. Click Save.

  7. Restart the Application Server if Restart Required displays in the console.

    After restarting the server, client authentication is required for all applications that use the certificate realm.